Use of specialized accounting terminology


Task 1

Swift print produces Lithographic Printing, Foil Blocking, Embossing, Thermograph, Die Cutting and Creasing Typesetting and Design. All these processes are in-house and are produced to the highest quality.

As well as the general public, our customers range from large and small companies, local councils, and trade work for other printers around the country.

We can offer anything from single color to full color printing, producing brochures, booklets, newsletters, corporate folders, compliment slips, letterheads, business cards, leaflets, NCR sets and pads, calendars, packaging and other business or personal stationery, including personalized Christmas Cards and Special Occasion Cards.

Use of specialized accounting terminology

This company follows a very long method of counting account of their business instead of using a specialized accounting terminology. The process which the company follows for accounting is very old and a lengthy one.

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks are one of the best financial record keepers now-a-days. They will try to keep a record of accounting which consists evaluating expenditures, payables, receivables, loss or profit. The employees will have a very broad variety of talent from the book keepers who are fully charged and they can uphold books of the complete organization. It is even for accounting clerks who will perform particular responsibilities.

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Bookkeepers, accountants, and auditing clerks work in an organizations atmosphere. Most of them work on daily business hours and 40-hours as per the standards. To meet the deadline these executives will even work overtime to meet the deadlines at the end of financial year.

Hence, these changes should be made in the Swift print Ltd. to make their accounts more effective. This in turns results in reducing the transportation charges and the most important factor time.

Standardized reporting structure and KPI (Key performance indicators)

A previous versios of principles stated how certain kinds of dealings and extra measures should be reflected in the statements of finance. Committee of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) has introduced the International Accounting Standards (IAS).
It is known as Intenational Financial Report Standards (IFRS) since 2001, and it introduced by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

KPI (Key Performance Indicators)

Key performance indicators (KPI) or key success indicators (KSI) are the vital signs that measure the health of any organization whether business, institution, for-profit or non-profit, and just like the vital signs of our body. (By Lao Ke).

Uses of Key performance indicators (KPI)

Based on a particular predefined procedures, KPI are high-level snapshots of a commerce or an organization. Group of information, spreadsheets, or charts, all these things are included in Key performance indicators. KPI even typically consists of universal of local sales record, trends evetually, concurrent delivery sequence information, or something which is most dangerous to an organizations success.

Successful management is not likely be possible without quantifiable quantities. Goals and objectives to be observed, met and exceeded is being allocated by them. For enhanced calculation of the present level of organization's success and to aid plan for future many firm's use Key performance indicators. It also add a value to the aspect of organizational operation which are hard to measure, like satisfaction of employees or growth.

It is very essential to recognize the metrics that has to be achieved while establishing KIP. It is even important to use the intelligent software by the organizations to quantify and examine these metrics. Organizations which are looking to discover themselves in leading state-of-the-art solution, the answer is KPI.

Financial ratio and control procedures

Relative magnitude of two selected numerical values taken from an enterprise's financial statements is A financial ratio (or accounting ratio). To calculate the whole economical clause of an organization or other corporation there are number of standard ratios which are often used in accounting.

Within the organization managers may use financial ratio, by an organizations creditor, and by present and prospective shareholders of an organization. To compare the strenghts and weaknesses in different organizations security analysts use economical ratios.

From where the statistics comes for economical ratio?

Balance sheet, profits statement, statement of cash flows or (sometimes) the statement of retained earnings are some of the sources to calculate financial ratios. This includes the organizations economical statements or “accounting statements”. Under the accounting technique and the accounting principles used by the company the statement statistics is based.

Types of ratios and the purpose

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Many aspects of the business is measured by financial ratios. Financial statement analysis are an essential element of financial ratio. According to the economical aspect of the organization which the ratio quantifies financial ratios are categorized. Availability of hard cash to pay debit is quantified by Liquidity ratio. The organizations ability to repay the long-term debit is measured by Debt ratio. How quickly an organization can change non-cash to cash possessions is quantifies by Acticity ratio. The organizations charge of its expenditure to produce an satisfactory rate of return and utiliztion of its assets is calculated by Profitability ratios. Outlay issuing stock and also shareholder response to owning an organizations stock are quantified by Marketer ratios.

