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According to Government Decree 90/2001/ND-CP, dated November 2001 Vietnamese SMEs are legally registered "independent production and business establishments" with registered capital not exceeding VND 10 billion or annual labor not exceeding 300 people. Based on this definition, the number of SMEs in Vietnam accounts for 97 % of Vietnamese enterprises (calculated on annual labor) or some 85 % (calculated on capital), given by the latest statistical data of Vietnam General Office of Statistics. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly important because the scope of their activities affect many areas of the world economy. According to the management of small and medium enterprises, SMEs occupy for 90% businesses in the world and 40-50% of the GDP. In the APEC region, the number of small and medium enterprises occupy for more than 80% and using 60% the labor force. (Viet Nam Enterprise & integration Times (2008).
In an interview with Viet nam Financial Review Times, Mrs. Pham Thi Thu Hang, Director of SME Support Centre-Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI), estimated that SMEs contribute 40 percent of Vietnamese GDP and create approximately 1.5 million jobs each year. (Viet nam Financial Review Times, Ministry of Financial). They are responsible for 2/3 of non-agricultural employment. Such an overwhelming figure clearly illustrates the significant role SMEs play in Vietnam's economy and society. Though their importance must certainly draw much attention from the government, greater measures could be taken to aid SMEs. The nature of SMEs, is to promote private ownership, encourage innovation and possess the flexibility to meet rapid changes in market demand. For the renders they are powerful enough to be able to compete and in some cases to keep up with large companies.
In the processes of globalization, especially when Vietnam is a member of the World Trade Organization in 2006, SMEs of Vietnam face new competitors (transnational corporations, multinational corporations, having powerful financial resources, technology, experience and high competitiveness) and they have to compete fiercely in the new condition (the strict guidelines of the institutional trade and international law in the global market). In other words, Vietnam enterprises are faced with really great challenges:
- First, the competitiveness of enterprises in Vietnam is low.
- Second, the science - technology of enterprises is old
- Third, The restrictions on raw materials and the weakness of the enterprise brand.
- Fourth, distribution strategy, media strategy and trade promotion of enterprises is not good.
In market economy in Nam dinh province, Viet Nam, the competition among small and medium enterprises in Nam dinh province is more and more severe. "Business is getting much harder now''. There are too many companies competing for too small a market. We are struggling to survive, in a very literal meaning," Mr. Pham Dinh Tien, Director of Hanoi Youth Advertising, explains. (Viet nam Financial Review Times, Ministry of Financial). Enterprises want to survive, maintain their independence and development, they must improve their competitiveness. They are faced with pressures to reduce production costs, increase productivity, and to have more intensive knowledge. It then discusses what is known about how different types of SMEs innovation, and identifies the principal strategies SMEs can pursue to enhance their competitiveness in global markets. In particular, information technology is an effective solution to enhance this capacity. It is a solution expected to aid in various work: from production, business, human resource, administration to merchandising, warehousing, logistics, and so on (SaigonTimes, 2010).
In recent years, the application of Information Technology has developed strongly in the small and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. To help enterprises quickly apply information technology the government issued the decision 191/2005/QÄ/CP dated 29, July 2005 about business support Vietnam, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to build databases of economic information, application of information technology to increase production efficiency, enhance business competitiveness and international economic integration; contributing to human resource training and market development, and information technology, serving industrialization and modernization of the country. According to the institute of information Technology for Business, the results of survey in 1.060 enterprises in six provinces (Binh Phuoc, Bac Lieu, Phu Yen, Lam Äong, Vinh Long, Tuyen Quang) 2/3 enterprises regular use of office software, accounting software for business support, 58% enterprises use the intranet connection, nearly 90% enterprises that use Internet and more than 50% board of directors of enterprises using e-mail daily.
In particular, more and more modern implements for the financial - accounting are introduced to contribute to the increase in efficiency and quality of the financial - accounting. Accounting software is the most effective tool to control and maintain activities for "financial brains" of the company (Seminar about IT optimization for Business Operation, HCM City, 2009). Because accounting software is used to serve the needs of accounting management such as financial reports, debt statements and report goods. Currently, there are various accounting softwares in Nam Dinh province such as Misa, Fast, Effect, Bravo, 1C, Acsoft, Oracle, Esoft.... Application of software accounting for business is needed, which is obvious. However, the application at some enterprises is not effective. The TAM should be a successful predictor of the accounting software usage. The TAM suggests that one of the reasons that a person takes accounting software is that he or she finds that the software for the work is both easy to use and useful. So, the TAM should predict the intention to participate in accounting software and subsequently the actual behavior.
