MPU3173System and the administration structure of Malaysia
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories and has a total landmass of 329,847 square kilometers separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia.
The aim of this report was to talking about the system and the administration structure of Malaysia. Firstly, we will introduce the history of the nation. Secondly, we will expound the system and administration structure of Malaysia. Then we will discuss Malaysia’s role and contribution at the world level. And finally, discuss the differences and resemblances in system and the administration structure between China and Malaysia to understand these two countries well.
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Malaysia is a country in South East Asia whose strategic sea-lane position brought trade and foreign influences that fundamentally influenced its history. Hindu and Buddhist cultures imported from India dominated early Malaysian history. They reached their peak in the Sumatran-based Srivijaya civilisation, whose influence extended through Sumatra, Java, the Malay Peninsula and much of Borneo from the 7th to the 14th centuries.
Although Muslims had passed through Malaysia as early as the 10th century, it was not until the 14th and 15th centuries that Islam first established itself on the Malay Peninsula. The adoption of Islam by the 15th century saw the rise of number sultanates, the most prominent of which was the Melaka (Malacca). Islamic culture has had a profound influence on the Malay people, but has also been influenced by them.
The Portuguese were the first European colonial powers to establish themselves in Malaysia, capturing Malacca in 1511, followed by the Dutch. However, it was the British, who after initially establishing bases at Jesselton, Kuching, Penang, and Singapore, ultimately secured their hegemony across the territory that is now Malaysia. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 defined the boundaries between British Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies (which became Indonesia). A fourth phase of foreign influence was immigration of Chinese and Indian workers to meet the needs of the colonial economy created by the British in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Japanese invasion during World War II ended British domination in Malaysia. The subsequent occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak from 1942 to 1945 unleashed nationalism.
In the Peninsula, the Malayan Communist Party took up arms against the British. A tough military response was needed to end the insurgency and bring about the establishment of an independent, multi-racial Federation of Malaya in 1957. On 31 August 1963, the British territories in North Borneo and Singapore were granted independence and formed Malaysia with the Peninsular states on 16 September 1963. Approximately two years later, the Malaysian parliament passed a bill to separate Singapore from the Federation. A confrontation with Indonesia occurred in the early-1960s.
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Race riots in 1969 led to the imposition of emergency rule, and a curtailment of political life and civil liberties which has never been fully reversed. Since 1970 the "National Front coalition" headed by United Malays National Organization (UMNO) has governed Malaysia. Economic growth dramatically increased living standards by the 1990s. This growing prosperity helped minimize political discontent.
Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy country Constitutional monarchy (constitutional monarchy divided into monarchy and parliamentary monarchy, parliamentary monarchy belongs to Malaysia). Due to historical reasons, Sarawak and Sabah states have greater autonomy. Malaysia's head of state called the Supreme Head of State, while the largest party in the House of Commons by the government or coalition composed of leaders is the Prime Minister. Its political system is inherited from the British Westminster system.
Malaysia was the largest producer of tin, rubber and palm oil in the world at one time. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy. Malaysia is the world's largest Islamic banking and financial center. In 2012, the economy of Malaysia was the third largest economy in South East Asia behind more populous Indonesia and Thailand and 29th largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity with gross domestic product stands at US$492.4 billion and per capita US$16,922. As one of three countries that control the Strait of Malacca, international trade plays a large role in its economy.
Malaysian society welfare keeps increasing these years. With its highly developed sense of family and clan responsibility, the government has generally encouraged volunteer social welfare activities and has subsidized programs of private groups. The government's program of public assistance takes the form of cash, commodities, and institutional care. Children's services provide case-work services and administer children's homes. A probation service provides care and assistance for juvenile delinquents and dependents, and a handicapped persons' service aids the deaf, mute, and blind. In addition, care is provided for the aged and chronically ill.
A provident fund has provided lump-sum benefits for old age, disability, and death. Pensions are funded by 11% contributions of earnings by workers, and 12% of payroll by employers. The retirement age is 55. Work injury insurance and disability pensions to low-income workers is available, with a special system for public employees.
BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT
Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures. The bicameral parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives or dewan Negara (literally the “Chamber of the Nation”). All seventy Senate members sit for three-year terms (to a maximum of two terms); twenty-six are elected by the thirteen state assemblies and forty-four are appointed by the king based on the advice of the Prime Minister. Parliament has a maximum mandate of five years by law. The king may dissolve parliament at any time, and usually does so upon the advice of the Prime Minister. General elections must be held within sivty days of the dissolution of parliament. I practice, this has meant that elections have been held every three to five years at the discretion of the Prime Minister.
Legislative power divided between federal and state legislatures. Malaysia has two sources of law. The national constitution, the nation’s supreme law, can be amended by a tow-thirds majority in parliament. (Since its formation, the VN has never lacked the necessary two0thirds until 2008”s General Election) The second source of law is syariah (islamic law), which applies only to Muslims. Ther federal government has little input into the administration of syariah; it falls to the states to implement Islamic law, and interpretations vary from state to state. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the governing body is elected through a first-past-the post system.
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Executive power is vested in the cabinet led by the Prime Minister, the Malaysian constitution stipulates that the prime minister must be a member of the Lower House of parliament who, in the opinion of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (YDPA), commands a majority in parliament. The cabinet is chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and is responsible to that body.
The executive branch of the government consists of the Prime Minister as the head of the government, followed by the various ministers of the Cabinet. Strictly speaking, the Executive branch does not have the right to intervene in the Legislative or Judicial branches of the state. This is to ensure that the principle of separation of power is adhered to, as guaranteed by Article 127 of the Federal Constitution.
