Social And Environmental Reporting Benefit Greater Stakeholder Inclusivity Accounting Essay

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INTRODUCTION

The field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has expanded significantly over the last decade both at the international and European level . More and more companies engage in serious efforts to define and integrate CSR into all aspects of their business. These efforts are supported by a growing number of evidence that proves that CSR has a positive impact on business economic performance. New voluntary standards and measurement tools of service are multiplied in number in parallel with the ongoing controversy about whether and how to standardize legal requirements for CSR from the business side. The interested parties now require from the company to apologize for its performance throughout the supply chain and for a set of issues of social responsibility. All the above take place in view of a complex global economy, where there are many social, economic and environmental injustices.

In the past, the value of a company was only based on its financial performance. The interested parties now begin to understand better how the way the operational behavior affects the social, political and natural environment. The consequence of this is a growing pressure from investors, consumers and employees to the businesses, to include social and ecological criteria when taking decisions.

CSR involves two basic ideas, the responsibility for reporting (accountability

and transparency. Conversely, different groups of stakeholders require from businesses to operate successfully in non-financial sectors, which include human rights, business ethics, environmental practices, corporate contributions, contribution to local community development, corporate governance and labor and discrimination issues. The social and environmental performance is considered now as most consistent with economic efficiency.

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rights at the international level, companies need to apologize for their actions and their impact. In addition, companies are expected to disclose and "communicate" their policies and practices, which affect employees, communities and the environment. In the global economy, the companies that meet the requirements of the participants, namely the stakeholders are more likely to achieve long-term financial performance.

CSR may be involved in every aspect of business activity. A company is considered a good corporate citizen when it demonstrates a sense of commitment to various stakeholders through socially responsible practices and transparent operations

DEFINITIONS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

At international level, many practitioners in CSR seek to define the CSR concept. One of the most important of them is World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), a coalition of 175 businesses, which share a common commitment to sustainable development through three pillars: economic growth, ecological balance and social progress. CSR is defined as the continued commitment by the company to behave ethically and contribute to economic development, whilst improving the quality of life of employees and their families, local community and society at a general level.

In addition, global non-profit organizations have been developed to promote the concept of corporate social responsibility by offering to their members (companies) information, tools, training, consulting services for the integration of CSR in their business operations and strategy.

A significant institution is the Business for Social Responsibility, according to which CSR seems to be the realization of commercial success in ways that honor ethical values ​​and respect people, communities and the natural environment. Through CSR, society address the legal, ethical, commercial and other expectations of the business and take decisions that fairly balance the interests of the interested parties. CSR answers why, when and how the company manages the social, environmental and economic objectives, performance and results, and the relationship among them.

In addition, CSR Wire reports that CSR aligns social values ​​with business activities. It focuses on social, environmental and financial performance, the so-called "triple basic principle". The aim is to make business success while having a positive impact on society.

Likewise, CSR Europe in an effort to strengthen CSR in companies to achieve profitability, sustainability and human development, points out that CSR concerns the way in which the firm improves its social and environmental impact, so it adds value both for shareholders and for the interested parties.

The European Commission in its Green Paper in July 2001 in an attempt to open a public debate and promote a European framework for CSR, describes it as a concept whereby companies integrate , on a voluntary basis, in their activities and contacts with interested parties, social values ​​and environmental worries. The Commission links CSR with the new strategic goal that was set in Lisbon for the current decade: to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable for sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.

From its part, the Economic and Social Committee (EESC), supports the European Commission. According to EESC, corporate social responsibility is a complex group of issues that must be addressed in different ways and at depth. The cultural specificities and the legal systems have a direct impact on its implementation. There are differences between geographic levels of action (local, national, European, global), among developing and industrialized countries, including large multinational companies, SMEs and small firms as well as among sectors. In addition, apart from the classic hierarchical structure within the company, there are new forms of structure and organization of work such as Listen

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part-time, telecommuting or online businesses. According to EESC, socially responsible action means that companies implement conscientiously the social rules and make efforts to build a spirit of cooperation. The voluntary decision by a company for taking action on CSR (whether this has to do with the adoption of a code of conduct or map or trademark) includes preparedness and commitment.