1.2. Research Motivation
The biggest problem facing enterprises is how to choose suitable accounting software for their business while various software are available on the market. Enterprises have to study what is suitable accounting software they need, map out a timetable and crucial criteria for deployment as well as the best way to manage IT solution deployment which they decide to apply. At the beginning of the 2010, MISA Joint Stock Company has provided MISA accounting software. MISA accounting software includes 13 modules, is designed for small and medium enterprises with the purpose to help businesses without having to cover much cost and do not know much about computing and accounting but they can use and management accounting software system and all transaction in enterprise.
Currently, the accounting software is being offered in Nam Dinh province, About 1,200 versions of this software have been sold (Big company, Branch of Misa in Nam dinh province). In Nam Dinh province, small and medium enterprises are unaware of the investment in MISAaccounting software. This is the reason why I am doing this thesis to help the board of management of the Small and Medium Enterprises in Nam dinh province to make decision whether or not to invest in this accounting software and they can know deeply users' acceptance and adoption of MISA accounting software at SMEs at Nam Dinh province.
1.3. Research purpose
In information systems research, there are several theoretical models, they have been proposed to explain and predict the acceptance of a technology. Examples are the Technology Acceptance Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action. In my thesis, this research uses Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to examine the actual use of MISA- accounting software among SMEs in Nam Dinh province, so as to help the board of management to make decision whether or not to have it implemented broadly.
1.4. Research Procedure
In order to evaluate the actual use of MISA accounting software , the thesis consists of five chapters, and its framework is presented as follows.
Chapter 1: Introduction
The first chapter gives an overall context on which the research background, research motive, research purpose, research organization are based
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter is the important parts of the thesis. It provides the theoretical frame for my research, based on which, I can clearly identify my research objectives and research methodology to achieve the purpose.
Chapter 3: Research Methods
Chapter 3 presents the methods I have used to do my research. This indicates the research philosophy, research design, research approach and research methods used in this study, including the methods used to collect secondary data and primary data. By the way, this chapter presents the reasons why these methods have been applied.
Chapter 4: Data analysis and results
The analysis of data obtained from surveys and the discussions of the results are presented in this chapter. The chapter provides the way, based on which the answer for the research question can be obtained.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendation
Research findings, managerial implication, and limitation are provided in the last chapter. It also indicates the opportunities for future study in order to extend my practical scope.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Accounting means the collection, processing, examination, analysis and supply of economic and financial information in the forms of value, kind and labor time (Accounting Law of Viet Nam, No. 03/2003/QH11 of June 17, 2003). Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summing a meaningful way according to Neddles, Anderson & Caldwell (2003). Accounting has been said as "the language of business" because accounting is the essential tool for recording, reporting, and evaluating economic events and transactions that affect business enterprises (McLaney & Atrill, 2008).
2.2. Accounting systems
2.2.1 Operation of an Accounting System
An accounting system is collection of documents, analyzes, classifies, records, gives procedures, management policies and accounting data is processed into useful information ((McLaney & Atrill, 2008). Accounting systems can take many forms, tables, reports, ranging from simple manual systems to sophisticated computerized systems. The operation of an accounting system is series of activities that begins with transaction and ends with the closing of books. It consists of three basic phases: input, processing and output (McLaney & Atrill, 2008).
2.2.2 Development accounting information systems
Accounting information systems is cover all business functions from backbone accounting transaction processing systems to sophisticated financial management planning and processing systems (Michael R Sneyd., 1994. Financial reporting is started at the operational levels of the organization, where the transaction processing systems capture important business events such as normal production, purchasing, and selling activities (McLaney & Atrill, 2008). These events or transactions are classified and summarized for internal decision making and for external financial reporting.
2.2.3 The Vietnam Accounting System
126.96.36.199 Development of accounting in Viet Nam
The accounting of Viet Nam has evolved through three main stages (www.www.mof.gov.vn). Before the 1990s: This is the stage, our country's economy is the subsidized economy, and the economic sectors include only state-owned company, collective and individual. In economic sectors, the state-owned company plays a major role and no commercial activities in free trade market. So activities of accounting only comply with the rules and regulations of the Ministry of Finance. Which agency has responsible for the highest asset management in Viet Nam.
