The demand for and supply of accounting theories


It has been become an issue of great concern that the accounting profession must find a common theory in order to address and put the issue at rest. This therefore, has called for the study of this topic under review "the demand for and supply of accounting theories: the market for excuses. As a result of this several questions have been raised. For instance, the question of why accounting theories are predominantly normative has been put forward by this article? Secondly, why no single theory in accounting profession that is generally or widely accepted? It has been argued that the financial accounting theories have been found to be ineffective most especially in the area of impacting accounting practice and policy, though, this has been linked to the weaknesses in accounting methodologies.

This article went further to examine the demand for accounting theories in an unregulated economy and also the demand for accounting theories in a regulated economy. Coupled with these is the effective of government intervention on the demand for accounting theories. Based on this, the author has argued that government regulations seems to provide some sort of incentives mostly for individual lobbyist that proposed accounting procedure, therefore, producing a negative effective with regard producing a common accounting theory. From the look of thing one could argued that the changes political issues and scenario will also continue to create changes in the accounting theories. The author noted that the nature of accounting theories will continue to change as political issues change.

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Conclusively, first, we need to understand the vital role of accounting theories in determining the accounting standard and therefore, the theories should be included in the process of determining accounting standard.

The Methodology of Positive Accounting (Juma's assignment)

The problems of accounting theories have become a wide and global concern to the extent that some have aired their views in this regard. Notable among them is the "Rochester School of Accounting". This group of accounting professional has raised a number of methodological issues. The major argument here is that most of accounting theories are perceived to be unscientific in nature, this perhaps could be in terms of its quantitative nature applied in the methodology. Therefore, there is need to develop a positive accounting methodology that will yield a positive result in the scientific direction. The development of this methodology will answer questions such as "why accounting is what it is, why accounting do what they do, and what effects these phenomenon have on people and resources?"

Furthermore, the arguments of the Rochester School of Accounting on the unscientific nature of accounting theories have not been accepted. Several authors have greatly criticized the view of the Rochester school on the ground of inability of the school to demarcate between the two major phenomenons of "positive" and "normative" theories. Again, his concept of positive theory of accounting is nothing but a flaw with respect to empirical science. Within the context of this review, two methodological views have evolved namely; the instrumentalism and the realism. However, the Rochester school of accounting has been exonerated from the various criticisms emanating from instrumentalism review.

Although, even if the old ways of doing things in accounting have been argued to be ineffective, they tend to remain relevant. However, the new methodologies being proposed are by no means free from criticism, however, they also remain relevant in determining some of the accounting standards. Therefore, should not be neglected or abandoned.


The KL festival can be seen as a written communication that tends to communicate to the intended audience about the forthcoming festival.

Setting of the genre:

Within the context of linguistic discourse, the setting include the location, time of the event, season of the year and physical aspect of the situation, example, room size, furniture arrangement etc. KL festival will be taken place in Esplanade, KLCC Park in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia by 8:30pm. The setting is that of entertainment with a wide-open space as the venue.

Focus and perspective of the genre:

The main focus of the genre-festival is to celebrate the wealth, beauty and the uniqueness of Malaysian cultural art with focus on many side attractions such as performing arts, intellectual dialogues, competitions, exhibition and crafts. All these events involve interpersonal language.

The purpose(s) of the genre:

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This should be in line with the purpose in which language is used, interpersonal purpose which has to deal with the situation that warrants socialization of people. This is where KL festival falls on. Therefore, the language purpose in the KL festival should be purely that of interpersonal.

The intended audience:

The intended audience include, first both locals and visitors. The visitors consist of the participants from various countries. The audience also involves people from all walks of life that include the educated, uneducated etc.

The relationship between participations in the genre:

The relationship between participants within this context, can be regarded as that of knowledge sharing about themselves and as well as that of the world. If this is believed to be their relationship, therefore there must be common approaches with regard to communication-language.

Expectations, conventions, and requirements for the genre:

The expectations of the participants from the festival should be on the knowledge they shared and their interactions about the festival, whether the knowledge and interactions could be able to play a very vital role in their life. Some conventions are also expected in this regard. For instance, the convention of preparing for their departure in advance and giving a verbal early warning about their going is also required by the visitors

The background knowledge, values, and what is important to them and what is not:

The background knowledge of the participants is not far from that of the rich and wealth cultural heritage background with good cultural values of from different cultures. The most important thing for the participants here is the rich shared cultural knowledge that will be gained among participants about their selves and the world. However, language barriers, race, ethnicity and different cultural backgrounds perhaps might not be important to the participants.

