Management Accounting Practices In Pakistan

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The institute of cost and management accounting Pakistan it was established in 1951,it is granted statutory status under the cost and management accountants act1966 for the regulation of the occupation cost and management accounting. The institute was at first established with the name of the Pakistan (Pakistan institute of industrial accountants PIIA was changed to the institute of ICMAP in 1976. It is the conceder they will be oldest professional accountancy institute.

ICMAP is the only source of cost and management accounting education instruction and qualified documentation in Pakistan. It has earned the status both nationally and internationally for its high standard imparting education and testing. The institute has been conference an important national human source need through a learning flow of qualified management accountant.

ICMAP has over 300 members, who hold senior positions in trade, business, industry and Government in Pakistan as well as in a foreign country. The number of active registered students is approximately 15000, which makes ICMAP one of the largest professional institutions in Pakistan. The institute head office in the Karachi.

Management accounting practices help and organization to survive in the competitive every changing in the world. It is provided by an most important advantages for an organization should be guide in the managerial management action, motivation, behavior, support and create a culture is value necessary to achieve the strategic goals

Management accounting concernt the primarily internal need of management accounting. Management accounting toward the evaluation of performance and estimate the future financial accounting which emphasize historical data which related legal financial matter of investor, owner ,credit or, taxation, Rules and regulationand built up the foundation consistent with external reporting in the accordance characteristics of management accounting principal.

The institute of management accountant the professional association practices academic management acounting

Definition of management accounting

Management accounting is the process of identifying Measuring, accumulating, analyzing, preparing, interpreting, and communicating information that helps manager fulfill organizational objectives.

Management accounting or managerial accounting is to concerned with provisions and use of accounting information to manager within the organization, to be provide with the basis to make informed business decision that will to allow them to better equipped in their management and control function.

Meaning of management accounting:

The management accounting is comprised of two words 1st management and 2nd is accounting. The management accounting is the study of managerial aspect of accounting. They will be the emphases to redesign accounting in such way it is the help of management in formation of policy, control and decision to apperception of effectiveness

Management accounting which provides the information for environment management to facilitated decision making. Good management accounting information is three kind. 1st is technical, 2nd is behavior and 3rd is cultural. Development of management accounting is respons to demand and supply management. Management measured develop by the organaization

What is management accounting?

Management accounting is refer the processes and techniques that point out on the efficient use of organizational resources to support managers inn their task of enhancing both customer value and share holder value

Management accounting systems:

Management accounting system is an informational system that produce the information necessary by managers to manage resources and create value. It is formed the part of an organization wider management information systems. Management accounting information can be provided on a regular basis and can include estimate of the cost of producing goods and services information for planning and controlling operations, and information for measuring performance organization. Management accounting system can also be provide information on an ad hoc basis to satisfy the short term and long term decision making needs of management. Management is not to be provide all the information system to satisfy managers decision making needs for sometimes information also needs to be obtained from other sources include those out side the organization.

Management accounting information:

Focus of the management accounting is on the needs of the managers within the organization. Because accounting standard apply only the external financial report there is a great flexibility in deciding the type of information that should be generated for manager.

Origin and scope

The term management accounting is a current origin. This term was used in first time in 1950 by a team accountants visiting USA under the auspices of Anglo-American Council of Productivity. These terms of cost accountancy had no reference to the word management accountant before the report of this study group. Management accounting is use for planning, co-ordination and controlling functions of management.

A small undertaking with a local character is generally managed by the owner himself. The owner is in touch with day-to-day working of the enterprise and he plans and coordinates the activities himself. The simple accounting is enables to preparation the profit & loss account in balance sheet for determining purposes are meet by simple financial statements. Since the owner is both the decision-maker and implementer of such decisions, he does not feel the necessity of any communication system and no additional information is required for managerial purposes. The evolution of joint stock company from of organization has resulted in large-scale production and separation of ownership and management.

The introduction of professionalism in management has brought in the division of organization into functional areas and delegation of authority and decentralization of decision-making. The decision-making no more remains a matter of intuition. It requires the evolution of information system from helping management in planning and assessing the results. The accounting information is required as a guide for future. The management is to be fed with precise and relevant information so as to enable it in performing managerial functions efficiently and effectively.

