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Throughout his developmental voyage from Neanderthals to Homo erectus and further to Homo sapiens, human has travelled such a long way. Due to his unstoppable mission for more and more amenities, the nineties have viewed a drastic turn around with the creation of computers. 10 years ago, the expression internet was virtually unknown to most of the people. And now a day's internet has become the most ever influential instrument for every individual all over the world. The internet is a compilation of diversified services and resources.
Although, most of the people still think electronic mail and World Wide Web as the main elements of internet, there is lot more in store than electronic mail, explore engines, gossip rooms, and superstar's web sites. It also became the finest business device of modern state of affairs. At the moment internet has brought the world in a single room. Right from news across the other side of the world, wealth of information to shopping, acquiring the tickets of your desired movie, everything is in your hand. Internet has vast potential and lot to present.
TheÂ InternetÂ is a world wide organization of interrelatedÂ computer networksÂ that make use of the standardÂ Internet Protocol SuiteÂ (TCP/IP) to provide billions of users all over the world. It is a huge network attached to another networksÂ that includes millions of private, business, public and government networks of local to worldwide extent that are associated by an extensive array of electronic and visual networking expertise. The Internet holds an enormous collection of information and services, most particularly the inter-connected hypertextÂ credentials of theÂ World Wide WebÂ (WWW) and the facilities to maintainÂ electronic mail.
Internet has changed the industry
In several ways for example you can just chart and get in touch with the person you want to meet up with.
You can also purchase and sell through internet .You can make all the likely payment using the internet if you have a bank account.
Internet makes business feasible for you as you can know the progress going on with out visiting to the place which saves time in business dealings.
The Internet has more and more been an essential way for the broadcasting of business financial information to clients, suppliers and shareholders. Growing numbers of businesses have laid down websites and they are used for the distribution of financial information. In contrast to traditional printed based yearly reports, the Internet offers a growing number of consumers with financial information in a timely mode, and its significance in this regard is hastily increasing. It is expected that financial reporting in the coming future will shift from traditional printed media to utilizing the Internet as the most important information broadcasting channel (Xiao, Yang and Chow, 2004, Go Thorpe, 2004).
Internet financial exposure is intentional and unregulated. Recent investigation supply evidence of the pressure of the Internet on financial revelation practices in developed states. An increasing numbers of corporations in developed countries broadcast financial reporting by means of the Internet. The influence of the Internet on financial exposure in developing countries is nearly non-existent.
This emphasized the use of the Internet for broadcasting financial reporting by businesses scheduled on the Kuwait Stock Exchange in 2005. It also wanted to decide the factors influencing businesses to make use of the Internet for this reason. Kuwait suggests a particularly suitable background for the study for two reasons. First, the Kuwait Stock Exchange is becoming a vital capital market in the section. It is graded as the second biggest market in the Arab world (after Saudi Arabia) in terms of entire market capitalization. Its entire market investment was of US$123,892 million in December 2005 (Arab Monetary Fund, 2005). Second, Kuwait is growing and becoming a significant financial centre in the region. It opened up its capital market to foreign persons to spend directly in 2000 duty free. This could encourage shareholders to expand their investment portfolios into that market. With which shareholders may be attracted in the information disclosure practices of scheduled companies in Kuwait.
The outcomes demonstrated that 77% (110 of the 143 companies) had websites. The outcomes also demonstrated that 70% (77) of the companies with websites offered financial information on their websites. Almost 58% (64) of companies offered complete yearly reports, and 12% (13) of the companies distributed part of, or reviews of, their yearly reports. However, 30% (33) of companies did not present any financial information. Logit investigation indicated that the utilization of Internet financial reporting by scheduled companies in Kuwait could be forecasted supported by company size, liquidity, auditor and industry. Superior companies with inferior levels of liquidity that were inspected by local auditing companies associated with the BigÂ Four worldwide audit companies were more likely to connect in Internet financial reporting. In accumulation, insurance companies were more expected to slot in Internet financial reporting than other industries. The study fulfilled that the issues explaining voluntary implementation of Internet financial reporting in rising countries were size, liquidity, auditor and industry; whereas, size and cross-listing are the most vital explanatory variables in developed countries.
A company can be explained as a "synthetic person", with a distinctÂ legal entity,Â perpetual successionÂ and a general seal. It is not affected by the bereavement, insanity orÂ insolvencyÂ of an individual associate.
The English expression company has its genesis in theÂ Late LatinÂ term Â companioÂ or "companion", and theÂ elderly FrenchÂ military termÂ compaignieÂ (initially documentated in 1150), which means a "group of soldiers". By 1303, the term was related toÂ trade guilds. Utilization of company to "business organization" was first found in 1553 and the short form "co." dated from 1769.
A stakeholder, explained in a very excellent manner as an individual, party or association that has a straight or an indirect risk in a business due to the fact it can have an effect on or be affected by the association's actions, aims, and policies (business dictionary 2007). It was in the year 1980 that the perception of risk takers was developed by R. Edward Freeman.
A record of stakeholders may comprise one or more of the following as mentioned:
The individualwho is hired to offerÂ servicesÂ to aÂ businessÂ on a regular basis inÂ exchangeÂ for reward and who does not grant these services as part of an autonomousÂ business.