In conclusion, it is noticed that the concept of corporate social responsibility is associated with other considerations and concepts, a fact that facilitates its clarification. Such concepts are the approach of participants - stakeholders, business ethics, company culture, corporate governance and the status of corporate citizenship. As a new concept in the business reality, it has not yet acquired a specific, well-established definition.

In this paper, corporate social responsibility is defined as the permanent, ethical obligation of companies to combine their contribution to economic growth with the responsible use of environmental and social resources (quality of employees life, respect for human rights, participation in the development of the local community where they operate, protection of the natural environment, structure of consistent and responsible relationships with suppliers and the wider social contribution). Generally, CSR is the voluntary integration of social and environmental values ​​in business activities within the framework of transparency and reporting required by society for companies in the modern world.

DIMENSIONS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Initially, the concept of corporate social responsibility has its internal and external dimensions.

The first relates to intrabusiness environment and includes socially and environmentally responsible practices, the combination of which aims at improved competitiveness.

Socially responsible practices include:

• investment in human capital following policies of responsible recruitment, equal pay and stock options to employees, as well as a more diverse workforce to combat discrimination. Their goal is to ensure employability and work, reduce unemployment and combat social exclusion.

• The health and safety of workers with voluntary control systems and certification schemes of management systems. Having as criteria health and safety, general procurement systems were created, based on uniform requirements regarding training and management systems, implemented by the contractors in the health and safety issues at work. For example, the procurement system of the Danish Social Security provides guidelines that determine the prerequisites for bidding tenders for cleaning companies. In addition, these criteria are included in the existing certification and labelling for products and equipment such as the Swedish system TCO Labeling Scheme, which is a voluntary label for the security of office equipment.

• The management of change in the operational environment, which now encourages the involvement of all stakeholders by providing information and consultation. The restructuring in a socially responsible manner means that

the interests and concerns of all those affected by the changes and decisions are taken into consideration. At European level, this phenomenon that usually appears as a reduction in personnel or closure of a factory, is evident in many industries, including the industries of steel, coal and shipbuilding. Through CSR companies are responsible for ensuring the employability of their staff.

The environmentally responsible practices are included in practices and policies that seek to reduce resource consumption or pollutant emissions and waste aiming at reducing the environmental impact. In this area, the environmental investments are recognized as "double profit opportunities" for both the company and the environment.

Examples include the Integrated Product Policy, an approach that allows the government to work with companies and take into account the impact of products at all stages of their life cycle (introduction, growth, maturity, decline) and urges business and other stakeholders in dialogue to find an approach with the best cost - benefit analysis, having the effect of creating a strong framework for corporate social responsibility. In addition, EMAS ISO19000, a community management and control plan of the environment, which encourages companies to voluntarily set up management and control systems that promote continuous improvements in environmental performance. The environmental statement is public and validated by accredited environmental verifiers.

Regarding the second dimension (external), the corporate social responsibility of a business extends beyond the company to the local community and involves a wide range of stakeholders, including shareholders, business partners (suppliers, customers, consumers, contractors), public authorities and NGOs, representing local communities or dealing with the environment.

CSR is the integration of businesses in their local environment. The way they contribute to it is through job offers, salaries and social benefits. They are involved in community problems, support charity events, sponsor cultural and sporting events. In addition, the existence of interaction with the local environment leads them to a greater awareness of the environmental protection, since a cleaner environment can facilitate the process, or to attract more labour force.

Through close collaboration with business partners, companies can reduce complexity and costs while increasing quality. The creation of such relationships leads in the long term to long at a fair price, conditions and expectations, as well as to quality, reliable delivery or execution. CSR appears in business activities at the area where the business is located. It focuses on the CSR of its suppliers or the dissemination of CSR in small or new innovative companies locally (through venture capital).

Finally, as part of CSR, the companies must offer products and services that consumers need in an efficient, ethical and environmentally friendly way. The lasting relationships with customers lead to more profitable enterprises. An important example of CSR is the concept of planning for all, even for consumers with disabilities.