The principal objective of any business or trade is to earn profit. The achievement of this objective is becoming difficult mainly due to globalization, cut-throat competition, specialization, rapid technological advancement, e-commerce and increasing social accountability. It has, therefore, become a compelling factor for the management of every business enterprise to keep in touch with the latest information related to its internal and external environment. This information is provided by management accounting.

Need for management accounting

Management accounting is to provide the use of accounting information in the organization of the manage. The manager is to provide the essential information of organization and make to inform the business decision .the manager of the organization is not tro publicity the report on accounting information. It is used information by the management only

that information are about the future and is not about historical data

Management accounting is a very important role in the organization, business, industry, and other system

Formulation strategies

Business activity planning

Decision making help

Safeguard asset

Helps with the preparation of financial reports

Other resources

The management accounting is a used for the organization sector. They will be a needed for the organization. The accountant use the strategic decision in the management accounting mater. Management accounting is the key of the organization. They will be a perfect decision making in the role of use in sector. Pakistan is to provided by the accounting study in the country. ICMAP is a first institute to be stared the study of accounting.

Definition of financial accounting

Financial accounting is the field of accounting concerned with the preparation of the financial statement for decision making, such as stock holder, banks, employees, government agencies, owner and stock holder

Financial accounting is the field of accounting that develops information for external decision makers such as stock holder, supplier, government agencies, owners,

Accounting is that aim s to present a business financial state to outside parties such as shareholder, applying generally accepted accounting principles.

Field of the accounting that treat money means of measuring economic performance instead of (in cost accounting) as a factor of production. It encompass the total system of monitoring and control of the money as it flows in and out of the firm as assets and liabilities, and revenues and expenses. Financial accounting gather and summarize financial data to prepare financial reports such as balance sheet and income statement for the firm's of management, investors, lenders, suppliers, tax authorities, and other stakeholders

Deference between Management accounting & financial accounting

Financial accounting

The financial statements which are issue to stockholders, lenders, financial political analyst and others outside. Company route in financial accounting face by the generally establish accounting principles. which must be follow when reporting the results a corporation's past transactions on its balance sheet, income statement, statement of cash flows, and statement of changes in stockholders' equity.

Managerial accounting

The management is to providing information within the company so that management can be operate the more successful company.  Managerial accounting and cost accounting also provide information on compute the cost of product manufacturing enterprise. The cost will be used in the external financial statements. In adding the cost systems for manufacturers, course in managerial accounting will be include topics such as a cost behavior, break-even point, profit planning, operational budgeting, capital budgeting, relevant costs for decision making, activity based costing, and standard costing.


Financial accounting

Management accounting


Steward ship of business for profit of shareholders

request to get better economy, efficiency and effectiveness of operation

As we know Financial accounting mostly focus on the periodic reporting information, are required by act for shareholders, government agency and other parties external to the business.


Financial accounting

Management accounting

Time horizon


Not only look at the Past, but the Present and the Future which affects the operation of company.

Financial accounting is predominat based upon the past transactions and procedures. One of the major conventions is statement of the historical cost.


Financial accounting

Management accounting

Report recipients

External/outsiders namely the shareholders and government (tax)

Internal parties like directors and company managers

Out put

Profit and loss account, balance sheet &cash flow statement

Detailed monthly and annual management accounts performance results by product and function unplanned report

Statutory requirement for companies to prepare annual financial statements. The financial statements include the profit and loss account, balance sheet, statement of equity and cash flow statement. These statements representation the financial performance and value of the company.

That report critical perfect and independently verified accounting statements. It would be very difficult to attract funds investment from also the stock market from financial institution such as banks or capitalist growth.


Financial accounting

Management accounting


Accounting concepts is plus statutory requirements for the Companies Acts

None set the guidance and formats of the CIMA terms tend to be follow in the organizations

Financial statements prepared by the Financial Accountants will embrace many monotonous accounting concepts/convention stipulated by the Accounting Standards and local Companies Acts.

Management accounting

Financial accounting

Management accounting system which are produce information which is used within the organization, managers and employees

Information which are used by external parties to the organization, such as shareholders, bank and creditors.