The relationship the genre has with other texts and genre:

The relationship between the genre- festival and others can be seen in some of the characteristics in which they pose. This is because some of the events in the festival could involve the use of written language, spoken language and others.

The choice- the story of an hour

After careful and rigorous comparisons of both stories, I decided to choice "the story of an hour" as my favourite if given the opportunity to teach it in the class due to the following reasons which also will form the discussions within this context. There include;

The title:

The title of this story is quite enticing and attracted to the readers. Thus, it is well formulated so that the reader would get the idea of what he or she will be reading about the story which really attracts the reader's attention. However, the writer has also created some kind of suspense with the title of the story, leaving the readers to their imagination of what is expected form the entire or whole story. This is contrary with other story which seems very difficult to comprehend. It seems not to be encouraging to the intended readers. Because the title of "the story of an hour has created a suspense, every person would like to read it in order to find out what the story is all about. The title goes with the storyline, making the reader to imagine the nature and kind of the story envisaged.

The grammatical constructions and vocabulary usages:

The grammatical constructions in the story are well documented in terms of the content words or functional words which include; the nouns and the verbs. The lexical density of the words in the clause and sentence can also bear more witness to this. Some of the sentences or clauses have not less than twelve content words which imply that there also twelve content words in the sentences. This is in consistent with Halliday (1985b), that a single clause should be able to contain a lexical density of twelve words. The grammatical usage seems very easy and simple for the students to understand when reading the story. This is bound to improve the student's grammatical knowledge and usage; students improve their grammatical knowledge in this respect, hence, the need for choosing this story. Although, the "Tell-Tale heart story" is also rich in grammar, however, the grammar constructions might be too advanced for the student to comprehend, thus, making it difficult for the students to effectively comprehend the story. Therefore, there is need to choose a story that students could comprehend faster and easier.

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Within this context, is the issue of vocabulary. Although, the two stories are very rich in vocabulary, however, the vocabularies in "the story of an hour" seems more easier to understand in terms of their context usage. Thus, making for easier understanding. The vocabularies are not much in numbers, this means that both the teacher and the students does not need to visit dictionary for many times before they can understand some of the vocabularies. On the contrary, the "story of the tell-tall-heart" has a lot of vocabularies which numbers up to thirty-three (33) and they seem very hard to understand in line their context usage. Again, some of these vocabularies seem to be more connotations in meaning than denotation in meaning. For instance, the word "vexed" was used in the denotation to meaning "disturb". This is totally different for its dictionary meaning of being "angry". This in no doubt could impose the problem of understanding to both teacher and the students when reading this story. It is practically reasonable that a teacher will prefer to teach those things that would not prove difficult to him in the course of teaching and explaining them to the students.

The messages and themes:

For every story, there must be a lesson to learn which in literature we called it a "theme" while ordinarily, it is called "message or lesson". A cross examination of both stories will reveal that "the story of an hour" has provided a very good and positive theme which is capable to impacting knowledge to the students. One of the themes in this story is about "love". The story has shown how Mrs. Mallard love her husband to the extent that she died on hearing the news of her husband even though the husband is not actually died. A love story could impact on the students more unlike the story of the "tell-tale heart" which the theme can be traced to the "Killing". This kind of theme may not impact the students positively. Therefore, they need not to be taught in the class because it could influence the students to cultivate or start to nurse the habit of killing. It is presently believe that students (most especially the primary and the secondary school students) nowadays are very quick in learning negative things. We must guide them against this act by avoiding teaching all sorts of things that could negatively influence them such as killing.

Furthermore, another theme one that influences my choice of the story of an hour is "caring". One can see a lot of caring showered on Mrs. Mallard by both her sister, Josephine and her husband friend, Richard during her trial period most especially when she received the news of her husband death even if the husband was not yet dead. They took a great care in announcing the news to her bearing in mind that she was suffering from a heart trouble. As the writer explained that they told her in a broken sentence that is, gently and softly manner in order not to hurt her so much or cause her sudden death. In deed, students would learn how to care for a sick person and how to relate with a sick person especially when breaking news that could hurt or cause someone to die. On the contrary, the story of the tell-tale heart never showed anything like caring. In stead, it emphasized on how to be "nervous and non-passionate". Although, he was nervous and claimed to love the old man yet he decided to kill the old man for unjust reason. Thus, a clear case of deception which may not be a good thing to teach students. On the other hand, students should be taught how to be bold, courageous and passionate most especially to the elderly or aged ones like the old man in the story of the tell-tale heart.