The external dimension of CSR is shown in the co-operation of the business with non-governmental organizations, trade unions and public authorities on matters of vital importance, such as respect for human and labor rights in international and global supply chains.

On the one hand, there are national, community, international laws and binding rules which provide minimum standards for all. On the other hand, there are voluntary codes of conduct, which are voluntary initiatives to complement and promote international labor standards for those who adopt them, as it happens in the various productive sectors (textile, apparel trade). The effectiveness of the latter depends on the proper implementation and verification and it should be based on ILO conventions (Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work) and OECD (Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises). The verification should be carried out based on defined standards that apply to organizations and individuals who carry the "social control".

TOOLS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

The growing interest of governments, society and the business world in the concept of CSR has led to a significant increase in the number of management tools, measurement, communication and rewards regarding the performance of corporate social responsibility. These institutions of CSR range from general guidelines and codes of conduct that set ambitious CSR principles, to complex management systems, control and communication tools or examination methodologies (filtration - screening) of investments. All these play a key role in providing guidance for sustainable operation, for proper quality management of the processes, systems and practices aiming at sustainable development.

SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE MANAGEMENT

It includes codes of conduct, management standards and reporting, which help the companies to integrate CSR principles ​​in their strategy and business operations by offering principles, sets of procedures, implementation steps, indicators and methods of measurement, evaluation and reporting.

The codes of conduct are innovative and important tools for the promotion of fundamental human, labor and environmental rights, as well as for practices against corruption, particularly in countries where governments fail to reinforce such standards. They are an official statement of the principles ​​and business practices of a company, they express statements of minimum standards and a promise of the company to maintain them and demand them from contractors, subcontractors, suppliers and recipients to apply them as well.

Some examples are:

Intergovernmental Authorities

• ILO - Tripartite declaration of principles concerning multinational enterprises and social policy.

• ILO - Declaration on fundamental principles and rights at work.

• OECD - Guidelines for multinational enterprises (MNEs)).

• United Nations - Draft guidelines for companies.

Multilateral Codes of Conduct

• Ethical Trading Initiative.

• Voluntary principles on security and human rights for the extractive sector.

Model Codes of Conduct designed by NGOs, trade unions and other organizations

• Amnesty International - Amnesty International human rights principles for companies.

• United Nations - UN global compact.

The management standards are a set of frameworks, processes and practices for quality, environment, health and safety as well as the workplace itself. They are internal tools for businesses and organizations to facilitate the integration of CSR into their activities on a daily basis. There are standards that focus on procedures and standards relating to performance measurement and reporting. Especially the management systems provide models and standards for the way of managing a process or an activity. Typically, large companies adopt them.

The above tools improve the strategic management and reliability of the company.

Examples of management models:

Standards for the workplace

• Social Accountability (SA 8000) (on working conditions)

• ILO-OSH 2001-IOC - ILO "Guidelines on occupational safety and health management"

• OHSAS 18001 (health in the workplace and safety)

Quality Management Standards

• ISO 9000 (International Organization of Standardization)

• EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) - a model for achieving operational excellence.

• AA (AccountAbility) 1000.

ing and stakeholders

• ISO CR MSS (management systems standards for corporate responsibility ISO).

Environmental Management Standards

• EMAS (Eco-management and audit scheme) - a voluntary program initiated by the European Commission.

• ISO 14000.

The reports are documents, which announce the results of assessing the social impact of a CSR policy. The demand for greater transparency and social reporting from the business side has led to a recent increase of the interest in sustainability reporting, covering economic, social and ecological aspects. These reports exist since 1970s as a supplement of the annual report. Nowadays, with the recognition of the importance of the 'triple bottom line' for sustainable development, social, ethical and environmental issues were added to the reports. Unlike financial reports, sustainability reports include a set of qualitative information, which is difficult to measure, especially in social indicators, which are still at an experimental stage.