Management accounting which help management to record, plan and control activities and aid to the decision making process.

Financial accounting provides a record of the performance of an organization over a defined period and the state of affairs at the end of that period.

Management accounting can focus on specific areas of an organization's activities. Information may aid a decision making rather than be an end product of a decision.

Financial accounting concentrates on the organization as a whole, aggregating revenues and costs from different operation. Financial accounts are an end themselves.

Management accounting

Financial accounting

Primary users

Organization management at various levels

Outside parties such as investors and government agencies but also organization managers

Freedom of choice

No constrain than cost in relation to benefits of improved management decision

Constrained by generally accepted accounting principal (GAAP)

Behavioral implication

Concern about how measurement and reports will influence managers daily behavior

Constrain about how to measure and communicate economic phenomena. Behavioral consideration are secondary, although executive compensation based on reported result may have behavioral impacts

Time focus

Future orientation: formal use of budgets as well as historical records

Past orientation: historical evaluation

Time span

Flexible varying from hourly to 10to 15 years.

Less flexible: usually 1 year or 1 quarter


Detail report: concern about detail of part the entity products

Summary report: concern primarily with entity as a whole

Delineation of activities

Field is less sharply defined. Heavier use of economics decision sciences and behavioral sciences

Filed is more sharply defined. Lighter use of related disciplines

Objective of the study

This chapter is to define the management accounting. The management accounting is the essential for planning and controlled by achieving a good result in any business or organization.

Chapter # 2 Management accounting and organization

Accounting system

Effect of the government regulation

Performance report

Management by exception

Management accounting responsibility

Convention of management accounting

Accounting system

An accounting system is a formal mechanism for gathering organizing and communicating information about the organization activities. Accounting system is use for both financial accounting and management accounting purpose some time creates problems.

Accounting system is set to organized manual and computerized method procedures and control established together recording classifying and analyzing the financial data for management decision

The accounting system is to record and precedes for internal and external industries organization , they relay to the collecting, recording and reporting of information related to financial operations, and that also provide necessary internal controls.

Accounting system is a vital role of the organization. Companies are used to accounting system in the business. Accounting system is a most accurate system in the organization. Pakistan is mostly used the accounting system in the organization. ICMAP is a the largest Pakistan institute they will be provide the accounting techniques management adopt by the accounting system is internal information and control .accounting system is control the internal and external recording the transaction. That they would be provide the correct transaction would be found it.

An accounting system is a formal method for assembly, organizing, and communicating information about an organization's activities.

usually established accounting principles (GAAP) include broad procedure and detailed rules and actions that make up established accounting practices at a certain time


Income tax authorities and regulareties bodies such as the us secureties and exchange commission and the California health facility commission of limited management choice of accounting method for the external report. Many organization develop system primilary to satisfied legal requirement imposed by external parties.

Effect of the government regulation

When management is willing to pay for a separate internal accounting system that system is may be affected by government regulation. The reason is that government agencies have legal power to order into evidence any internal document that they deem necessary.

Management by exception

Management by exception Is the "policy by which management devotement is time to investigation these situation in which accurate results different significant from planned results. The main idea is that management should be spending its important time focused on the more important items (such as seminal the company's future strategic course). Altercation is given by the material deviation required investigation."

It is not completely different with the concept exception by management is to be describe a fiscal policy where complete action on exemption management, the contrast reasonable application of exception management.

In Project Management an implication by Management by Exception is the project board should be assemble when key decisions project should be taken by the management exception and not on usual interval. The Project Manager should be produce are exception report to submitted by the board of such meeting.

The type of management exception can be physically powerful when it is need to be process loss of data order to take managerial decision. The difficulty with this policy is that can result in my topic performance. This performance imply that low management shift goal to achieve from running a successful business in a world environment, management to search regional auditor and manager with to find out financial data which will be interaction the organization. In the situation, a company manager might be sell of an assets like equipment in order to scheme accounting ratios used in determining exception. Thus, lower management can in some cases avoid being marked exception, The long term benefit of the plant they are manages by the exception.

