Taxation case study

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The UK tax environments and different types of taxes in that environment.

Tax is a mandatory money related sources for the individuals living in a nation or area, forced by the administration or the lawful authorisation of government for any inception of pay. The duty gathered from open serves to create open consumptions and in financial choices to lead a country. Expense is used for people in general welfare exercises in a nation, for example, health awareness, instructions, foundation and barrier service.

In the UK the expense comprises of legacy assessment, committee charge, pay duty, and worth included expense (VAT), enterprise levy and capital additions tariff. It has different guidelines and regulation in connection to assessment estimation. There are additionally diverse principles of the individuals who are not occupant of the UK for duty purposes. HMRC gathers all assessments from UK residents and conceding to the accumulation the Chancellor gives a financial plan so as to clarify further use of expense cash and future assessment rate for the next monetary year.

Purposes of Taxation

  • To enhance the revenues for public usage
  • In order to stabilize the price and improve production
  • It's an instrument to control fiscal policies
  • It regulates inflation, interest rate, prices and credits.

Types of Taxes

UK residents need to yield a few sorts of income upgrades. A few expenses are paid all the time, which are wage duty and chamber expense. Different duties are VAT, legacy charge, capital addition duty is typically paid one time. All salary charge, partnership charge & national protection are all expense, pay charges where as legacy duty & capital additions assessment are capital expenses.

Income Tax: Though all salaries, (for example, Non-Savings, Income, Savings & Dividend) are assessable, yet the assessable salary needs to be over a certain level and the individual may likewise be qualified for individual modification and assessment help. Salary incorporates income from business, self- work, occupation, enthusiasm on bank accounts, and wage from the administrator. Everybody is given an assessment free recompense and duty are registered on the assessable pay along these lines not having somebody pay more expenses.

Corporation Tax: The company duty is charged on worldwide net of UK inhabitant organizations, unincorporated companied or open companies, however, organizations not occupant in the UK pay enterprise charge just on their UK profit. It is ascertained from exchanging venture and capital increments, less diverse conclusions.

Capital Gain Tax (CGT): Tax picked up from capital is known as capital additions charge. In the event that a man offers his/her advantages or doles it out the benefit made is burdened, however, not charge on individual trappings sold worth £6,000/less, on the off chance that its individual's primary home, auto, ISAs, PEPs, UK Government bonds, pools, lottery or better winning. CGT may be expected to be paid if the individual offers, doles out or trade a benefit or some piece of an advantage, get cash from a benefit, for example, remuneration for harm resource. In the event that the individual bites the dust and leaves their assets to their recipient, there may be no CGT notwithstanding, if that benefit is arranged later by the recipient any CGT may be charged in light of the distinction in business esteem at the time of death at the time of transfer.

Value Added Tax (VAT): VAT is a circuitous duty that is charged for the merchandise or administrations acquired. Each nation sets its own VAT rate where as in the UK there are three sorts one being standard rate of 20% for most exhausted products & administrations, decreased rate 5% to necessities e.g. child milk powder and 0% of those merchandise in which VAT is not charged at all e.g. handicapped individual's gear. .

Council Tax: Council expense is charged on all household properties, for example, houses, homes, pads, trailers by nearby committees whether you possess them or have leased for settlement. Chamber expense varies from property to property in light of the fact that this assessment is charged into view of the size and cost of the property. In any case individuals living in their own particular house are qualified for a solitary individual's markdown whilst living with youngsters less than 18 years old and retired people/crippled are likewise qualified for refunds.

Inheritance Tax: Tax paid for a man's domain (it is everything the individual claims at the time of his/her demise less the obligations owed). Duty might likewise be payable for those advantages doled out in the individual's lifetime, for example, property, belonging, cash and speculations. Legacy assessment of 40%is connected to the bequest in the event that it is over £325,000 however 36% may be connected if more than 10% of the domain is left to philanthropy. In any case, if the home goes to your husband/wife/common association/both assessments will be exempted, also, if the exchanges/most endowments are made over seven years prior to death like wedding blessings/expectation endowments/endowments to philanthropy estimation of £5,000/£3000 doled out every year will like.

UK Tax Environments

Economic Factors: The UK governments’ tax representations and expenditure, along with public sectors borrowing policies can affect the economic activity of UK government. The government prefers to prepare long term programs and allocate all resources for use in individual sectors and government sectors. Whatever alteration in level of demand may impact on employment, development and lucrativeness.

Social Factors: Social justice or injustice lies in political improvisations of the country’s riches. Different taxes have different social effects.

  • Direct taxes are charged on income & profits, CGT, inheritance, property and all those who own these resources
  • Indirect taxes are paid by all consumers discouraging spending and encouraged on savings.
  • Progressive taxes are when income/gains increases more tax and are targeted for those who can afford to compensate.
  • Taxes ensure people do not hold out on zero income but by selling capital assets.

Environmental Factors: Taxation slowly trying to adapt the environmental concerns. Such as the climate change levy, which is promoted to reduce consumption of energy, the landfill tax levied to promote recycling by taxing waste & the changes to the regulations on the lease/purchase of cars to encourage the manufacture and purchase of low emission caused by driving.

