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Discussion, Analysis and Findings
Traditional management accounting v/s management accounting with IT.
Management accounting has a main role in forecasting and decision-making purposes in the organization process. In order to talk over about customary managerial accounting, let us look at customary accounting, which focused on gathering authorized and tax conditions. Customary managerial accounting concentrated on physical assortment of facts or data of the industry or the opponent for the practice of emerging and checking the business schemes. Managerial accounting has typically been ignored by many businesses due to its difficulty to collect data for the inside users. In the start, customary accounting software delivered only accounting facility and the data on breakeven point; standard costing and capital speculation have to be derived by spending lengthy hours.
The organizations’ accounting purpose only concentrated on monetary accounting; the investors only focused on financial statement. Managerial accounting was sidestepped due to the imprecision and time issues. Conventionally, amalgamation of managerial accounting is prepared in the meeting room, where the representative of each section provided statistics of operations, trades and stocks. The organization information was formed from data collected from the assembly and give in to to the organization for decision making. It was tougher for multi-national firms, as they needed to cluster the staff all over the globe. The accurateness and rationality of the information was uncertain and it took couple of weeks to prepare the reports.
The customary role of accountant was mostly to include in planning and reporting for the business. It was the accounts section’s accountability to present the planning and speculation planning to the decision makers. The accountant should have expertise such as systematic skills to comprehend accounting accurately, arithmetical skills and report writing and demonstration skills. The role of accounts section and accountant were inadequate and only concentrating on business’s account purposes.
Use of IT in managerial accounting has altered the viewpoint of customary managerial accounting. Actually, IT has been presented in every feature of industries from schooling to e-business. The introduction of Information Technology in accounting has made managerial accounting to be more noticeable to business’s internal users and decision-makers. Innovative technologies today support managerial accounting together with monetary accounting. It is essential for accounting structures to have ample managerial accounting element combined, which comprise of planning system, speculation-planning system, standard costing system and inventory control system packaged in one. The planning, budgeting and so on is formed by the organism itself and the gravity of data provided liable on the competence of the skill amended. Owners and investors very much trust on the managerial reporting to plot their investment. The power of internet has pressed the businesses to strive internationally and take lead of worldwide market. Small businesses no more have to fear big establishments in opposing for business. As long as the internet is utilized effectively, the small businesses will prosper in their business. Internet permits small businesses to support the company’s monetary and managerial accounting in their Web site to build assurance of their would-be customers. The IT supports managerial accounting to afford modern internal data and study to support existing decision making.
Use of IT in managerial accounting has altered the part and duties of accountants. Managerial Accountants now have to move their mind-set towards the expertise and obtain the following skills:
- Computer expertise,
- Information modeling,
- Production, estimating and forecasts,
- Emerging assumptions and conditions,
- Planned and looking forward,
- Creativity and adaptability,
- Strategy formulator and consultant.
Managerial accountants will have more leading role in existing and upcoming business schemes with the introduction of tools based managerial accounting. Technology is altering the structural structure and the corporate world; as such managerial accountants now have new height to emphasis, specifically with altered routine measures. It is time for accountants to discard the ancient thinking and familiarize to innovative technologies. Technology has shifted managerial accounting to new height and raises the need for managerial accounting for the business’s decision making.
Application of IT in Management Accounting – The Potentials
Use of IT in managerial accounting has generated brilliant prospective to the accounting organization and now it is unlikely to or useful to execute accounting either monetary or decision-making without the support of Information Technology. The businesses have approved the prospective of IT in managerial accounting and prepared to discover the prospective to help the organizations. What is IT potential? Well, it is essentially classifying the powerful explanations for familiarizing IT in managerial accounting.