The judiciary is theoretically independent of the executive and the legislature, although supporters of the government hold many judicial positions. The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court, followed by he Court of Appeal, and two High Courts, one for Peninsular Malaysia, and one for East Malaysia. The subordinate courts in each of these jurisdictions include Sessions Courts, Magistrates’Courts, and courts for Children. Malaysia also has a Special Court to hear cases brought by or against all Royalty.
There is also a Special Court, established in 1993 to hear cases brought by or against Ruler. Before its establishment, Rulers were immune from any proceedings brought against them in their personal capacity. Rulers include the Yang di-Petuan Agong, and the heads of state of Malaysia’s component states.
Separate from the civil courts are the Syariah Courts, which decide on cases which involve Malaysian Muslims. These courts run parallel to the normal court system, and are undergoing reforms that include the first ever appointment of female judges. Debate exists in Malaysian over whether the country should be secular of Islamic. Some state governments controlled by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, including that of Terengganu, have passed Islamic laws, but these have not gone into effect due to opposition from the federal government.
The struggle for independence
Malaysia was ruled by foreign powers for about 446 years. The struggle for independence can be divided into two stages.
The first stage is the armed or “bloody” stage. The second stage is the struggle without bloodshed, through literature and then negotiations.
British returned to Malaya in September 1945. To restore peace, the British military administration (BMA) was established. British proposed a new system of administration known as the Malayan union.
The Malays opposed the Malayan union because of:-
1.The granting of citizenship to the non-Malays.
2.Erosion of Malay rulers; power and sovereignty.
3.Mac Michael’s threats in getting the rulers to sign the agreement.
The Malayan Union’s failure has five factors.
1.Strong opposition from the Malays
2.No strong support from the non-Malays.
5.Opposition from formed British.
The federation of Malaya establish on 1 Feb 1948.
UMNO’s claims had been recognized.
The features of PTM:
1.Comprised nine Malay states together with Malacca and Penang Island and led by British high commissioner.
2.Singapore was excluded.
3.The legislative council and the federal executive council assisted the high commissioner.
4.The Malay rulers were returned their rights.
5.The state government had the right and responsibility.
6.The administration of PP and Malacca came under a resident commissioner.
7.Special rights of the Malays were recognized.
8.Condition of citizenship because more strict.
Proclamation of independence
31 August 1957 at Selangor club, the union Jack (British flag) was brought down and jalur gemilang was flown. The official signing of the declaration of independence took place in Merdeka Stadium. Federation’s first cabinet of minister was announced together with the appointment of Tunku Abdul Rahman as the first prime minister. Tuanku Adbul Rahman (Negeri Sembilan) was chosen the first Yang Dipertuan Agong of the federation of Malaya.
This report was conducted by data collection. Data came from professional literature and official websites. We checked out the data carefully to make sure we could get correct results. No unreliable information was used. Analysis was based on objective reality without any personal views.
Over the years, Malaysia has developed a range of innovative financial instruments to meet both its specific needs as well as in the context of changing global environment. These instruments have enhanced and enriched the economic arsenal of developing countries in bringing about structural changes in their economies, without being unduly dependent on the text book models of western economists.
Here are a few of the major financial instruments that Malaysia has developed.
New Economic Policy
The objective of the New Economic Policy (NEP) was to reduce poverty of race and to enhance the economic well-being of the Bumiputras in the context of an expanding. This concept of development where growth is linked to distribution in an optimal fashion could be very useful to countries with a multi-racial population, made up of indigenous and immigrant population.
Bilateral Payments Assignment
Malaysia developed the bilateral payments arrangement as an instrument to promote its trade with developing countries. Other developing countries can use this instrument to reduce their dependence on the western developed countries.
Selective exchange control regime
The selective exchange control measures, stands out as the most significant new and innovative financial instrument in the range of instruments that Malaysia has developed over the years. It could turn out to be a very useful instrument for many countries, particularly developing countries, who want to ensure stability in their financial systems so that they can concentrate on growth.
China's political system is the system of people's congress. The people's Congress system is China's people of all ethnic groups in China under the leadership of the Communist Party, according to the principle of democratic centralism, elected by the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at all levels, and to the people's Congress as the basis, the establishment of all state institutions, realizing the people be in power system. The people's Congress system is China's people's political power construction experience and unique creation, is a product of Marx's state theory and combined with the condition of our country.
The people's Congress system is our country's regime, is China's fundamental political system, but also the basic form of our country be in power for the people. Adhering to and perfecting China's people's Congress system, we should proceed from the national conditions of our country, summarize the practical experience of my own, and at the same time, learn from the achievements of political civilization of mankind, but never copy the Western model of political system. To strengthen construction of system, the realization of the socialist democracy institutionalization, standardization and procedure.
China and Malaysia formally established diplomatic relations on May 31, 1970.As rising stars of developing countries all over the world. China and Malaysia have many common issues during development. Malaysia was one of the four tigers in 1990s when it has a high growth rate. And now, China developing in a high rate to be far ahead in the world at the present. How to keep native society stable and GDP growth rate increasing are our common issues. Both China and Malaysia should learn from each other’s development history for a nice future.
Jayum A. jawan (2002) politics and government in Malaysia. Shah alam: karisma publications.
Nazaruddin hj. Mohd jail et.al (2001) pengajian Malaysia , prentice hall: Selangor
Nazaruddin haji mohd jail, ma’rof redzuan, asnarulkhadi abu samah dan ismail hj mohd Rashid. (2004). Pengajian Malaysia : kengaraan dan kewarganegaraan. Edisi kedua. Petaling jaya. Prentice hall.
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