Writing style:

The writing style in "the story of an hour" could be better described in the following words, very simple, understandable, precise and concise. First, taking a critical look at the sentence will reveal to you how the writer tried as much as possible to present his story in a very simple manner with the use of both simple and compound sentences. A simple sentence has to deal with group of words that consist of one finite verb. For instance, consider the sentence "Richard was too late" and on the other hand, compound sentence which contain more than two finite verbs, consider the second paragraph of the of the story, "it was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentences, veiled hints that revealed in half concealing". These word are well coordinated with the help of the coordinative conjunctions "and, comma but, and yet" therefore making the story more interesting for the readers.

Furthermore, the simple manner in which the story is being presented has really created room for readers to understand the story at easy without much difficulty. The use of simple sentences and literally words added advantage while I have choice this story for a class teaching. The students will be able to understand and digest the story very well and can also recall the story in their memories anytime, any day. Looking at it fro the students' perspective, students would not want to read stories that could present them with much difficulty in understanding. Thus, need for more simplicity in writing story that students formed majority of the readers or audience, unlike the other story which did not put the various readers into consideration. Even, narrating the story in first (1st) case has created the problem of understanding to the readers.

The use of literary words in describing thing:

The writer of this story is very conversant with literature. He tried as much as possible to describe things in way that the readers will be able to understand better. This literally usage of words could not be found in the other story. Most of these literally words include; personification, euphemism and other. For instance, the writer in describing the breeze or wind caused by the rain, referred to it as "the delicious breath of the rain was in the air", this is what is called "personification" in literature. It is used in when one tries to transfer life qualities or attribute to non-living things or inanimate objects. The use of this kind of literally word add more beauty to the story and thus, helps and build students on the usage of literally word most especially in describing things. Secondly, the phrase "patches of blue sky" was also used to describe how the cloud has met and piled above the other in the west which was facing the window of Mrs. Mallard. This is also another personification. There is no way the sky could get patches yet it was described and portrayed as having patches which is caused by the cloud. Another literally phrase used in this context is "oxymoron", this word is present two words or statements that seems contradicting to each other. The essence of using this word is just to lighten the effect of such statement. For instance, the writer describes the death of Mrs. Mallard as being killed by a "disease of joy that kills". These literally words are very crucial in describing places, things and objects most especially when writing descriptive and narrative essays.

Conclusively, a teacher one should bear in mind that not everything is good for students consumption most especially when it has to deal with those things that would negatively influence their mind or thinking. Again, in teaching, one should look at for those stories from writer or authors that always have their readers in mind in terms of the grammatical construction, vocabulary, theme, literally usage of words etc when writing their stories.

Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos: A crisis of Modern Intellect (1st)

From inception, science has really helped and contributed to human life in various aspects through its various theories, premises and principles. For instance, this study noted that science has contributed in the creation of dynamos and X-rays, which have been known to be very helpful to human kind. However, the controversies and disagreements in science from the beginning have created doubts in the mind of people. Thus, making people to question some of the rationales behind some science theories and models. For instance, the author has argued that the arguments among the scientists coupled with the rationalities have led to debatable issues among people. These have raised several questions, for example they wonder whether science laws and theories could chiefly articulate the peculiar interests and extra-science beliefs of scientists, or are they just describing reality with regard to firmly empirical facts?

Some scientists are of the view that science is just a matter of instrumentalism. Thus, creating argument between conventionalism and science reality. This is what the author named as embarrassment in the field of science. Science seem to claimed truth, however, its theories and laws are being considered as a mere instrumental most especially in the manipulation of technology in terms of nature which has been regard as tools that are no more relevant in the describing nature when compare with the way pipewrench could describe nature.

Although, science is important, however, we must seriously consider the traditional modern worldview in doing things as suggested by Kuhn. Kuhn has argued that if we adopt this means, it will help people to discover and expose the embarrassments and inadequacies of the modern science, its rationalism and the unreality of the modern nation of a purely logico-emipircal or autonomous, philosophy-free science even it produces some consequences yet its consequences will produce a very good result most especially in demarcating humans from other animals.

Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos: A crisis of Modern Intellect (2nd)

The whole issue here is, "how truth is science answers in terms of its theories and laws"? In the olden days people strongly believe that science truth is final. One of the scientists according to this article has reported that from time in memorial, both scientists and laypeople have treated science law and theories as a settled truth and which have been finally proven. However, when one compares the truth of science and other fields like philosophy and theology, one wonders what kind of truth science tends to produce? For instance, philosophy and theology truth are based deductive and which is then supported by authority and or faith form their premises. However, this in contradicting with the science which its theories and laws seem to base its truth from what we called empirical facts which in no doubt seem to describe things in reality yet they are argued to be an instrument of truth manipulations.