From 1991 to 1994: Our country's economy transformed from subsidized economy to market economy oriented socialist. The advent of multi-component economy has impacted the nature and characteristics of the accounting. Many terms in the accounting field is born such as revenue, expenses, profit and loss that many accountants are only familiar to subsidized economy is rather abstract and difficult to understand.
From 1995 to now: It is time that the accounting system of our country has developed the highest and most complete. Vietnam has established accounting law, rules, accounting systems and accounting standards according to international accounting standards (IAS). Specially, accounting law was issued by the national assembly of Viet Nam on June 17, 2003 and the complete set of Vietnamese Accounting Standard, based on IAS was issued by the end of 2003.
188.8.131.52 The Viet Nam Accounting System
Vietnamese Accounting System (VAS) is a mixture of uniform chart of accounts with detailed guidance and a new system of the Vietnamese Accounting Standards (VASs) which are very similar to the international standards. The VAS for small medium enterprises is a simplified model of the Vietnamese Accounting System which was primarily designed for large state-owned enterprises. The accounting procedures and methods have been adjusted for meeting specific production or business conditions, business entities must first obtain the written approval of the Ministry of Finance. There are various systems in the Viet Nam Accounting System that can be adopted by enterprises and these depend on the size of the entity. There are different systems included in VAS for large businesses, small and medium-sized enterprises, and household businesses. The Vietnamese Accounting System (VAS) was issued in 1995 and is intended to be used by all companies in Viet Nam. Currently, the Vietnamese Accounting System meets requirements of all enterprises in Viet Nam.
2.3 MISA accounting software
2.3.1 Introduction and Background
MISA accounting software is a product from MISA Joint Stock Company - MISA JSC, which is designed toward small and medium enterprises under the rules of the Ministry of Finance and Accounting Standards in Vietnam. (Book of using guide in www.misa.com.vn, 2010).
Production accounting software: Valuate in details according to products, contracts, buying orders in different methods. Analyze prices according to items and elements. Support the management of materials with a big quantity.
Functions according to marks: It is possible to access from general reports (Induced balance sheet) to detailed reports (Detailed account book) or from invoices to payment documents, etc.
Professional quality ISO 9001:2000: Build and supply products according to close and comprehensive quality control procedures making MISA accounting software stable and highly reliable. Supply customers with procedures to control the quality of training activities in using the software. Is the product of quality management system ISO 9001:2000.
Administration accounting software: Tool supporting managers in analyzing and making timely and effective business decisions. Implementing multi-level, multi-direction management, studying information in many aspects help managers have an overview. Draw plans, analyze and compare differences between the reality and plans.
Comprehensiveness: Obey accounting rules. There are all subsystems suitable to accounting practice parts in enterprises. Connect data of departments in enterprises, update stock received dockets, stock issued dockets, in the material department, invoices in the consumption department then finally update data generally on common data. Run multi-user network, secure and decentralize functions, acts in details each user.
Open system: This system must be flexible so that it can be adjusted to be suitable to current requirements of enterprises and ready for requirements of the future development and objective changes of policies, the State accounting - finance regime.
Advanced technologies: Database SQL Server 2005 is used with the system designed according to the multi-layer model that can work well with a large amount of data and operates on Windows 2000, XP, Vista and Win 7.
MISA accounting software is application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, trial balance, report, table... It functions as an accounting information system and designed as a full featured multi-currency enterprise and accounting software solution. MISA accounting software is multiple entity friendly, and providing a view that allows for multiple discrete to be viewed by user.
Figure 2.1 Main screen of MISA accounting software
2.3.2 The Basic Features
MISA accounting software has 13 modules, these categories correspond to a high-level functional of accounting software features, and provide a brief explanation of how each category impacts on accounting processes.
(1). Draw and monitor plans (Budget):
- Draw plans
- Make reports comparing plans with the reality
(2). Manage contracts, monitor loan agreements
- Update induced contracts, loan agreements
- Update contracts, agreements on induced documents
-Â Report the process of implementing contracts, agreements
(3). Manage incomings and outgoings
- Â Monitor many types of money
-Â Evaluate differences in exchange rates automatically
(4). Purchasing goods
-Â Manage buying orders and manage the process of implementing buying orders
-Â Manage purchased goods in details in term of buying price, shipment expenses, import tax, VAT, etc.