Overall Structure of UK Tax System

In the UK the Chancellor of the Exchequer deals with the treasury. The HMRC representatives are named as officers of income & traditions and they manage the self appraisal framework and duty liabilities. The other party is known as receivable administration officers who get charged from individuals.

Expense claims are heard by assessment tribunal that is developed of two evaluations. The principal level tribunal manages ordinary cases and the upper tire tribunal manages complex cases.

The UK has gone into twofold assessment arrangements with a few countries. Under this administer the masses who are not inhabitant of the UK need to pay charge two times more than national of the UK, however there an example to get exempted from twofold tariff arrangements.

Different Sources of Revenue Law

  • Statement of practice: intention to set & apply the jurisprudence.
  • Extra statutory concessions: sets out circumstantially and does not enforce the rigid letter of the jurisprudence.
  • Explanatory leaflets: Leaflets of tax data
  • Business economic notes: Type of business information on HMRC notes
  • Revenue & customs brief: HMRC’s specific viewpoints
  • Internal Guidance: Manual used by HMRC staff
  • Tax practitioners working in concert

The major responsibilities and the critical obligations of tax practitioner.

Role & Responsibilities of Tax Practitioner

  • Tax Payer: The individual who will repay the tariff according to his/her acquiring to the correct org. They are entirely bound to pay impose by keeping off any expense avoidance/evasion.
  • Accountant: They are agents of tax payers. Therefore, they are meant to be extremely ethical and careful to estimate taxes.
  • Tax Practitioner: They deal with HMRC on behalf of the customer in regards to taxation or revenue laws.

Tax Payers Obligations

  • All persons who are tax payers will follow the laws & tax acts.
  • All persons who are eligible as taxpayers must be registered under obligation to register.
  • Every taxpayer must pay tax in time or before the due date
  • Every taxpayer’s obligation is to ensure that all information is true, reliable, confidential and totally in accordance with tax acts.
  • Taxpayers will maintain professional behaviour, integrity and honesty in all aspects.

Guidance to Mr. Abid as to how he may be affected by the UK tax environment with some specific recommendations relating to his entitlement, exemption and obligations for tax.

Mr. Abid is a self employed in Bangladesh. Therefore, he is eligible to pay income tax on his income for this business in Bangladesh.

Ms. Narida is a UK occupant and possesses a business in the UK. Thusly, she is qualified to be burdened as an occupant in the UK for every monetary year taking into account your salary level. She additionally pays city taxes in the house for a long time while living with his mother. Mr Abid likewise works together alongside his wife in the UK with what he qualified to pay assess on benefits made in the UK to the duty prevailing voices in the UK.

For this situation Narida gave a house eight years prior to Abid whose business cost was £ 310,000 for her wedding, which made him qualified to pay charges, however, since it is not exactly £ 325,000 so the 40% duty does not matter as legacy, yet Abid can not guarantee exception from 5,000 given pounds away every year.

In the event that Abid lives forever in the UK, then he needs to pay charges to pay (every monetary year) in the UK and Bangladesh, Inheritance assess in the house and live in the house he needs to pay metropolitan charges yet in the event that you offer the house you must pay impose on the capital increase.

Recommendation: Abid is non-inhabitant in the UK so he will be under twofold expense bargains because of his business in 2 nations so he ought to apply exception rules when documenting in UK government form.

Abid can lease a house to live by paying committee impose yet in the event that he acquires the house he will likewise need to pay legacy assess, however, he was decrease charge by asserting some exclusion as it being a wedding blessing.


  • Tax Noncompliance: Tax noncompliance is tax payers’ actions on tax payment intentionally or unintentionally.
  • Tax Avoidance: Traditional method for discovering escape clauses in HMRC tax tenets to utilize it to lessen charge with full revelation commitment and assessment shirking plans.
  • Tax Evasion: They do it either by stifling data which they are entitled or give false data which may prompt minor cases or criminal arraignments.

Case (a): Tanzila received property income of £ 5000 but accidentally entered the figure on her tax return as £ 500.

She makes an exclusion slip to compose the right sum. Rather than £5,000 she composed £5,00 which is a distortion, yet not deliberately done in which she has not announced £4,500. This is an acceptable instance of assessment evasion. Tanzila made a slip in her assessment discount yet she may have done it purposefully or unexpectedly.

Recommendation: Tanzila is encouraged to fill an assessment evasion structure in HMRC site with the goal that Tanzila is not profoundly for her distortion and fill whatever remains of £4,500.

Case (b): Mitu received property income of £ 7000 and deliberately declared £ 5000 on her tax return.

Mitu has proclaimed her pay £5,000 rather than £7,000 deliberately decreasing it by £2,000 in her assessment form paper to lessen her duty. This is an assessment, avoidance in which the citizens proclaim false sum energetically in expense form. According to tax law, tax evasion is a crime and highly punishable.

Recommendation: Mitu is encouraged to completely proclaim her wage and attempt to look for exceptions legitimately instead of infringe upon the law.


  1. BPP Publishers. 2009. ACCA F6 Taxation UK. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 28 January 15].


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