Science has been noted to aim towards changing human natural way of thinking and doing things, that is, conventionalism. Thus, creating different between conventionalism and science empirical observation. Based on this, it therefore argued in this article that science theories and laws were accepted by agreement. It is further argued that since science uses inductive means to achieve its claims, its claims are justifiable based on the fact that a common sense or elementary logic shows that a singular statement that is based on observation can no where justify universal statements. It is argued that universal science' theories are not inductive hence they are regarded as a hypotheses, thus cannot never authenticate theories since they deal with testing. However, tests are argued to only falsify theories. Therefore, science cannot produce finally truth, however if it does, it is only by means of bold conjecture and self-criticism which the truth of its theories are nearly approximated to the truth.

Conclusively, science reality should be differentiated from the conventionalism of nature.

The Information Content of Annual Earnings Accouchements

So many problems and challenges have befalling accounting profession in the past as well as in the result time. For instance, the issue of information content which has however, create the controversial problem of measurement. The author of this article has argued that the issue of information content with respect to earnings has been one of the most important and vocal points of accounting problem and challenges which needed to be addressed. Based on this, the author defined information content as "as a change in expectations about the outcome of the event". Therefore, information is not only indicating change but also the change should be sufficient enough that is big enough to justify or account for the change in the decision -makers' behaviours.

In accounting profession, it is argue that earning should have information content. For instance, the author claimed with empirical evidence that t most times earnings have been adjusted in an accounting report. However, he opinioned that even if earnings is to be adjusted for measurement errors purpose, it should be done via instrumental variables, this is due to the fact that the adjustment earnings are very vital in predicting or forecasting the market value of electric utility firms. Thus, it is regarded as the most essential explanatory variable in the equation model in which he used in his study. This article also noted the relationship between price and volume tests. The article noted that the important distinction between both concepts is that price indicate expected change in the market while volume indicate expected change in individual investor.

Furthermore, the study shown that reported earnings which are associated with notable events that are perceived by the investor affect the market price. However, due to limitations and constraints within the context of this study, is suggested among others that its methodology should be apply to other types of new areas.

An Empirical Evaluation of Accounting Income Numbers

The argument in the accounting field has been that of using a particular model in the evaluation and assessment of accounting practices. This has led to a total disagreement among the accounting theorist most especially when using the method to compare the current practices with the preferable practices the model indicated. This model has be argued to be ineffective and not suitable enough to justify the evaluation of the accounting practices usefulness. For instance, the author has reported that the model that does not recognize the essential source of knowledge of the world. For example, the degree to which the predictions of the model agree with the observed behaviour.

Again, some accounting concepts seem to lack a substantial definition. Thus, they become meaningless and therefore impose doubt when trying to utilize them. The development of accounting practices which are aimed at dealing with new issues that are currently arising is another challenge in this regard. The issue has become worst because, the accounting profession has be perceived no to have a common theoretical framework, therefore, giving room for a lot discrepancies with regard to the accounting practices. For instance, the issue such as; consolidations, leases, charges, taxation and others have long become problem areas in the accounting field. Therefore, resolving this problem of differences involves the development of a common or embracing theoretical framework. However, the major issue is that of the inability of the analytical model to assess the significance of departures from its implied measurement.

In conclusion, the accounting profession should endeavour to find an agreed analytical model can be use to evaluate the usefulness of existing accounting concept such as income numbers which this article dwells on. If this is done the objective of this article will be achieved.

Individual Project:

Full bibliographic reference:

Article Title: Company Law Reform in Malaysia: The Role and Duties of Directors

Researchers: Mohammad Rizal Salim- is a lecturer in Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham Malaysia campus

Publisher: International Company and Commercial Law Review

No: 142

Year: 2009

Paper Type: Conceptual/theoretical paper

Brief Summary:

This article focuses on the law reform in Malaysia which was published in the news paper and it reads- The Amendment Act does appear to be that - a turning point in company law in Malaysia. He asserted that it was a turning point because "It has 24 sections and covers wide areas of company law. It clarifies the role of the board; codifies the common law principles on directors' duties; introduces a business judgment rule, a statutory derivative action, new provisions on the role of auditors and a provision allowing the court to grant injunctions; reforms the law on related party transactions, imposes a duty on directors of public companies to place a system of internal control, provides protection for whistle-blowers; and updates the rules on meetings of members". The article further indicated both the strengths and weaknesses of the Amendment Acts.


Finding- this study found that their SD model which they presented in this study has high ''face validity'' with the existing ones and this is because their model is developed based on the accepted framework for overlapped product development. Secondly, they also found that overlapping interrelated activities based on preliminary information can be costly and can still be applicable in overlapped iterative product development:

Conclusion: The study concluded that the overlapping policies are significantly affected by project uncertainty. However, different overlapping strategies can be applied for the projects with different uncertainty levels. In addition to that, they also noted that the total amount of downstream rework can be reduced by increasing evolution speed, which is achieved through increasing testing rate in our case.