-Â Manage debts in details of each supplier, contract, invoice, etc.
- Monitor the payment due of each invoice, supplier
(5). Selling goods
- Managing sales order, chasing the progress of sales order
-Â Managing in details goods on sale, return, discount, at cost price, VAT, etc.
- Chasing in details debts based on each customer, contract, bill, etc.
- Chasing the due date of payment and collecting money for each bill and supplier
(6). Managing goods in stock
- Managing materials, imported, exported and assembled products
- Calculating cost price based on various measures
(7). Managing salary
- Calculating and accounting salaries for personnel
(8). Managing fixed assets, instruments
- Managing information about fixed assets, instruments
- Calculating based on depreciation method, accounting the distribution of instruments
(9). Calculating the price
- Evaluating product price in the rough based on elements in production chain, proportion of completed product and selling out rough products in production chain.
- Collecting and distributing the cost based on various criteria
- Calculating detailed price for each product, contract and order
(10).Chasing periodical accounting and book entry
-Â Chasing periodical book entry
-Â Accounting periodical book entry automatically
(11). Decentralizing, managing the state of documents
- Managing documents based on state (pending, approved, finished, locked)
- Decentralizing users based on the state of documents
(12). Chasing the history of using program
- Chasing the history of using functions of program
-Â Chasing the history of data effect (Add, correct, delete)
(13). Analyzing finance
- The system of reporting and analyzing finance fully and objectively, showing criteria through diagram
2.4. The Technology acceptance Model (TAM)
The technology acceptance model was the first created by (Davis. 1989), relied on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen. 1975) in psychology research. And it was introduced and developed by Fred Davis in 1986 (Davis et al., 1989). Original model of TAM is from a theory that addresses the issue of how users come to accept and use a technology. The model suggests when users are presented with, example, a new software , a number of variables influence their decisions about how and when they will use it. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the user acceptance of IT (Taylor & Todd, 1995b and Venkatesh & Davis, 2000). Taylor and Todd (1995b, 145) said that "Understanding the determinants of information technology usage should help to ensure effective deployment of information technology (IT) resources in an organization". (Venkatesh and Davis. 2000) note that effective progress has been made over the past decade in trying to understand and explain user acceptance of Information technology.
Individual reactions to using information technology
Intentions to use information technology
Actual use of information technology
Figure 2.2 Basic Concept Underlying User Acceptance Models
(Adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003)
Figure 2.2 displays the concept at the back of user acceptance models. As can be seen, an individual's reactions to using Information technology (IT) influence their intention to use it. This, in turn, directly influences their actual usage of the technology. (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis & Davis, 2003). The TAM was developed by Davis (1989) as a way to measure, predict, and explain the acceptance of Information technology (IT) and evaluate software applications within organization (Walker & Johnson, 2008). Over the last two decades the TAM has been the most influential research models in studying the determinants of IT usage (Chau, 2001). In the next section, the original model is explained in detail and current applications are discussed and evaluated.
2.4.1 Model Development
The Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) tries to predict and explain the use and acceptance of technology. It is an adaptation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and developed by Ajzen and Fishbein (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) and is closely related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Mathieson, 1991). The theory of reasoned action (TRA) regards a user's behavior as determined by the user's behavioral intention, where behavioral intention is a function of 'attitude toward the behavior ', (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; Davis et al., 1989). TRA started in 1950s and the first research relative TRA was published in 1967 (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Since 1967, TRA has been tested and used extensively and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) utilized widely.
Normative Beliefs & Motivation to comply
Relative importance of attitudinal & normative considerations
Figure 2.3 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980)
In a diagrammatic model of the theory, TRA has proven successful in predicting and explaining behavior across a wide variety of domains. TRA is relied on the assumption that consumers' behave rationally and that they collect and evaluate systematically all of the available information. Additionally, TRA supposes that people also take into account the effects of their possible actions and based on this reasoning make decision whether or not to take action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Individuals would use computer if they have a feeling that there could be positive benefits associated with using them (Compeau and Higgins, 1995). From the information systems (IS) perspective one relevant element of TRA is its assertion that any other factor that influences behavior for example systems design variables, user characteristics, task characteristics, political influences and organizational structure do so only indirectly by influencing attitude toward behaviour, subjective norm or their relative weights (Davis et al., 1989).