Management accounting responsibility

Planning & controlling are the important for achieve a better result any business, organization industrial. first of all, a budget is to be arranged and, secondly, actual results are compare with the budget ones. Any distinction is prepared task of the key sprat who were concerned in (i) setting standards, (ii) given necessary resources and (iii) powers to use them.

In order to make more efficient the process, the complete organization is not working into various types of center mainly cost centre, revenue centre, profit center and investment centre. The organizational budget is separated on these lines and passed on to the worried managers. Actual results are collected and display in the same form for judgment. Difference if any are high lighted and bring to the observe of the management. This procedure is called Responsibility Accounting.

Convention of management accounting

Chapter # 3 Principal and Techniques

Financial policy and accounting

Historical costing

Standard costing

Marginal costing

Decision accounting

Control accounting

Financial policy and accounting

Financial policy is to determines hoe a business is to be financed, whether by equity or preference share capital, and extent to which reliance is to be placed upon long term or short term borrowing. In addition the credit and discount policies followed to be determined policies companies have a duty to publish account Historical costing

Historical cost is the original monetary value of an economic item. Historical is based on the stable measuring unit's assumption

Historical cost accounting is the situation in which accountants record revenue, expenditure and asset acquisition and disposal at historical cost: that is, the actual amounts of money, or money's worth, received or paid to complete the transaction.

Historical cost accounting is also called because it concern itself with the recording of actual cost on after the date when these are in cured. There are two basic costing system 1 is job costing and 2 is process costing. Actual cost is the part of most modern standard costing system but they are limited value.

A basis for the treatment of assets in financial statements where they are recorded at their historical cost, without adjustment for inflation or other price variations

What is historical cost accounting?

Historical cost is a term used instead of the cost. Cost and historical cost usually mean the original cost at the time of a transaction. Historical cost is helps to distinguish an asset's original cost from its replacement cost, current cost, or inflation-adjusted cost.


Land purchased in 1992 at cost of $80,000 and still owned by the buyer will be reported on the buyer's balance sheet at its cost or historical cost of $80,000 even though its current cost, replacement cost, and inflation-adjusted cost is much higher today.

The cost principle or historical cost principle states that an asset should be reported at its cost (cash or cash equivalent amount) at the time of the exchange transaction and should include all costs necessary to get the asset in place and ready for use.

Historical cost principle in accounting

Historical cost principle means that assets and liabilities are recorded at their actual historical cost. When an asset is written off, the loss is recorded as the historical cost of the asset less any accumulated depreciation. Typically, the asset would be fully depreciated and thus no loss recorded but this isn't always the case.

If the asset is sold the gain or loss is recorded as the amount received for the asset less the historical cost (net of any accumulated depreciation). In both cases, you're using the historical cost as your basis in the asset, but in the write off, you didn't receive anything in return for the asset. To record a sale, you must account for the payment you receive and that amount is of course, the current value of the asset - at least its value to someone (the purchaser).

Advantages and disadvantages of historical cost accounting


Historical cost accounts are straightforward to produce

Historical cost accounts do not record gains until they are realized

Historical cost accounts are still used in most accounting systems


Historical cost accounts give no indication of current values of the assets of a business

Historical cost accounts do not record the opportunity costs of the use of older assets, particularly property which may be recorded at a value based on costs incurred many years ago

Historical cost accounts do not measure the loss of value of monetary assets as a result of inflation.

Standard costing

Standard costing is an important topic of cost accounting. Standard costs are generally connected with a manufacturing company's costs of direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.

Rather than conveying the actual costs of direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead to a product, several manufacturers allocate the expected or standard cost. This means that a manufacturer's inventory and cost of goods sold will begin amounts reflecting the standard costs, not the actual costs, of a product. Manufacturers, at rest to pay the actual costs. As a result there are almost always differences between the actual costs and the standard costs, and those differences are known as variances.

Standard costing and the related variances is a valuable management tool. If a variance arise, management becomes aware that manufacturing costs have different form the standard (planned, probable) costs.

If actual costs are greater than standard costs the variance is unfavorable. An unfavorable variance tells management that if everything else stays constant the company's actual profit will be less than planned.

If actual costs are less than standard costs the variance is favorable. A favorable variance tells management that if everything else stays constant the actual profit will likely exceed the planned profit.

