Project Management is define as the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling in one project of the resources for a limit period of time to complete specific goals and objective. Planning and scheduling are the efficient project management theories that use as the decision making, which play important role at many work environments especially at manufacturing.
Regarding to Portougal and Robb (2000), they showed in an article why scheduling theory was relevant few setting and scheduling research can improve the production planning and practice. Other researcher like McKay and Wiers (1999) had similar observation that the concept of the planning and scheduling theories in industry was rare. In the manufacturing industry, planning and scheduling play the important role in decision making in production goods and services activity to structuring and simplifying the process of constructing real-time problem solving, equipment, focusing specially on task of production planning and scheduling. Besides that, the planning and scheduling also can be reduced waste, lower cost activity to help the organization achieve the objective without waste and lower cost activities.
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Currently, production planning and scheduling provide the high critical parts of a manufacturing systems to complete the manufacturing activity. Furthermore, by keeping the production planning and scheduling activity in manufacturing organization, it will help organization finish the task more efficient, shortened product life cycle, greater satisfaction of customer's expectations and lower cost. As the result, it directly can increase the organization performance. Today, it can be accepted that the production planning and scheduling is an effective way to achieve the manufacturing activity more effectively and efficiently (Advanced Manufacturing Research, Inc., 1996).
Nowadays, all the organizations in the world have their own planning and scheduling in their production department. It's not just use in the manufacturing department, it also can use at other departments like purchasing, operation department and so on. The function of the production planning and scheduling are make sure all the manufacturing activity run in good condition and smoothly, which achieve zero-defective in the manufacturing activity.
Moreover, use of the expert system in production planning and scheduling application potential benefits of them (Mertens and Kanet and Liebowiz and Lightfoot, 1987: Kanet and Adelsberger, 1987; Deal et al., 1992; De Toni et., 2000; Metaxiotis et al., 2001). According to those researchers, why they do expert system in production planning and scheduling application? The main reasons that perform the application are can help organizations to cuts cost by reducing the need personnel, preserve and disseminate scarce expertise throughout the organization, give better consistency to decision making and improve the quality of goods.
The failure has reaching affects in organization's performance on production planning and scheduling system was influenced by human, technological and organizational aspect (MacCarthy et al., 2001; Berglund and Karltun, 2005). In general, all production planning and scheduling system suffer from the complexity of the structures, information, job-shop, uncertainties and different performance, and human action in manufacturing activities.
The production planning and scheduling have huge effect on organization's performance. Without implemented the production planning and scheduling system in manufacturing activity, it will occur many problem such as bring on the high cost activity, can't finish one time and delay real-time of producing. Thus, by this study would be enlightening to investigate the effect and important of production planning and scheduling toward organization's productivity and performance.
There have many organizations need to produce many type of the goods in the market place to satisfy the customer's need at the right time. Therefore, the production planning and scheduling at organization plays an important factor which the organization wants to reduce in time to complete tasks, increasing in production, more effective use of the resources to avoid waste, save cost by reduction in staff and so on. Through production planning and scheduling applications, it can help to improve their productivity and increase organization's performance (Advanced Manufacturing Research, Inc., 1996). At the same time, it also can help organization produce the goods which are low cost but high quality in the market place.
Nowadays, the manufacturing organizations started implemented the application of project management: production planning and scheduling system on manufacturing activities because to save the cost and time producing. Besides that, the other reason implemented the project management application in manufacturing activities is focus all aspect daily activities which improve effectively and efficiency process stage until finish goods and reduce all non-value adding activities to lower as possible.
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In this research, the problem that faces by the manufacturing organizations involves the recourses allocation over time for the manufacture of goods, different aspects deterministic models, stochastic models, various forms of uncertainties such as variation of processing time, machine breakdowns, and rush order. Other problem is planning and scheduling environment with complexity of the structures, information or job-shop problem that hard to build into an information system. In the general production planning and scheduling problem, there are the large number of machines, jobs, and attributes in manufacturing activities.
The general objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of production planning and scheduling system throughout the performance of the manufacturing organization. The specific objectives of this research are as below:
Identify the impact of production planning and scheduling systems in manufacturing organizations.
Identify the performance of organization after implementing production planning and scheduling systems.
Identify the benefits of production planning and scheduling systems in manufacturing organization.
SCOPE OF STUDY
This research focus on project management application: production planning and scheduling systems in manufacturing organizations in Malaysia. The scope of this study is one of manufacturing organizations that implementing the project manufacturing applications in Malaysia. This research will only in manufacturing organization at project department and how effectiveness use of project management application in production operation.
SIGNIFICANT OF STDUY
Through this study, it believed by this research would be very useful to gain more deeply knowledge about the production planning and scheduling at manufacturing organization. Furthermore, in this research would show that the building production and scheduling system in affecting the production activities and help to improve the productivity.
Therefore, the building production and scheduling system in the manufacturing organization can provide a significant opportunity for rapidly for change when uncertainties activities, reducing process cost, waste, inventory, labor, time, resources and higher productivity. Through implementing the project management application at manufacturing organization, it helps in the production run more smoothly and decreased the uncertain task on production.
In additional, by the research we can know that the production planning and scheduling activities can affect overall the production activities on the manufacturing organization if compare with manufacturing organization without implement the project management applications in production activities. With the project management applications, it can assist many aspects such as reduction labor, better production services, reduction in time to complete the tasks, increasing production, more effective use of resources and so on. Meanwhile, it also can help the manufacturing organization keeps going improve the model of production planning and scheduling system in the production line to produce the lower cost but high quality goods in the market place. It directly can get a lot of benefits in the market competition.