In exploring user behavior, many researchers adopt behavior theories from psychology and marketing. It is in this context that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was constructed. The TPB was suggested as an extension to the TRA mentioned earlier, by (Ajzen in 1985, 1991. In comparison with the TRA, the TPB adds 'perceived behavioral control' as a determinant of behavioral intention. The TPB is an extension of the TRA. Perceived behavioral control can be conceptualized as the consumer's subjective belief about how difficult it will be for that consumer to generate the behavior in question ( Posthuma & Dworkin, 2000). The concept of perceived behavioral control has been considered in relation to a number of research settings. In investigating consumer complaint behavior (Stephensand Gwinner. 1998), use the secondary appraisal as a conceptualization of a consumer's perceived ability to deal with an unsatisfactory experience. Shim et al. (2001) have proposed and tested an online repurchase intentions model, which includes the concept of perceived behavioral control. In research unethical behavior (Chang .1998) has applied both the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior and so included PBC in the investigation. A conceptual model of arbitrator acceptability included PBC among a number of other key concepts adapted from control theory and organizational justice theories (Posthuma and Dworkin. 2000) . This arrangement control aspects of the observation are introduced the model. This makes the TPB more functional in its application. Researchers have used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) widely to model the acceptance of a variety of new information technologies in businesses as well as to predict levels of usage. For example, (Mathieson .1991) used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as well as the Technology Acceptance Model to predict user's intentions and user perception, specifically with respect to the usage of spreadsheets. The TPB is diagrammatically presented in 2.4 for greater clarity.
Actual Behavioral Control
Figure 2.4 Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 2006)
The TAM has based largely on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and is specifically tailored for determining acceptance of technology. This model, in its original form and in subsequent iterations (Venkatesh and Davis 2000) appears to have been successfully applied to a number of technologies and settings (Horton, Buck, Waterson and Clegg 2001). It is based on the notion that technology acceptance is determined by a number of variables, including:
Perceived Usefulness (PU), which is the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system, will enhance his or her job performance (Davis, 1989).
Perceived Ease of Use (PEU), which refers to the "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system (technology) will be free of effort" (Davis, 1989)
Attitude (A), which is a value and belief that is expressed as a positive, negative or neutral view towards the system.
Behavioral Intention (FU), which is expressed as an anticipated action or inaction towards a system.
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in its original forms and illustrates linear relationships between the variables described above. In addition, Davis et al. (1989) included "External Variables" as additional factors influencing a person's acceptance of technology. These variables appear to be factors that influence someone's attitude towards a technology but are not directly related to the technology. These external variables could include for example, previous exposure to similar technologies, training received prior to the technology uptake, confidence in a technological environment or individual characteristics.
Perceived Usefulness (PU)
Perceived Ease of
Figure 2.5 Technology Acceptance Model (Davis et al., 1989)
The individual relationships within this model are explained below. The Figure 2.5 shows, this model resembles the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in that it stipulates that the actual use of a technological system is determined by Behavioral Intentions (FU). The Behavioral Intentions (FU) are determined by a combination of Perceived Usefulness (PU) and the Attitude towards Using (A) a particular system. The relationship between Attitude towards Using (A) and Behavioural Intentions (FU) is based on the understanding that an individual's attitude towards a system may directly influence the intention to use such a system. Attitudes are shaped by perceptions and beliefs and this relationship is relatively stable and linear.
Thus, a positive experience and exposure to the system is likely to result in a positive attitude and vice versa. The relationship between Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Behavioral Intentions (FU) implies that individuals in a specific contextual setting, such as accounting, finance, form an "intention to adopt" behavior that they believe will enhance their performance in working. The "forming of behavioral intention" is often initiated by extrinsic rather than intrinsic motivation and reflects a utilitarian approach towards performance - an approach which many professional accountants may adopt. However, technologies are often imposed on individuals and behavioral intentions for usage are developed regardless of an individual's attitude towards a system. Thus, the nature of the relationships in the model needs to be understood within a specific context. Finally, Davis (1989) included the Actual System Use in his model to show that a Behavioral Intentions (FU) is expected to result in congruent behavior. This is an important theoretical component of attitudes. However, it can be argued that a positive attitude towards a system does not necessarily lead to use of the technology.