Decision with the help of IT
The aim of management accounting is to present data for internal decision making, mainly for planning and control uses. The kinds of decisions made by managers depend considerably on accounting data. Because monetary accounting data does not supply sufficient detail for internal decisions, it must be put into more detail of the individual products or services offered by an organization. Not only do managers need to be aware of the rate of a product or service, they need the costs broken into smaller parts so they are able to carry out ‘what-if’ analyses and estimates for the future. Some kinds of decisions that managers often make comprise of pricing products, dropping a product or product line, purchasing new equipment to substitute old, assessing the performance of managers or divisions of an organization, or manufacturing rather than purchasing a component or product. The two most important functions of management accounting are planning and controlling. Both of these aid managers achieve decision making and IT help concerned people to take important decisions thanks to IT that helps to give as much as important data needed in a consistent and quick way and also there is low or rather no chance of obsolete data being provided to managers as all data are of real time that is updated one.
Competitive Advantage gained by IT
IT made the forthcoming of any business to strive in the worldwide economy and IT offers the economical advantage to influence consumers anywhere in the world. Each business is either electronic fully or expansively. Managerial accounting also had to bend to the supplement of knowhow and it is sensible relating IT in managerial accounting. The expertise such as information mining and data warehousing develops very appreciated and pushes the use of IT in managerial accounting. Computerization is a prospective IT technology, which can be utilized in managerial accounting to systematize the information reclamation, endorsing decisions and making reports or production papers. The structure of IT is extensively accessible today and it is in open structure mode. Small corporations have the aptitude to strive with large administrations with the convenience of internet and e-business. The IT structure has it base and most businesses can appreciate it with insignificant cost. With the IT structure well placed, managements can make available the managerial accounting data to the internal and external parties via internet. Stockholders and investors are asserting to interpret the data of the business’s accounting consequences before determining additional speculation. Managerial accounting also has recourse to IT structure to collect data from numerous requests and record to deploy the information and to create reports for decision-making. Multi-national businesses have chosen IT to take information from section and local offices situated international.
IT helping future generation
IT in managerial accounting has its prospective in the forthcoming as existing generations are open to IT and today computers have been familiarized during school days. IT expertise is being controlled by newer generations and it will add and inspire the application of IT in every feature of industry comprising managerial accounting. CIMA, the managerial accounting group have started Business Information Systems curriculum for the managerial accounting students. This is to guarantee that the upcoming accountants not only able to use managerial accounting technologies but also add to the evolution of IT in managerial accounting. Small organizations do not have to improve in-house managerial accounting software as it may weight the business’s budget. Small businesses can take benefit from the development of managerial accounting skill that is getting standard managerial accounting packages. As such, small companies would be able to appreciate the managerial accounting skill with more reasonable cost.
Technology helps in costing decision
Recent growths of technology affect a number of managerial decisions. Most particularly, the Internet has widened rivalry due to the risen access to sellers and buyers. Not only has the Internet improved an organization’s aptitude to attain materials and services needed, it has facilitated an organization to advertise its own goods and services universally. Within a company, technology has computerized numerous procedures that had been officially performed by physical labor. Consequently, organizations have removed workers and attained more fixed assets such as equipment. Because computers save information mechanically, managers want more data for decision making. They are no more contented with knowing how much one unit of good will rate. Alternatively; they want to know the cost of each action that goes into manufacturing a good or service. Technology’s effect on various activities has led managers to focus on all features of an organization’s value chain.
IT helps to strengthen Value Chain of Organizations
A value chain comprises of all the actions of an organization which ‘add value’ to the company’s goods or services. To add value implies to add something to make it more appealing. The notion of a value chain was made famous in 1985 by Micheal Porter. A value chain contains all the stages an organization undergoes so as to get it product or service to a buyer. Porter describes these ‘value-adding’ activities of a company. For our uses, they consist of
• Procurement of materials, supplies, and services
• The manufacturing process
• Selling and advertising
• Delivery to customers and the connected service or preservation of those consumers
• Related "support activities" together with: all those activities that sustain the making of goods or services, such as management, employees, R&D, accounting, facilities cleaning, payroll and so on
IT has helped organization to maintain a strong value chain and make them to become lucrative businesses. All company has a value chain, even though sections may differ to some extent among companies. Since the activities in the chain entail costs, management accounting comprises of planning and controlling all the value chain activities.