The earlier that the accounting system reports a variance, the earlier that management can direct its notice to the difference from the planned amounts.

If we assume that a company uses the perpetual inventory system and that it carry all of its inventory accounts at standard cost (including Direct Materials Inventory or Stores), then the standard cost of a finished product is the sum of the standard costs of the inputs:

      1. Direct material

      2. Direct labor

      3. Manufacturing overhead

       a. Variable manufacturing overhead

   b. Fixed manufacturing overhead

Standard costs are those cost which are established through identify an objective connection between specific inputs and estimated outputs. Standard costs are usually related to warily analyze phenomenon both in the laborator and in the work place.

Marginal costing

Marginal cost is the variable cost of one unit product or service.

Marginal cost is alternative method of costing to absorption costing. Marginal cost is variable cost charged as a cost of sale and a contribution cost is calculate (sale revenue minus variable cost of sale). Closing stock of work in progress or finished goods are value at the marginal (variable) production cost. Fixed cost is treating as a period cost and charged into the profit and loss account incurred the period of accounting

Marginal production cost per unit of an item usually consists of the following.

Direct material

Direct labour

production overheads

Direct labour cost might be excluded from marginal costs when the work force is given number of employees on a fixed wages of salary. Even so it is not uncommon for direct labour to be treated as variable cost. When employee are paid a basic wage for a fixed working period. If in doubt you should tread direct labour as a variable cost unless given clear indicator to the country. Direct labour is a often steep cost. With sufficiently short step to be make a labour cost in a variable.

The marginal cost of asset usully consist of the marginal cost of production adjusted for stick movement plus the variable selling cost

The most important feature of marginal costing is the division of cost into those which are marginal (variable) those which are fixed. The latter are not apportioned to cost centers or products as under and other costing system. Instead they are charged against sale revenues within the period in which are incurred. this deviation of the cost are there application in a appropriate manner is extremely use full in showing management the effect decision, particularly those connected with short term utilization of production capacity.

Principles of marginal costing:

The marginal principal costing are as

Period fixed cost are same any volume of sales and production (provided the level of activity within the relevant range) . selling by an extra item product or service following are as

Revenue will be increase by the sale volume of sold item

Cost will be increase by the per unit cost

Profit will be increase by the contribution amount earned from the extra item

The volume of sales falls by one item. Profit will be fall by amount of earned contribution item

Profit is measurement should be based on analysis of total contribution.

When a unit product is made the extra cost incurred for the manufacture variable

Production cost. fixed costs are unaffected, no extra fixed cost are incurred when output is increased. The valuation of closing stock should be at variable production cost

Decision accounting

The comparison of an alternative courses of action may be facilitated the use of cost data. Latter may be collected by part of a routine or deal with the special problems when it arise strictly speaking, this is not a separate system. It calls upon another information system which indicates the management project likely maximum profit & minimum loss. decision on capital expenditure whether to make or buy., what price should be charged as to subcontract and other important matter may all be assisted by the employment of accounting information. A few words on the role of decision making are very appropriate stage.

One of the most important function of top management is to make decision. Irrespective of the method of employed decision making implies a choice from a number of alternative. Ther are two basic selection methods

First the selection of the particular field in which the final decisions to be made, production is increased, the labour force may large new machine may be introduced: if sale are to be expanded the initial choice between employing more sales men identifying the advertisement to other sale publicity. Once a initial selection has been made, second choice must be follow, if machine is to be purchased

Control accounting

The comparison of an alternative courses of action may be facilitated the use of cost data. Latter may be collected by part of a routine or deal with the special problems when it arise strictly speaking, this is not a separate system. It calls upon another information system which indicates the management project likely maximum profit & minimum loss. decision on capital expenditure whether to make or buy., what price should be charged as to subcontract and other important matter may all be assisted by the employment of accounting information. A few words on the role of decision making are very appropriate stage.