Regarding the concept of "triple bottom line", it should be emphasized that it is the idea according to which the overall performance of a company is measured based on its combined contribution to economic prosperity, environmental quality and social capital. The European Commission itself has given special attention in this matter. In its notification on " Communication on the EU strategy for Sustainable Development "- COM (2001) 264" it called publicly traded companies with at least 500 employees to introduce' triple bottom line "in their annual statements so that shareholders can measure and evaluate its performance against economic, and social and ecological criteria.

Some characteristic examples of initiatives in this area are:

♦Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) with the Guidelines for Reporting (2002), which included reference files, content of reports and indicators for performance.

♦AA1000s - AccountAbility - Model of results validation (assurance) by the Institute of Social and Ethical Accountability.

SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION

In the context of socially responsible consumption social and environmental signals are used. These terms describe tools based on the market, aimed primarily at consumers and showing that the production of a specific product and commercial transactions and procedures that are followed, have respected a given set of criteria and standards. However, consumers today are interested in issues of ensuring the

environment, health and safety at work and respect for human rights, particularly on child and forced labor. Overall, these signs are a way to convert concern into positive action and direction of consumer behavior to social and environmental domains.

In the modern, globalized economy the terms 'fair trade' and 'ethical trade' are dominant. The first concept refers to fair procedures, aim at supporting marginalized producers in rural industries and handicrafts, in developing countries. These objectives, which are developmental, are achieved through better access to the market, ensuring fair prices in the negotiations and stability in the revenue, by providing direct payments or prepayment. The second concept refers to activities by companies aiming at highlighting their moral, social and environmental responsibilities and promoting human rights and decent working conditions in global supply chains and production of products.

Some examples are the following:

􀂃 Organizations

1. FLO International (Fair-Trade Labeling Organizations) - world-class organization that sets standards and certification of fair trade.

2. IFAT (International Federation for Alternative Trade) - a network of institutions, which aims to provide opportunities, information and technical support and better access to markets.

3. EFTA (European Fair Trade Association) - an association of importers aiming at achieving the most fair trade effective imports, promote cooperation and information, awakening of public opinion and decision-makers.

􀂃 Social Signals

1. Belgium Social Label - Legal Framework of the Belgian government in 2001 that gave the right to companies to acquire a sign which is used in products produced in a production chain that is compatible with the rules of conduct of the International Labour Organisation.

2. Rugmark Label - it concerns the production of carpets in India and aims to eliminate child labor. The participants agree to ban child labor and to allow non-communicated controls at their factories.

3. Flower Label Program - aims at ensuring fair labor and environmental conditions in the industry of flower trade, such as respect for the principles of the ILO and the non-use of toxic pesticides and chemicals.

􀂃 Environmental Signals

1. EU ECO LABEL - a voluntary program that started in 1992 to encourage the production and consumption of green products in Europe. It is used in products with reduced environmental impact, in compliance with established standards. These ecological standards are determined by a committee (EU ECO-LABELING BOARD) and take into account all phases of the 'life' of a product from the production up to its use and its dismissal.

2. FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL - the international non-profit organization has launched a global program, which covers forest products and provides a credible guarantee that the product comes from a forest, whose management is assessed and certified in accordance with the agreed social, economic and environmental standards.

3. PAN EUROPEAN FORESTRY CERTIFICATION - a voluntary private sector initiative which aims to promote sustainable forest management at local and national level.

SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE INVESTING

Through socially responsible investment (socially responsible investment - SRI) a variety of approaches, products and tools offered to the social responsibility investors is shown. The socially responsible investment has become very popular in ordinary investors, because it combines objective financial objectives with their concerns about moral, social and environmental issues. This way, it represents a powerful means to change business behaviour, by translating values ​​into positive action and promotion of social and environmental procedures and practices.

The investment for social purposes supports a specific purpose or activity and their funding through investments. Unlike donations, investors for social purposes are interested in the return of the initial investment, either through reward (for loans) or through shares.

In this kind of investment individual investors can be involved. These investors can be either individual investors who are interested in private capital investments or institutional investors for investments within a context which is shaped by institutions and organizations such as pension funds, banks, insurance and asset management companies. There are the following ways for institutional investors to follow their social and ecological values:

􀂃 Through filtering (screening) which concerns the inclusion or exclusion of shares in investment portfolios based on ethical, social or ecological criteria. This can be achieved either by excluding companies involved, for example in the production of nuclear weapons, or by selecting companies based on the evaluation of their social and environmental performance.