Ease of Use (EOU) is seen to have a significant effect on Attitude (A). In fact, the TAM identifies two ways in which PEU influences attitudes and behavior: through self-efficacy and instrumentality (Davis et al., 1989). Thus it can be argued, that the easier a system is to operate, the greater should be the user's sense of efficacy (Bandure, 1982). Also, individuals who receive training appear less likely to be frustrated with the system and more likely to develop higher confidence in the system and a more positive perception of it (Igbaria and Zinatelli, 1997). Similarly, an improvement in for example the handling and navigation of a technological system is thought to positively influence an individual's attitude towards the system. The relationship of Perceived Ease of Use (PEU) to Behavioral Intentions (FU) is reported differently in the literature. This appears to be because of differences in settings in which the studies took place. Recent studies in an educational context (Cheung and Huang, 2005; Drennan et al., 2005) support an indirect relationship as originally established. As mentioned earlier, the degree of choice individuals have in the use of a technology, may be a critical factor in the explanatory power of this relationship. Thus, Igbaria et al. (1997) found a direct relationship between EOU and BI, a fact that is inconsistent with Davis' theory (Davis, 1989). This may be due to the fact that Igbaria et al. (1997) conducted the research in small firms, whereas most of the initial TAM studies focused on larger firms. It is suggested that these contradictory findings may be credited to levels of training provided and that small business owners tend to have a more pragmatic approach in which the PEU is ranked as more important as the PU. However, these findings do not seem to be well established in other studies and more recent research has supported the original model in which PEU only has a indirect influence on BI through PU (Adams, Nelson and Todd, 1992; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000; Pituch and Lee, 2006).
TAM has been tested in many researches (see, for example, Davis, 1989; Davis et al., 1989; Mathieson., 1991; Adams et al., 1992; Davis., 1993; Segars and Grover., 1993; Taylor and Todd, 1995), and it has been given that TAM's ability to explain attitude toward using an information system is better than other model's (TRA and TPB) (Mathieson, 1991). These studies have showed that TAM consistently explains a significant amount of the variance (typically around 40 percent) in usage intentions and behaviour. The use of an information system has been comprehended in many studies as the user acceptance of the information system in question (Davis et al., 1989; Davis, 1993; Al-Gahtani, 2001). Therefore in accounting, accountants use accounting software for their working. Table 1 provides an overview of various technologies or software in previous studies. The author was, however, unable to find any published research in this context that specifically related to MISA accounting software.
Table 1. Review of Technology Acceptance Model
107 full time MBA students
TAM + TRA
Davis et al. (1989)
200 and 40 MBA students
112 professionals and managers
262 students course intro-management
TAM + TPB
Voice mail system, customer dial-up system
75 and 104 subjects
Taylor and Todd (1995a)
University computing, resource centre, business school student
TAM + subjective norm + perceived behavioral control
Taylor and Todd (1995b)
University computing, resource centre, business school student
TAM + TPB + decomposed TPB
Keil et al. (1995)
61 graduate students
Bajaj & Nidumolu (1998)
Moon & Kim (2001)
152 graduate students
TAM + Perceived Playfulness
Mallat et al. (2006)
Mobile ticketing service
TAM + Diffusion of Innovations
518 undergraduate students
Ju, Chumg & Chu (2007)
TAM + Habitual
2.4.2 Research in Context
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is widely acceptance in Information Systems (IS) research to explain the determinants of computer technology acceptance and utilization among users. Furthermore, the model provides opportunities for advanced statistical analysis (Igbaria and Guimaraes, 1995). Therefore TAM can be used for to examine the actual use of MISA- accounting software among SMEs in Nam Dinh province, so as to help the board of management to make decision whether or not to have it implemented broadly purposes of this research.
Chapter 3: Research Method
3.1 Research Model
The purpose of this study is applying TAM model to examine the actual use of MISA- accounting software among SMEs in Nam Dinh province, so as to help the board of management to make decision whether or not to have it implemented broadly. Specifically, this study focuses and explores the relationship between perceived usefulness and perceived easy-of-use, attitude towards using, behavioral Intentions for Future and actual system use of MISA- accounting software among SMEs in Nam Dinh province. According to the literature review, this study builds a research framework as shown in Figure 3.1
Perceived usefulness from using MISA software
Perceived ease of use from using MISA software
Behavior intention to use MISA software
Actual using MISA software
Figure 3.1 Research Model
3.2 Research Hypotheses
As the research framework of this study has been established and based on study purposes as well as literature review, the hypotheses of this study were developed.