Using economical ratios comparisions can be done

  • among companies
  • among organizations
  • among the unlike time periods for one company
  • among a single and its organizations average

Statistic tool to eveluate the monthly performance

The software Image(Integrated Resources for Evaluating Numerical Estimates) is a data analysis tool designed to provide easy access to statistical techniques for use in model evaluation. Mostly, non-replicated model estimates (Ei) are compared against non-replicated measurements (Mi). The software also allows comparing individual estimates against replicated measurements (or vice versa) and replicated estimates against replicated measurements. The evaluation of model performance is essentially based on the difference Ei−Mi, or on the correlation-regression of Ei vs. Mi (or vice versa). In addition, model evaluation by probability distributions, pattern analysis, or fuzzy-based aggregation statistics is allowed. Graphics are included in most analytical tasks. The results are displayed in separate spreadsheets and can be exported into MS Excel workbooks.

Task 2

Accounting information and its Users

Accounting sometimes also known as “language of business”. To communicate and to make people to understand taking better decision almost every company sets up an accounting knowledge structure. Hence, by this we can understand that accounting info. system caters several users like

  • Exterior and
  • Interoir users.

Exteroir Users :

In managing the organization exterior users of accounting knowledge are not concerned directly. Directors, mediators, regulators, press, prospects, lawyers, share holders and lenders may be included in this.Persons using accounting information who are not directly involved in running the organization. The information of the firm is partially accessed by the external users. But still the decisions of their organizations is depending on the knowledge that is dependable, appropriate, and equivalent.

Economical statements can be provided by Financial accountingArea of accounting mainly aimed at serving external users. Which is the region for accounting and designed at helping the external users. These statements can also be called as general-purpose financial statements.

Accounting is serving the wants of various exterior users. To monitor and to calculate government expences and reciepts, legislators, Voters, and government workers use accounting information.

To calculate the usage and impact of the donations, Contributors to nonprofit businesses use accounting knowledge. To decide the reliability of a prospect prior completing the sales on credit Suppliers will use accounting information, and to appraise the staying authority of the possible suppliers prospects use Financial reports.

Interior users :

In managing and operating the company Interiror users are concerned straightly.Persons using accounting information who are directly involved in managing the organiza To develop the competence and effectiveness of the firm they utilize this information. Managerial accountingArea of accounting mainly aimed at serving the decision-making needs of internal users; also called management accounting. is serving in the decision-making wants of the interior users. The systems and procedures are not similar to the Internal and external reports. Instead they are made with the specific wants keeping internal users in mind.

There are various kinds of users in internal department and most of them are the enterprenuers of the main operating actions. Managers of Research and development should the knowledge on costs which is projected and the changes in the services and products. Managers who are responsible for Purchasing should have the knowledge on when, what and how much quantity to be purchased. The infromation regarding the benefits, payroll, workers, compensation and performance, managers of Human resource should have. Looking after the products and services managers on Service should have the necessary knowledge on the costs and benefits. On the reports of accounting decisions of the interior users and these are dependent.

Stakeholders of Gordan Ltd

Gordon Ltd is a manufacturer of Desk Top table lamps supplied to the football merchandise industry.

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As the Finance Director of Gordon Ltd you have been asked to put together a summary report of the annual activities of the company. The Chairman has strongly indicated that the report is designed for the stakeholders of the company and as such should not concentrate purely on “Financial Jargon”

Users of accounting information

Below are some of the examples of some distinguigh firms showing accountability process is connected to their differing goals:



Firms accountable to (example)

Public or private company
(example, Tesco, BP)

Creating wealth and making profit

Different stakeholders (example, suppliers, workers, prospects)

(example Saveing the Children)

Achieveing the all the aims of charity

- Commissioners who do charity

District parties
(exampleCity Council of Leeds)

Local services provisions
-spending of budget should be allocated

Departments of Government

Services to the public (health and transportation)

Provision from public services (by law it oftenly required)
-Reliability of services and high quality

Ministers of government

- Buyers

Agencies of Quasi-governmental
(e.g. Data Protecting Registrar, Scottish Arts of Council)

Some public action should have regulation
- Public sector investments should be coordinated

Ministers of government

- Buyers

All these firms have a major responsibility in the society and they are accountable to the multiple stake holders. To produce an accounting information they all need a systems of economical management.

