The Malaysian Accounting Standards Board Accounting Essay

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MFRS 101-Presentation of Financial Statements prescribes the basis for presentation of general purpose financial statements to ensure comparability both with the entity's financial statements of previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. It sets out overall requirements for the presentation of financial statements, guidelines for their structure and minimum requirements for their content.

Purpose of financial statements

Financial statements are a structured representation of the financial position and financial performance of an entity. The objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions. Financial statements also show the results of the management's stewardship of the resources entrusted to it. A complete set of financial statements comprises:

(a) a statement of financial position as at the end of the period

(b) a statement of comprehensive income for the period

(c) a statement of changes in equity for the period

(d) a statement of cash flows for the period

(e) notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information

(f) a statement of financial position as at the beginning of the preceding period when an entity applies an accounting policy retrospectively or makes a retrospective restatement of items in its financial statements, or when it reclassifies items in its financial statements.

An entity may use titles for the statements other than those used in this Standard. For example, an entity may use the title 'statement of comprehensive income' instead of 'statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income'.

Statement of financial position Information to be presented in the statement of financial position . As a minimum, the statement of financial position shall include line items that present the following amounts:

(a) property, plant and equipment;

(b) investment property;

(c) intangible assets;

(d) financial assets (excluding amounts shown under (e), (h) and (i));

(e) investments accounted for using the equity method;

(f) biological assets;

(g) inventories;

(h) trade and other receivables;

(i) cash and cash equivalents;

(j) the total of assets classified as held for sale and assets included in disposal groups classified as held for sale in accordance with MFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations;

(k) trade and other payables;

(l) provisions;

(m) financial liabilities (excluding amounts shown under (k) and (l));

(n) liabilities and assets for current tax, as defined in MFRS 112 Income Taxes;

(o) deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, as defined in MFRS 112;

(p) liabilities included in disposal groups classified as held for sale in accordance with MFRS 5;

(q) non-controlling interests, presented within equity; and

(r) issued capital and reserves attributable to owners of the parent

An entity shall clearly identify each financial statement and the notes. In addition, an entity shall display the following information prominently, and repeat it when necessary for the information presented to be understandable:

(a) the name of the reporting entity or other means of identification, and any change in that information from the end of the preceding reporting period;

(b) whether the financial statements are of an individual entity or a group of entities;

(c) the date of the end of the reporting period or the period covered by the set of financial statements or notes;

(d) the presentation currency, as defined in MFRS 121; and

(e) the level of rounding used in presenting amounts in the financial statement.

Current/non-current distinction

An entity shall present current and non-current assets, and current and non-current liabilities, as separate classifications in its statement of financial position in accordance with except when a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and more relevant. When that exception applies, an entity shall present all assets and liabilities in order of liquidity.

Current assets

An entity shall classify an asset as current when:

(a) it expects to realise the asset, or intends to sell or consume it, in its normal operating cycle.

(b) it holds the asset primarily for the purpose of trading.

(c) it expects to realise the asset within twelve months after the reporting period.

(d) the asset is cash or a cash equivalent (as defined in MFRS 107) unless the asset is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

An entity shall classify all other assets as non-current.

Current liabilities

An entity shall classify a liability as current when:

(a) it expects to settle the liability in its normal operating cycle;MFRS 101

(b) it holds the liability primarily for the purpose of trading;

(c) the liability is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period; or

(d) it does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelvemonths after the reporting. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

An entity shall classify all other liabilities as non-current,

Statement of changes in equity

Information to be presented in the statement of changes in equity.

An entity shall present a statement of changes in equity. The statement of changes in equity includes the following information showing in the statement:

(a) total comprehensive income for the period, showing separately the total amounts attributable to owners of the parent and to non-controlling interests;

(b) for each component of equity, the effects of retrospective application or retrospective restatement recognised in accordance with MFRS 108;

(d) for each component of equity, a reconciliation between the carrying amount at the beginning and the end of the period, separately disclosing changes resulting from:

(i) profit or loss;

(ii) each item of other comprehensive income; and

(iii) transactions with owners in their capacity as owners, showing separately contributions by and distributions to owners and changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries that do not result in a loss of control. Information to be presented in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes.

For each component of equity an entity shall present, either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes, an analysis of other comprehensive income by item.

An entity shall present, either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes, the amount of dividends recognised as distributions to owners during the period, and the related amount of dividends per share.

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