􀂃 Through activism or the involvement of shareholders, where in this case, the investors by using their shareholder identity support their social and environmental concerns and seek ways to influence the behavior of the enterprise through consultation with the management of the company, through resolutions on the annual meetings of shareholders or through disinvestment.

􀂃 By investing in non-conventional financial institutions (banks aiming at developing local communities and other credit institutions), which offer low interest loans to people who would not have access to capital. In this case, economic efficiency is less than the "social» for investors (cause - related investment).

Products featuring the socially responsible investment (SRI) are as follows:

􀂃 Mutual funds that use environmental, social and moral "filters" for portfolio selection (Green, Social and Ethical Funds).

􀂃 More and more pension funds invest their money according to social criteria.

􀂃 A variety of indices of sustainability and ethical investment have been designed and launched in stock exchange markets. They reflect and create standards and benchmarks for the performance of the shares of socially responsible companies, that try to become more sustainable. The usefulness of these indicators is to understand the relationship between the socially responsible investment and financial performance and thereby to attract capital. Examples of such indices are the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, FTSE4GOOD, Domini 400 Social Index and Ethibel Sustainability Index.

􀂃 Listing Process. When companies wish via public offering to raise capital from the stock markets, they should issue documents such as brochures and business plans that will give to the investors the ability to evaluate the business they wish to invest. This process of revealing is essential for the fair and efficient operation of financial markets and is governed by extensive legislation to ensure that the business reports contain all information necessary for investors to recognize the risks associated with the business, including social and environmental perspectives.

Procedures have been published in national and European level. More specifically, the EU Directive has been adopted in July 2003, which sets the framework for the standardization of information that should be revealed, but there is no reference to the disclosure of information regarding social and environmental issues.

The socially responsible investment has grown into an emerging market with lots of specialized offices for investigation and evaluation of investments by non-financial analysts, and numerous tools and models of different content. For this reason, the European Commission expresses the need for standardization and harmonization of standards and transparency of the used tools. The socially responsible investments to contribute to the strengthening of CSR, there should be developed by rating agencies (independent consultants) or investment banks SRI departments, criteria and indicators which identify the factors of competitive advantage and business success of the socially responsible businesses. In addition, the creation of a multilateral forum on CSR (which was established in 2004) is proposed. This forum aims to promote transparency and convergence of practices and tools of CSR.

In conclusion, CSR is a concept which was originally associated with the concepts of charity and corporate philanthropy, and the principle of management. Through international, national and corporate initiatives, conventions, norms and codes of conduct, CSR acquired its contemporary form, which includes the internal (socially and environmentally responsible practices) and external dimension (interaction with local communities, business partners, authorities, non governmental organizations). Sectors of the company based on CSR are the socially responsible management (codes of conduct, management standards, reports), consumption (ethical and fair trade, environmental and social labels) and investment (mutual funds, investments of pension funds, publication procedures and indicators to sustainable social and ecological criteria).

EPILOGUE - GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

In summary, the concept of corporate responsibility is difficult to pinpoint. In the present paper, it is accepted that corporate social responsibility is called the integration of social and environmental values ​​in the strategy and activities of the businesses on a voluntary basis. CSR focuses on the 'triple basic principle ", which covers both the financial as well as the social and environmental performance of a business. CSR refers to actions in areas as diverse as human rights, labor rights, environmental protection, involvement in community development and relationship building in the supply chain and with business partners.

It is associated with several other concepts. Such are business ethics which is related to the application of general ethical ideas in the business conduct, the notion of culture, namely the personality of each company, the status of corporate citizenship, under which the business undertakes to manage rights and cases relating to citizenship, corporate governance, which refers to the system of division of power within the organization and is associated with the need for transparency and social reporting and finally, the interested parties (stakeholders), that are involved with their actions to the operation and decisions of the company.