FPI (Financial performane indicators)

The most vital things are Balance sheet and statement of income, but these are only the first step towards flourishing economical management. For analyzing the success, failure and development of the organization apply Ratio analysis.

To identify the trends in the business owners enables Ratio analysis. It is also used to match its presentation and situation with the regular performance of the same business in the same company. Before your business is being destroyed, all the necessary caution indications, which helps you to resolve your business tribulations if given by Ratio analysis.

Ratio analysis of Balance sheet:

Liquidity and solvency and leverage is being quantified by the essential balance sheet ratios. Following ratios are included in the Balance sheet:

Liquidity ratios

The simplicity of rotating property into hard cash is indicated by these ratio. Current ratio, Quick ratio and Working capital are included in them.

Current ratios: It is one of the most execellent quantifiable of economical potency. Its formula is

Total Current Assets
Current Ratio = ____________________
Total Current Liabilities

Quick ratio

Quick ratio is often known as “acid-test” ratio is one of the most excellent quantifiable of liquidity. Its formula is

Cash + Government Securities + Receivables
Quick Ratio = _________________________________________
Total Current Liabilities

Working capital

More than ratio Working capital is quantifiable of cash flow. Positive number should be the end result of after calculation. Its formula is

Working Capital = Total Current Assets - Total Current Liabilities

Often loans are attached to minimum working capital necessities.

Hence, after examining about these 3 Liquidity ratios, it shows that “the higher they are the better they are”. Particularly at that moment when you depending on creditor money to finance asset.

Leverage ratio

Leverage ratio is also called as Debt/Worth ratio. It shows the level to which the organization is depending on debt financing (creditor money v/s owner's equity). Its formula is

Total Liabilities
Debt/Worth Ratio = _______________
Net Worth

Normally, the higher this ratio is, the more perilous a creditor will recognize its contact in business.

Limitations of Financial performance indicators

Attention must be given to the following when using financial ratio:

  • A reference point is needed. To be meaningful, most ratios must be compared to historical values of the same firm, the firm's forecasts, or ratios of similar firm.
  • Most ratios by themselves are not highly meaningful. They should be viewed as indicators, with several of them combined to paint a picture of the firm's situation.
  • Ratios are subjected to the limitations of accounting methods. Different accounting choices may result in significantly different ratio values.

How the performance of an organization can be improved by the HR

Organization's traditions can be tranformed by HR, which takes firm to the level of success. Every organization has a tradition that helps for the improved appereance each day.. Companies which are doing extremely well in their field are not anything but it is the consequence of their HR's particular pains, inculcating a performance driven tradition.

Defining the metric of Performance

The confrontations that companies are facing are in defining the metrics of performance. These are also known as tasks, goals and quantifiable. The confrontations come while judging the measuring parameters for numerous tasks. Main workers have to be consulted prior locating the targets to them and their higher management. Once the setting of the guiding principle are set, an objective setting implement, mingling of all employees should be held to make sure the common approval. Hence the entrepreneurs to place and define performance metrics.

Balance between qualities of delivery and quantity of delivery has to ensured by the managers of the organization. Example, on intense promises no trade has to be done or when the hard works on sales are unbeneficial.

Standardize accounting

In management accounting, cost accounting provides information about

  • Budget
  • actual cost of operations
  • processes
  • departments or product
  • analysis of variances and
  • profitability or social use of funds.

Managers usually use cost accounting to maintain decision-making in order to divide a company's costs so as to improve profitability.

There is no need to follow the principles such as GAAP for cost accounting, as a form of management accounting. Because its not for the external users, its mostly use is for integral managers.