Application of IT in Management Accounting – The Benefits
The use of IT in managerial accounting gets advantages to the business. There is proof that knowhow revised in managerial accounting is able to cancel the customary managerial accounting restrictions. IT and managerial accounting has arisen as a method to provide vital data to organization’s development and smooth speculation.
The facts and data provided by the managerial accounting method is precise and effective. The system is able to collect data and facts from many means or sections using information mining tools. The data mining tools utilizes single record fountain that saves numerous data needed by the accounting organism. As such, the financial plan or cost data provided to the organization for decision making is believed as precise and real time.
Throughout customary accounting, the reaction for managerial accounting data may take weeks but with use of IT, the data is ready instantly. The skill is proficient of handling large number of information and also to achieve multi-tasking to attain the anticipated outcome. Existing expertise also permit managers to select the scheme of the reports required with a few mouse clicks. Managerial accounting systems are also proficient of making 3D charts for demonstrations. Most of the organisms are user-friendly and easy to utilize. The managerial accounting system is able to afford numerous explanations for decision makers. IT can be planned to give orientations and solutions to the organization. The managerial accounting system is proficient of computing the ROI, payback period, or breakeven point in seconds and directs the organization on the judgment to be taken. The expertise is very much beneficial to organization when they are preparing or predicting a long-term speculation. The organization is able to provide past information and the market drifts the organization to support to make the right and judicious decisions.
It is worthwhile to have expertise in place for managerial accounting, as it will simplify the accountant’s duties. The accountants now can emphasis on other vital tasks such as monetary study, decision making, checking the organization and design business models. This is for the use of IT in managerial accounting issues accountants’ from operational-dull tasks linking information gathering, computation and reporting. The organism can be planned to perform the supposed tasks and permit organization and financial accountants to focus on more fruitful duties.
The chief improvement of submission of IT in managerial accounting is getting a reasonable advantage. The internet shows an animated role for providing technology welfares to the management. Businesses can use the expertise to lure customer’s attention which eventually aids the development of the company. IT in managerial accounting permits instant updates of the data in the Web site so that the consumers, investors and creditors are able to see a clear picture of the business’s plans and objectives.
It is prominent that the use of IT in managerial accounting has undoubtedly caused in assistances to the business and more and more businesses are familiarizing IT in managerial accounting.
Application of IT in Management Accounting – The Impact
Application of IT in management accounting has tremendous impact on the organization’s profits. It is not right to come to a conclusion that integration of latest information technology in management accounting will make the company to have lucrative figures. Implementation of latest technologies may consequently lessen company’s income, as the administration of the technology is costly depending on the technology endorsed. There is a threat to the companies that if indecorous technology is chosen, then the organization is forced to bear futile costs which lead to waste of resources. However, if the organization and the accountants examine the practicability and the purpose of the structures before the application of IT in managerial accounting, then the above menace can be avoided.
Proficiency and knowhow of accountants should be dislodging to support the implementation of information technology in managerial accounting. The organizations have to send their workforce to IT related tutoring to gain and enhance their IT skills to use the system effectively and skillfully. The end-user of the system must be well instructed in order to take the optimum benefit of the technology within the bound of the system. Adopting user friendly system is primordial, as it requires reduces informatics skilled professional to run the technology. The majority of technologies accessible now are easily operated and understoodand straight forward to use.
Technology is becoming obsolete very fast and it is not an easy task to keep track with the technology metamorphose. The company’s impediment is to give the green light to a technology that can be implemented and used for the long run which may not be obtainable now. The new systems today will be outmoded within shorter period of time and will be substituted by more polished or refined systems. Thus the company must choose the systems that are upgradeable to be capable of meeting upcoming future technology desideratum.