CSR appeared as a concept in the early 20th century. The fact that the company has a broader role in society was linked to the principle of beneficence and corporate philanthropy (the firm provides voluntary assistance), as well as with the principle of management (the company operates as a social guardian). It is noticed that there is an undertaking of a variety of initiatives by international organizations, businesses, countries and even individuals that are involved in the CSR by respecting human rights, providing guidance as well as to the involvement of companies in social reporting, fighting corruption, ensuring labor rights and protecting the natural environment.

CSR has acquired an internal and external dimension. The first dimension concerns socially and environmentally responsible practices within the company, while the second is concerned with the interactive relationship that is created between the company and the various stakeholders such as local communities, business partners or public authorities.

In addition, the modern form of CSR includes three areas, or in other words three basic tools, which can play an important role in achieving sustainable development. Socially responsible management includes codes of conduct, management and reporting standards, which offer principles, systems, procedures, Listen

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applications, indicators and methods of measurement, evaluation and reporting. Socially responsible consumption deals with ethical and fair trade, and includes social and environmental signals, that certify the integration of social and environmental criteria into the production process. Finally, the socially responsible investment-is related with mutual funds, investments of pension funds, publication procedures and sustainability indicators with social and ecological criteria.

The factors, that mainly boosted CSR are associated with the increasing demands of society and public authorities for transparency and social assessment by businesses, particularly after the outbreak of major accounting scandals.

The benefits for a company from the adoption of CSR practices are the improvement of financial performance and the reduction of operating costs, the increase in prestige and positive reputation, the increase of sales and consumer loyalty, the attraction of human resources, the potential for reduced oversight by regulatory authorities, as well as access to capital. For society, an important benefit is that by integrating CSR values ​​the road to achieving sustainable development is opened, an approach that accepts the pursuit of economic growth today while protecting resources for the development of tomorrow and meeting the needs of future generations.

On the other hand, CSR entails costs, which concerns the time and costs for investing in CSR policies and tools, particularly from small and medium enterprises, which lack the appropriate expertise and resources. In addition, the fuzzy boundaries of CSR as a new practice, coupled with the lack of legislation and uncertainty as to the credibility and effectiveness of the tools and political action can create additional costs for the company. It is notable that the criticism that CSR has received i.e. that it is a superficial practice, having as a sole aim to beautify the unbridled capitalism and increase corporate earnings without any substantial contribution to social welfare.

However, more and more companies adopt CSR policies. It is noticed an integration of practices on the preservation of health and safety at work, on the protection the environment both in developed and in developing countries (Chiquita and Shell), to encourage sustainable farming methods and recycling (Starbucks Coffee), gender equality and combating racial discrimination in the workplace (Deloitte & Touche), campaigns against major diseases (Levi Strauss for the HIV virus), and policies to address ethical dilemmas in the management and corruption (Motorola) .

The importance attributed to specific practices and social responsibility, is evidenced by the growing number of tools and measurement indicators, such as the FTSE4Good series of indicators of the well-known firm FTSE, but also to reward socially responsible companies through the lists and awards of organizations, the press and other key stakeholders such as the European Commission (List of 100 Best Workplaces in the EU).

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In conclusion, it should be noted that corporate social responsibility is at a crossroad. After a decade of development, a reasonable question as to what may be the future of CSR is posed. Is it a "trend" in the business world, which will soon be over? Will CSR reach full implementation and integration through its establishment in the business strategy and action? Or, alternatively, will it take another form, by changing the data in the business scene?

Visualization of CSR future is a challenge of CSR, but also an opportunity for companies looking to maintain their economic prosperity in an increasingly complex business environment. At the same time, the question arises on how long-term benefit and prosperity for all stakeholders can be achieved.

CSR appears as a reality, not just as an option. The future of the world is related to the future of the businesses. Today, corporate responsibility is a fact. The central question facing businesses is how to direct their potential in the service of public interest while preserving and strengthening elements, such as innovation and competitive advantage. This fact constitutes to the central challenge of the idea of ​​CSR, which in the coming decades should achieve the dual goal for successful businesses and thriving communities, by escaping from the unilateral satisfaction of the interests of shareholders.

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