Contribution: the introduction of new technologies and/or new machines which the researchers have claimed that it can help to reduce the time required to complete various development activities and reduce the probability of making errors. Secondly, they authors contributed by presenting a new product development process model. This model will help in reducing the production time cycle and equally reduces cost of production.

Furthermore, this article has discussed extensively with regard to its domain. It has been able to cover all relevant areas of the domain. For instance, the review of all the necessary past theories and models in the field gave further impetus for the authors to develop their model in this study. Examples of these past models include the following; CPM, PERT, Design structure matrix (DSM), DSM-based simulation model by Browning and Eppinger (2002) and many others. Again, in the cause of this research new issues were identified. For instance, the authors were able to identify the issue of effective resources allocation which their study did not included in their model. Thus, the issue identified has formed the bases for a further research in this field.

Apart from all these above, the study has also provided more insight in the domain. For instance, the extension of past models and the development of new product development (NPD) process model which is called Dynamic Development Process Model (DDPM), for managing overlapped iterative product development which was used to solve the case study company problems.

Foundation: the whole concept in this paper is built on Design structure matrix (DSM). Although, it all started with CPM/PERT (these two concepts are used to review and evaluate projects) which formed the original and initial foundation upon which DSM was build, from there DSM was then build (Browning and Eppinger (2002), Smith and Eppinger (1997). However, the foundation of this study under review is specifically build on DSM which tallied with the topic of the study. DSM is used to describe rework probabilities and task durations as noted by the study.

Having laid the foundation, the present study then used it develop a new product development model which they also called or termed Dynamic Development Process Model (DDPM), for managing overlapped iterative product development. The developed model shows and describes where downstream activities may discover upstream errors and give feedback to the corresponding activities unlike the previous researches where the upstream activities are independent on the downstream activities. Therefore, the extension from sequential to iterative process makes it possible to simulate and study the effect of overlapping for complex development projects.

Analysis with Additional Analysis: the applicability of the results and findings of this study as well as the model be developed is still very valid. For instance, the developed model was able to solve the problem face by the case study company. The said model provided the management of the company with a useful tool to predict the effect of different overlapping policies on project performance for overlapped iterative product development. Additionally, it also provides a way for the company to evaluate their possibly substantial capital investments by estimating the resulting improvement of project performance.

General Critique: the authors of this article have done very well in this paper. They were able to follow their research approach in a chronological order. The foundation upon which the whole research idea is built upon is very appropriate. This is consistence with other previous research work done by other researchers in this field. Again, the validating of their data and model with other research work is also an evidence of a good research work. The approach chosen by the authors of these researchers is in line with the research objective. This has contributed to researchers' good findings and result which in turn has helped the company to solve their problem.

Issues: within the context of this topic, four issues will be presented and briefly discussed;

Authors' Issues: in the context of this, two issues are x-rayed. First, is the issue of resources allocation of development process which the authors have raised in the concluding part of this study. The study has noted the difficulty in the effective resources allocation of manpower and equipment due to the complexity of overlapped product development process. Therefore, the analysis of resources allocation was not included in the model of this study. Hence, it has been suggested by the authors that in solving this problem or issue, subsequent research should design a model that will include and take care of resources allocation that is a model should be further developed to analyze resource allocation policies for overlapped iterative NPD projects.

The second issue is the ability of the developed model by the authors to solve multiple cases of this nature. The model in the study cannot able applicable in managing multiple projects which the authors have also acknowledged. Therefore, there is need to extend the model in this study in order to explore suitable policies for managing multiple projects since it has become more and more important.

Issue (My Opinion): my opinion is based on the review of this article. One of the major issues left to be solved in this field is the lack of tools to study and analysis overlapped iterative product development process. The authors of this article were faced with a lot of challenges in the cause of this research. For instance, the inability of the researchers to include and analysed resources allocation in the developed model of the study.

Secondly, because the research is just a case study of a company, therefore, the findings and as well as the results obtained cannot be generalized. Thus, the problem of scope of study is being created. I therefore suggest that there is a need to enlarge the scope of this study in order to test the applicability of the new developed model called Dynamic Development Process Model (DDPM) and to also see if the same results can be obtained. In addition to this, there is a need to extend this study which the authors have also noted. They suggested that there is need for future research in order to test the broader application of the DDPM by applying it to other overlapped iterative NPD projects. They asserted that such tests will provide a basis for the abstraction of more general dynamic lessons for development process improvement.