One of the most important function of top management is to make decision. Irrespective of the method of employed decision making implies a choice from a number of alternative. Their are two basic selection methods

First the selection of the particular field in which the final decisions to be made, production is increased, the labour force may larger new machine may be introduced: if sale are to be expanded the initial choice between employing more sales men identifying the advertisement to other sale publicity. Once a initial selection has been made, second choice must be follow, if machine is to be purchased

Chapter # 4 Management planning: budget process

Budget theory

Budget preparation

Cost estimation and estimation techniques

Fixed and flexible budget

Reporting of actual against budget

Budget theory

A budget is a quantitative appearance of a plan action and is an aid to coordinate and implement plan. Budgets are the chief devices for convincing and punishing management planning.

An itemize forecast of an individual's or company's income and expenses probable for some period in the future. With a budget, an personaly is able to cautiously look at how much money they are attractive in during a given period, and figure out the best system to divide it amongst a variety of category. When making a personal budget, an individual will typically delegate the appropriate amount of money to fixed expenses such as rent, car payments, or utility bills, and then make an educated evaluation for how much money they will be spend in other category such as groceries, clothing, or activity. By keeping track of where one's money goes

Budget preparation

During budget preparation, trade-offs and prioritization among program must be made to make sure that the budget fits government policies and priority. Next, the most gainful variant must be elected. Finally, means of growing prepared effectiveness in government must be required. None of these can be skilled except financial constraint are built into the process from the extremely start. therefore, the budget formulation process has four major dimensions:1

Setting up the financial targets and the level of expenditures friendly with these targets. This is the objective of prepare the macro-economic framework.

formulate the expenditure in policies.

Allocating possessions in conformity with both policies and financial targets. This is the main objective of the middle processes of budget preparation.

Addressing prepared effectiveness and presentation issues.

The budget has two functions. First, it estimates, as reasonably as possible, the cost of finishing the objectives recognized in the application. The supporter will use the budget particulars to determine whether the proposal is reasonably possible and realistic. Secondly, the budget provides a means to supervise the project's financial activities over the life of the project., it's possible to establish how closely the actual development toward achieve the project objectives is being made relative to the projected budget

Cost estimation and estimation techniques

Fixed and flexible budget

Reporting of actual against budget

Chapter# 5 Review of literature

Management Accounting Practices in Spain

Historical analyses within both a social

and an organizational context

The social and organizational context of the Spanish companies until the

Beginning of the 1980's allowable a limited development of Management accounting . The changes occur in the Spanish social community and organizational context from the 1950's and those promote a progress development use of the management techniques are special of Management accounting. That was consolidate specially from the start of the 1980's.

The describe case study show the relations of element from the social

Such as the strength of the struggle, the social control and the

Modernization process,with the element of organization. They will be such as

The profit, the level of international and internal organize control, have

a important contact on Management accounting.

The study has go through out the reason can be given details the limited

Development use of accounting system. Until beginning of the 1980's.

Firstly it was point out the cover in the economical, political and social

Transformation allow stability of the values of the traditional Spanish society. Until the beginning of the 1980's the organizational culture lack the modern values that favor the use of accounting system. the direction toward in the future, the standardize individualism and the rationalism On the contrary, until the 1980's in the companies the control was performed in direct way formal structure, paternalism and meeting of posts based on trust.

Secondly, almost until the end of the 1970's, the set of social control

Instruments of the Franco government were effective sufficient to agreement the

Control of the individual in the society and the organization. The

Cooperation with the wide-ranging minster for the ideological control of the family

life and the education, organize of the media, the restriction and the labour

order were competent instrument of control. The social agreement on

effective control of the individual and cheap the require of Management accounting control a instrument.

Thirdly, the Spanish companies had unexpected condition to get profit.

The high growth GNP involving 1950 and 1974, market no soaked, a high protection, high raise of the rent and the demand were factors that

Favore of a high profitability at most in the short run period. Under the condition

inspiration to utilize more management accounting.

Fourthly and last, the centralization, the recruit strategy direct control, the relation better-subordinate and the identified with the company secure, with a very simple Management accounting with the managerial control. That condition changed particularly from the middle 1980's until today. A progress growth and use of the management technique and in particular of management accounting system. Take place. There are four aspect that favorable in growth.