There are various managerial accounting approaches:

  • Standardized or Standard Cost Accounting
  • Lean accounting
  • Activity-based Costing
  • Resource Consumption Accounting
  • Throughput Accounting
  • Marginal Costing / Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

Production cost and the profitabilty of good

The process of influenting the tangible price of the good is known as Absorption costing. To deliver only one single product number of elements are involved. Workers, equipements and other considerations might also consist in the cost. It is generally defined for one unit but can also be used for one single Absorption costing is generally determined for a single unit but can be used for a single employement order run.

In absorption pricing process what is Figured?

For determining the unit price, generally all expenses and cost are associated with a complete manufactured good. Given below are some of the points for determining the price of one unit of a completed good.

  • Materials should be direct
  • Labor Cost has to be direct
  • Manufacturing Cost of variable
  • Sales Costs of variable
  • Operating costof the fixed manufacturing
  • Selling Costs should fixed

Breakeven point and Absorption Costing

For any specific good the breakeven point is the total cost per unit for that organization. That is the reason it is necessary that goods are figured into an equation where all costs are associated while developing. Selling cost cant be recognized until the breakeven point is defined. While defining the suitable selling cost competition, economic conditions, Return on investment (ROI), and customer behavior has to be analyzed.

Task 3

Business valuation

Business valuation is a method of calculating the financial assessment of an entrepreneur in a company. Calculation is often used by economical bazaar to decide the cost they agree to receive or pay to accomplish a trade of a business. The similar calculating tools are frequently used by the company's appraisers to estimate the selling cost of a business.

Business analysis methods:

1) Asset-based on approaches

All the savings in the organzation is generally being total up by the business calculations. Some times on the leaving concern can be done by the on going Asset-based approach and a liquidation basis.

  • On going asset-based approach shows the organizations net balance sheet value of the assets and subtracts the liabilities value.
  • A liquidation asset-based approach is determining the net cash that has to be received if all assets were sold and liabilities paid off.

2) Approaches of Market value

Market value approache is an attempt that is made to establish the importance of your organization by comparing it to the same business which has been sold recently. The comparison the organization is going to work only at that time, when there are ample of businesses which are similar.

However the most admirable calculating process for the organization is Earing value approach.To fix a selling cost of the product, some grouping of business valuation methods will be the better way.

Finance and its alternate forms

To manage the business effectively every organization should have five main components. The components are as follows:

  • Tools
  • Personnel
  • Money
  • Goods and Services and
  • Housing

The threats of the owners of the business are Banks and Lending institutions. Because they will always they will be lacking even a basic knowledge about the lenders. But now-a-days deregulation in industry of banking has given new alternates obtainable that were not existed before, like the obtainability of capital, etc,.

These fundings which are accessible will always differ, which is dependent on the exact organzational needs. Given below is one of the examples of the organizations economic transactions which can be processed by any Business finance advisor:

If you consider any profitable assets that has to be purchsed, then the Banks are going to provide a finance upto 95% and 100% (based on extra secutity) of the entire price of the property. It is in due respect of user/owner or an investor. In the organization they have an entry to the main belligerent programmes in the organization.

Factors affecting cost structure

Cost of Capital increases because of some following factors:

  1. Policy of structure of the capital
  2. Dividend policy
  3. Policy of investment

Capital Structure Policy
An organization will have a control on its investment structure which focuses on a moderate investment structure. Cost of the debits will keep on increasing if debts are issued and as long as equity will increase cost of those equities will increase.

Policy of Dividend

when the organizations have its control on payout ratios, the agenda can be changed of MCC. Example, when the payout ratio of an organization is increasing the breakpoint in between the lower-cost equity generated internally and equity that is issued newly is lowered.

Policy of Investment

It is imagined that, when decisions are made on investments then the organization making investment with same amount of risk. If the company is changing its policy of investment which is relative to its risk, both the cost of equity and cost of debt is changed.

Tax Rates

Tax rates affect the after-tax cost of debt. As tax rates increase, the cost of debt decreases, decreasing the cost of capital.


I understand that the Business analysis is the obidience of recognizing the pre requsites of the organizationl wants and influenting solutions to the problems of the organization. Systems growth elements are also included sometimes in the solutions. The person who is carrying out this process is called as BA or Business analyst.