Rural Market Access Roads Project Accounting Essay

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The Chunya District Council and village's leaders, in the context of their environments, by means of constructing rural market access roads, In conducting this Needs Assessment for Chunya district councils, villages groups, with support from the Government, has consulted and interacted intensively with a wide spectrum of project stakeholder and experts. The report considered various issues, contexts and relevant options, related to Content; Infrastructure and Delivery Methods; Legal, and Payment issues; Administration and Management; Human Resources Management; Funding and Sustainability; constructing Strategies and Budget.

BACKGROUND

The district has been surrounded by different opportunities which can make agriculture industries possible. But this is hindered by insufficient market access roads. In this district there is enough man power since people are very much committed to their jobs; there is very fertile land which can be cultivated. Also if there would be enough fields could be very easy to get market. But all these opportunities have never be utilize well which result to low production of both food and cash crop in that district due to insufficient market access roads. Due to this reason that's why we think that it is very important to establish the project of constructing rural market access roads so as to raise the amount of crops produced annually. A number of policies have been formulated to address the country's development concerns, in particularly, the Vision 2025, which spells out the long-term economic and social development aspirations of improving the living standards of the people; the poverty reduction strategy paper, which was issued in 2000 and is the focus of most development interventions; the Tanzania Assistance Strategy through which donor assistance is harmonized; the sector-wide approach to budget support which is aimed at reducing duplication, encouraging donor harmonization and rationalizing the flow and allocation of funds; and the Agricultural Sector Development Programme which complements the country's poverty reduction strategy and rural development strategy.

Mission Statement

To strengthening rural market access roads and extensive services to empower Chunya District communities to increase agriculture production for the purpose of alleviation poverty.

2. Objectives of the Needs Assessment

The main objective of this study is: To learn the situation within the Chunya District to come up with the needs associated with the problems of the existing rural market access roads so as to derive the solution to the problems identified.

3. Consultation

The consultation was made by the Chunya District Council Management, Village's Leaders as well as those stakeholders who will be the sponsor of the Project. The agreement to conduct a needs assessment so as to come up with the solution to the problem and hence to start writing the project proposal for the constructing rural market success roads in 20 villages in Chunya District as a solution to a problem addressed.

4. Target Group

The project target group consists of smallholder farm families who rely upon agriculture production as their major source of food and income. These families tend to have fewer household members, few assets, small landholdings and low crop yields. They are generally food-insecure and rely on income from casual labour for about eight months of the year. Within the project target group, resource-poor farmers, women and women-headed households who face periodic food insecurity, will be expressly targeted through three specific intervention instruments:

(a) Economic criteria. The target group in each scheme will have, on average, not more than 2 ha of cultivable land, as against the national average of 5.0 ha. In addition, seventy-five per cent of the beneficiaries will have an income below the poverty line.

(b) Specific targeting criteria. Each scheme must ensure that at least 30% of the total beneficiaries and 50% of the irrigation management committee members are women. In new irrigation schemes, where some additional land may be brought under cultivation, preference will be given to landless women, to whom a minimum of 25% will be distributed and

(c) Self targeting investments. Support will be given to groups or associations willing to be involved in high-value cash crops, such as rice and vegetables, etc., to ensure the programme's overall viability.

Appendix I shows the criteria used to define the target groups, the major constraints faced by them as indicated in the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) exercise and the intervention measures proposed to alleviate them. A total of 15 700 will benefit from the programme.

TARGET GROUP DEFINITION, SELECTION CRITERIA, MAJOR

CONSTRAINTS AND PROJECT INTERVENTIONS

Target Group

Selection Criteria

Major Constraints

Project Instruments

Smallholder

families:

Resource-poor

farmers

(priority target

group)

a)Farm size < 2 ha

b)No work oxen

c)Food deficit

households

d) Farm incomes below

the national poverty

line (TZS …., 199x

prices)

e) Off-farm income

<TZS 70,000

Low crop production and low

farm incomes

· Food insecurity

· Lack of farm inputs and credit

Improved agricultural extension services aimed at increasing market awareness training.

· Increased food production through farmer training in improved crop husbandry practices and access to better produce storage methods.

· Assistance with the formation of savings groups

Poor-women and

women-headed

households (FHHs)

priority target

groups

Low crop production and low

incomes

· Food insecurity

· Lack of farm inputs and credit

·

Improved agricultural extension services to raise farm incomes, the introduction of labour-saving technologies and market awareness training. At least 50% of the participants of farmer training courses and study tours will be women.

·

· Improved access to agricultural extension services

· Support to the formation of SACCOs in scheme.

· Villages and women's savings groups associated with shallow wells used for vegetable production.

Smallholder

families (relatively

better off)

a)Farm size > 2 ha

b)Experience occasional

food deficits

c)Have own work oxen or access to them

d) Off-farm income

<TZS 100,000

e) Farm incomes above the national poverty line

· Low crop production and low

incomes

· Lack of farm inputs and credit

· Improved market access roads management.

· Support to the formation of SACCOs

5. Methodology

The information about the needs and requirements of the rural market access roads were obtained through the following methods:

Observation: Observer (who conducted the assessment) is a person who was a user of old roads (farmer). He tried to observe the following areas/aspects, time, cost, Security of their agriculture product, during accessing and finding markets of their product, number of day taken to reach the market, the cost of transport product to the market is higher and the security of product during transportation is low because it take long time to reach the market some perishable product are rotten.

Questionnaire: Interviewer prepared some questions that are related to the idea of a problem, and he asked the following village groups orally: market access roads users (farmers/communities), Village's leaders, Chunya district council staffs, District engineer and land officers. During the interview, they have been asked to discuss their needs of market access roads and their existing one, time and cost taken to reach the markets. The respond was prepared to the following questions:

What are the importance market access roads?

What are effects of poor market access roads in the communities?

What are the advantages market access roads?

What are the advantages and disadvantages to participate village groups' in roads construction and maintenance?

What are the other alternatives ways can be used to improved market access?

What are your ideas for improving rural market access roads?

6. Strengths and weakness

Current market access roads:

Through the methodology above the following were the weaknesses of the Current market access roads that had been derived are:

The take long time to reach agriculture product to the market, because it is not all weather roads which in other season it will be difficult to use.

The cost transport product to the market is high; because there are few motor vehicles due to poor roads.

There are no securities of perishable product during transport; because it takes long time to reach the market and there are insufficient transports.

Due to poor market access roads, they hinder the expansion of agriculture production areas.

Improved rural market access roads

The reverse of the above weaknesses were revealed to be the strength of the improved rural market access roads is going to be implemented.

7. Risk

The risks that may occur from the constructing of rural market access roads are as follows:

Delay of fund, it happen that the fund requested from Government may delay to the extent that the project will also delay to start which results to late deliverables.

Machine and equipments used in the constructed of roads may also be unavailable on time, thus cause the construction process to delay.

Technology change, this is very crucial issue regarding to the constructing associated with supporting machine and raw material, the technology tend to change every now and then interns of machine are to be out of date, this will cause the project to fail to meet the objectives set as a result to disrupt the organization goal.

Inflation rate also can cause risk to the project during the implementation stage. This occurs when the price of some product /raw material are rise in the country.

8. CONCLUSION

"The needs assessment was conducted as the above procedures and detailed information's presented, two alternatives were derived from the analysis. Therefore what means a critical decision making process was made that, is to construct rural market access roads. Why, because the costs and the needs of improved rural market roads enforcement the construction of roads. Who means The Executive Sponsor and Steering Committee, on the advice of the Project Manager and User and Technical Committees were decided. This decision was made after the conceptual design has been prepared, and prior to the start construction of roads.

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