First of all the fast and performance economic, political and social innovation that

Spain knowledgeable, promote the appearance risk and uncertainty by management accounting can be persuade the need of anticipate the future, quantify the alternative risk and rising the confidence that emerge under these situation. transformation score of the organizations was rather mixed from the beginning of the 1980's until the middle of the 1990's. The infiltration of the transformation approach different among the organization . Some companies were more established and it took them longer to recognize the new values. They had a limited growth of the independence,

BRAC University Journal, vol. III, no.2, 2006, pp. 113-124

Management accounting development and practices in Bangladesh

The more growth of the marketplace in country, The most extra significant of management accounting. To take the place of rapidity with this growing market economy, it becomes necessary for the organizations approve to a new management accounting technique and opportunities. It is also important role for the Bangladesh organizations.

This paper seeks is to be gain an overview of the managing accounting practices in the listed developed companies of Bangladesh. Data has been collected by a questionnaire survey from eight industrialized sectors. The study has been revealed that thought the different in extent of practices amongst the sectors, all sectors are failed to practice some newly development technique. If these trends continue, Bangladeshi organizations will be covered behind in the event of global competitive and relative advantages. Therefore some strategy suggestion has been made to be developed and button up the management accounting practices.

Management accounting practices to help with the organization in all over the world. The globalization is increase the complication business with the high power technology which is used in system to newly development technique management accounting in all over the world. Previous study which is showing the privatization and trustworthy statement had to be contributing in the development in Bangladesh management accounting. That is the survey result of present management accounting practices in listed manufacturing sector reveals the state of sophistic technique which use to target costing for customer to life cycle costing in manufacturing and the customer is not satisfied.

To keep the place world changing in management accounting environment. Bangladeshi organization has adapted to the new lasted technique for research in management accounting development practices. A good technique are well balanced in the practices of irrespective sector may be a enhanced through compulsory statement in Bangladesh management accounting practices development of the manufacturing sector.

An Alternative Approach to Surveying

Management Accounting Practices

There is a agreement that management accounting practice has changed ultimately,

And changed more newly. Before the studies have use postal survey to be recognizing the management accountant position today. Few survey to find out reliable use of technique. conventional survey have the disadvantages of the survey released on the person with information willingly respond.

This study provide a novel survey method of data collection that decrease the disadvantages of using survey research, by the sampling exclusive of relying on respond and without relying on Linker balance. in sequence management accounting job description on the condition available website was used to clearly explain the extent and typical techniques that are required of management accountants in today's organisations.

The management accounting function is vast and involve several techniques. There were a total of 36 techniques they were creating as the type of technique the accountants use. Two parallel internet survey methods use in the study have been exposed reliable results and have also show consistencies and different to before postal survey. The internet survey methods used in this paper given an other approach of researching techniques use by the management accounting practices and practices in other role. The approach could be useful against to examine whether the change in technique emphasized by management accountant role are continuing change.

The management accounting role is vast and involves many techniques. They were choice of technique treatment forecasting, budgeting, cash flow management, strategic management accounting, and variance analysis create to be emphasize in condition vacant position. additional research of widely these technique confirmed in the advertisement are almost use in organizations should be conduct. If the real use of the techniques is confirmed, then education must focus on including these technique in the textbook and course of management accountant.

The two singular internet survey method used in the study have been expose reliable results. Management reporting forecasting & planning, operational budgeting, and capital budgeting had high occurrence of situations vacant advertisement in mutually internet survey. The internet survey also exposed consistenc and different to preceding postal survey. Cash flow management, operational budgeting, capital budgeting, strategic management accounting and variance analysis had high occurrence in the situations vacant adverts and rate significant by a few postal survey.

The seems is to be some relationship between the significance ratings of mail survey and the importance positioned in situation vacant advertisement. The importance of financial accounting techniques in the Australasian advertisements is a sign that organization expects management accountants to work with financial accounting technique. What requirements to be investigate is the descriptions in the job advertisements corroborate with what is actually done in a management accounting function after employment. To make positive that management accountants are known with financial techniques and financial accounting, it is suggested that financial accounting be jointly qualified to management accounting students.

Management accountants are estimated to regularly behavior action and also to use computer program, particularly Microsoft Excel. These intend to suit a

management accountant then become recognizable with computers and the

computer program obtainable that might be applicable management accounting role.