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Atticus influences Scout to be courageous, honest, and civilized. He says "I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand." (Pg. 116) He is trying to impose the idea of doing the right thing even though others might doubt youhim. His determination to defend Tom Robinson causes Jem and Scout to get a lot of grief from others in the town. Atticus tries to explain to Scout why he's doing what he's doing in this case. "If you shouldn't be defendin' him, then why are you doin' it?" "For a number of reasons," said Atticus. "The main one is, if I didn't I couldn't hold up my head in town, I couldn't represent this county in the legislature, I couldn't even tell you or Jem not to do something again. Scout, simply by the nature of the work, every lawyer gets at least one case in his lifetime that affects him personally. This one's mine, I guess." (9.16-21) For Atticus, being a lawyer is not just a job; it's a personal commitment to justice, and to solving solve problems through the law rather than through violence. . In his closing remarks at Tom's trial, Atticus argues for big principles like equality and duty, but he doesn't for a moment losenever loses sight of the fact that in the end it'sits human beings and their choices that make equality either stand or fallfalter. He taught Scout to always do the right thing and be courageous: take a stand and fight with your mind not using violence. He tells her, "You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of v-+iew until you climb into his skin and walk around in it." (Pg. 34) In order for Scout to be civilized and humane, he always shows that he cares and he's willing to hear both sides of the story to be fair. As Scout tells Uncle Jack, "When Jem an' I fuss Atticus doesn't ever just listen to Jem's side of it, he hears mine too" (9.46). Scout also tells Miss Maudie, "Atticus don't ever do anything to Jem and me in the house that he don't do in the yard" (5.53). Atticus runs his family like a judge: he's the one in charge, and has a sound set of rules that he expects his kids to follow. In that process, he also makes sure that both sides have their say. Both Jem and Scout respect Atticus and appreciate the things he does for them. Atticus recognizes their problems, gives them the advice they need, and lets his children handle their problems. When raising his children, he tries to get them to understand not only how they should behave, but why they should behave that wayin that manner. He treats them with utmost respect and dignity so that they will do the same towards him and others. Atticus has a positive influence on Scout and this helps her mature throughout the story.
Calpurnia influences Scout to be respectful and influences her as a motherly figure. She is a role model for Scout; she sets an example for Scout's behavior and freely steps in to correct her behavior when necessary. One such case of this is when Jem invites Walter Cunningham over for dinner and Scout shrieks at Walters's horrible table manners and exclaims to see him using all of their molasses. Calpurnia quickly pulls Scout into the kitchen to finish her meal there and explains to her that her behavior to their houseguest was rude and inexcusable. She then goes on to explain to Scout how to properly treat a guest, explaining to her the meaning of her actions. For example "there's some folks that don't eat like us but you ain't called on to contradict 'e at the table when they don't. That boy's yo comp'ny and if he wants to eat up the table cloth you let him, you hear? Don't matter who they are anybody sets foot in this house's yo' comp'ny, and don't you let me catch you remarkin' on their ways like you was so high and mighty!"(Pg. 33) This shows how Cal is there to teach her right from wrong, especially when dealing with showing and earning respect. "It's not necessary to tell all you know. It's not ladylike--in the second place, folks don't like havin' somebody around knowin' more than they do. It aggravates 'em."(Pg. 33)She wants Scout to understand humility that although knowledge is a good thing, it's not always necessary to show others how much you know. She is the closest thing to a mother in Scouts life since her mother passed away. She does the same actions that a mother would do for Scout. She disciplines her, feeds her, and cares for her. It was Cal who taught Scout to write by having her copy chapters from the Bible and rewarding her if Cal judged Scout's penmanship to be satisfactory, but Scout didn't appreciate that and instead ended up hating Cal for it. Cal treated her with tenderness when Scout needed kindness. After Scout's very rough first day of school, Cal told her that she had been lonely without her and made a special treat for her "cracklin' bread". It surprised Scout that Calpurnia had kissed her. This shows Cal's gentle and motherly side. Cal protected Jem and Scout when they went to the Nigger church. Lula rudely says, "You ain't got no business bringing' white chillun here - they got their church, we got our'n. Pg.158) Lula illustrates prejudice and discriminates against Jem and Scout; she treats Jem and Scout unfairlybecause of their racial identity.Calpurnia steps in and tells Lula "stop right there nigger, they's my comp'ny."(Pg. 158) As a motherly figure she does her best to defend Jem and Scouts rights. Calpurnia opens up Scout's eyes to a different world. Scout learns that Cal lives a "modest double life," that she is highly educated and respected among her peers, and that she will defend them against anyone if she needs to. She shows Scout the love and compassion as a mother would but also is strict and disciplines her so that Scout can earn and show respect.
Jem influences Scout to be more mature and brave. However by brave he means standing up for himself and doing the right thing when you know that it is. After the Radley raid incident Jem starts to isolate himself. "Jem stayed moody and silent for a week. As Atticus had once advised me to do, I tried to climb into Jem's skin and walk around in it: if I had gone alone to the Radley Place at two in the morning, my funeral would have been held the next afternoon. So I left Jem alone and tried not to bother him."(Pg.77). During visits past Mrs. Dubose's house she said that "Atticus lawed for niggers and trash and that he was no better than the niggers and trash he worked for."(Pg.135) Inevitably, this sets Jem on a destroying rampage. He destroys all of Mrs. Dubose white camellias and breaks Scouts new baton. (Pg.137) His punishment was that he had to read to Mrs. Dubose every day after school and Saturdays for a whole month. When Mrs. Dubose died Jem found out that she was a morphine addict and that's what caused all her fits. Before she died she had Jessie fix up a candy box for Jem and inside it was a "white, waxy, perfect camellia."(Pg.148) Jem learns not to prejudice people. It is only after Mrs. Dubose dies that Jem learns that she has courageously withdrawn herself from the pain-killing morphine to which she has become addicted. Jem learns to be patient and courageous from Mrs. Dubose and influences it on Scout. For example, when Jem urged Scout not to "antagonize" Aunt Alexandria since Atticus "has got a lot on his mind now, without us worrying him."(Pg.157) He wants Scout to learn to be respectful to Atticus and wants her to mature up to make wise decisions. Another example was when the mob threatened Atticus at the jail, Jem refused to leave when told to do so by his father; he courageously insists upon staying in order to try to prevent the men from doing anything to Atticus. Scout wanted to follow his courageous act and she spoke to Mr. Cunningham to calm the tension of the angry men. By singling him out, Scout made him uncomfortable and then the men left.(Pg.205-206) He had taught her to stand up for what she believed in and to be very brave and bold. Finally, at the end of Tom Robinson's trial, Tom was declared guilty when Jem and Scout are both present for the verdict. The children know that an innocent man has been found guilty, although Jem takes it very hard. He cries as they make their way through the crowd of people."It ain't right, Atticus," said Jem." (Pg. 212) Jemhas taught Scout that he believes in justice and what is right. Jem influences Scout by all his daily actions. He wants her to appreciate life by believing and fighting for justice, not just by being brave but courageous and mature.