MISA accounting software is designed toward small and medium enterprises. It is a total solution for recording, analysis and management all the contractions. By using MISA accounting software, company is able to working with many powerful features. So the degree to which an accountant believes that MISA software will help him or her to attain gains in working (perceived usefulness) has a positive effect on his/her intention to use MISA software. Therefore this study proposes a hypothesis as following:
H1: Perceived usefulness to use MISA accounting software will have a positive relationship with behavioral intention to use.
MISA is fairly easy to use and install either locally or on a network. Users without knowledge of programming are also able to use MISA with ease and effective. The degree of ease of use associated with the use of MISA software as perceived by a user has a positive effect on his/her behavior intention towards MISA software. Thus, the study hypothesizes that:
H2: Perceived ease of use MISA accounting software will have a positive relationship with behavioral intention to use.
With many people to understand clearly and actual usage a new system is very difficult if you just said how good a new system. So you want to increase their actual usage, you have to increase their behavioral intention first. Because behavioral intention is perceived feeling, therefore you need to do everything you can to provide a positive feeling toward the new system with them, then you can increase their actual usage. For this reason, the study necessary to launch the hypotheses as the following:
H3: Behavioral intention to use MISA accounting software will have a strong positive relationship to actual usage.
3.3 Data collection
In this research, the author used quantitative method:
(1). Interview was used to gather preliminary information before conducting the main survey. Sekaran (2003) suggests that it is a useful data collection method to include of this stage. The interviews were conducted pilot survey by face to face interviewing with 30 accountants from different companies in Nam dinh province. They were invited to respond to the questionnaire. Subsequent, the researcher asked them to talk about their impression and advices on how to enhance the questionnaire. By using this technique, it has advantages in refining and correcting mistakes inside the questionnaire.
(2). Questionnaire is the most important method used to collect primary data in the complete survey. Field studies, comparative surveys and experimental designs often use questionnaires to measure the variables of interest (Sekaran, 2003). Ticehurst & Veal (2000) state that "questionnaire was used because quantified information is required concerning a specific population and academics' behavior and attitudes are acceptable as a source of information".
The questionnaires were adapted from strongly approved, existing research instruments and were refined to better suit the context of the target population - i.e. accountants. The questionnaire was structured widely from questions administered on a seven point Likert scale, taken from research instruments developed by Venkatesh and Davis (2000), Venkatesh et al. (2003), and Hart and Porter (2004). With the Liker scale, respondent indicates the attitude by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with carefully constructed statement that range form very positive to very negative toward the attitudinal object. This scale ranges from strongly disagree = 1, quite disagree = 2, slightly disagree = 3, neutral = 4, slightly agree = 5, quite agree = 6, and strongly agree = 7. In addition there were a few demographic questions such as age, gender, position, and experience.
Questionnaires were sent directly to the individual or by mail. There were 215 respondents to correctly complete the survey to examine the actual use of MISA- accounting software among SMEs in Nam Dinh province. Respondents are accountants come from various enterprises of different locations in Nam dinh, Vietnam.
(3) Statistical was used to analyze data by using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0 for Window.
The survey asks the respondent to give their perception on the actual use of MISA accounting software which has been divided into two sections:
Section 1 focused on information regarding accountant's own characteristics, such as age, gender, position and experience.
Section 2 was a significant section based on Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989). The respondent is asked to answer 13 questions. Four of these questions connect with Perceived Usefulness of the MISA accounting software and 4 questions following relate to Perceived Ease of Use. The next, 3 questions concern to the respondents' Behavioral Intention to use. The last questions of the survey link to the respondents' usage. Finally, the survey was associated with the opinions of academics regarding how to make full use of the MISA accounting software in their work.
3.4 Measurement of Variables
Table 2. Measurement Scales
MISA accounting software is useful for working.
Davis et. al. (1989)
MISA accounting software makes the working easier.
MISA accounting software makes the working more convenient.
MISA accounting software makes the working faster.
Perceived Ease of Use
MISA accounting software is easy to use.
MISA accounting software is easy to understand.
MISA accounting software is simple software.
Using MISA accounting software can be skillful.
Behavioral Intention to use
I intend to use MISA accounting software because it is a good idea.
I intend to use MISA accounting software because it is beneficial for me
I have positive perception about using the MISA accounting software.
I use MISA accounting software frequently.
I use the MISA accounting software more than any other software.