ItÂ is a collection of interacting beings sharing aÂ surrounding. InÂ humanÂ communities,Â aim,Â idea,Â capital, preferences,Â wants,Â risks, and a number of other circumstances may be present and frequent, affecting theÂ characterÂ of the participants and their level of cohesiveness.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Shareholders
They are the ones whoÂ ownsÂ sharesÂ ofÂ stockÂ in aÂ companyÂ orÂ mutual fund. For corporation, beside with theÂ possessionÂ comes aÂ rightÂ to statedÂ dividendsÂ and the right to vote on certainÂ business matters, with theÂ board of directors. Also known as stockholder.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Financiers
One who provideÂ moneyÂ toÂ investmentÂ goodsÂ with theÂ hopeÂ ofÂ financial come back. Usually, theÂ mainÂ concernÂ of an investor is to lessenÂ riskÂ while maximizing return, as opposed to anÂ entrepreneur, who is ready toÂ acceptÂ a high level of risk in the hope of getting higher than usualÂ profits.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Government
ItÂ is theÂ body, gear, or group through which have power, pedals and administerÂ public policy, and direct and reins the events of its members or subjects
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Contractors
AÂ companyÂ whichÂ provideÂ partsÂ orÂ servicesÂ to another business or entity. Also known as vendor.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Labour Unions
ItÂ is a group of personnel who have lined together to get general goals such as betterÂ operational conditions. The trade union, through its management, bargain with the company on behalf of unification members and negotiateÂ labor agreement(collective bargaining) with company.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Government regulatory organizations
An authoritarian group is a government section that has liability over the legislation for a given zone. Authoritarian agency exist at the central and state. These agencies can force a multiplicity of businesses, in a diversity of ways.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Industries buying and selling Groups
AÂ business trade group, also calledÂ trade association, is an association founded and funded byÂ businessesÂ that play role in a definite industry. An business trade association participate in community relations actions such asÂ publicity,Â teaching,Â political aid,Â lobbyingÂ and publish, but its major focus is teamwork between company.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Qualified Associates
AÂ professional associationÂ (also known asÂ professional society) is aÂ non-profit associationÂ looking for extra particularÂ occupation, the interest of persons busy in that career, and theÂ public notice.
The role of these expert relatives have been variously defined: "A cluster of community in a learned profession who are entrust with maintaining power or oversight of the rightful practice of the career;" also an organization stand-in "to defend the public interest;" organization which "signify the interest of the qualified practitioners," and so "act to continue their own honored and dominant spot as a scheming body."
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â NGOs
AÂ non-governmental organizationÂ (NGO) is a officially constitute, non-governmentalÂ union shaped byÂ normalÂ orÂ legal personnelÂ with no partaking or demonstration of any government. In the cases in which NGOs are fund completely or partly by governments, the NGO maintain its non-governmental rank by not including government council from relationship in the group. Nothing like the term "intergovernmental society", "non-governmental group" is a expression in all-purpose use but is not a authorized meaning. In many jurisdiction, these type of society are define as "social culture organization" or by other names.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Prospective employees
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Prospective clienteles
AÂ client, also calledÂ customer,Â purchaser, orÂ consumer, is generally used to pass on to a current or possible shopper or user of theÂ goodsÂ of an entity orÂ business, called theÂ provider,Â trader, orÂ merchant. This is classically throughÂ purchaseÂ orÂ rentÂ suppliesÂ orÂ services. Though, in certain context, the termÂ clientÂ also include by addition someone who use or experience the services of another. A client may also be a witness of the creation or repair that is being sold regardless of deciding not to acquire them.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Local communities
AÂ intellectÂ of society refers to commonÂ awarenessÂ ofÂ interconnectionÂ andÂ interdependence, jointÂ duty, andÂ generalÂ goals.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â National Communities
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Public (Community)
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Challengers
Competitor is persons, group, nation, animals, etc. for region, a niche, or a setting of capital. It arise at any time two or more party struggle for a objective which cannot be shared. contest occursÂ in natureÂ among living beings which co-exist in the same surroundings.
Every single one of the stakeholders is not basically equal and is permitted to different considerations (Business Dictionary, 2007). The initial is to make sure who precisely your stakeholders are. This is where risk takers Management take part. Stakeholder Management is the method by which you recognize your chief stakeholders and win their backup. Stakeholder examination is the initial stage of this, where you spot and start to understand your most essential stakeholders (Mind tools, 2007). The appropriate execution of this method concludes the success or crash of the project involved.
Being in contact with the market actually means being in contact with the people who will form up and influence its future: non-governmental associations, influencers, decision makers and customer groups. Maintain capability that can help you plot and priorities the spectrum portfolio of risk takers in your company or in a particular matter, and assist effective commitment that brings insight to communal prospect, the dilemma you require to administer and opportunities to innovate.
Our initial point is to be aware of your business's openness and vigilance for external commitment, through investigations and interviews to understand wants limitations and future aspirations. This work provides the basis for advice on priority stakeholders and methods of engagement.
We normally draw up and priorities stakeholders according to probable influence / affect and the business's ability / credibility to fit into place.
We then engage straightforwardly with main stakeholders to comprehend their interest in direct corporate commitment, any ground rules and opportunities. This allows us to put together and make possible an appropriate engagement - in personal meetings or a roundtable.
We supervise and report the output in a way that notifies businesses strategic development or evaluation needs. We also make sure the circle is enclosed with the concerned stakeholders in a way that constructs their belief and assurance.
Stakeholder psychoanalysis utilizes the methods of identifying the main people who have to be won over. Next step involves the risk takers planning procedure to successfully construct your support.
The chief advantages of having stakeholders comprises of:
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Worthy opinions, observation and suggestions of the prevailing stakeholders can help you figure your project while it is still in its embryonic stage. This can considerably show improvements in the value of your project.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â When you have powerful stakeholders sustaining you, this means you have entrance to useful resources as well. This way, the probability of your project hitting achievement levels is higher.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The vigorous participation of your risk takers in your project will make them comprehend the nature of your assignment and they can then contribute by energetically supporting your project.
â€¢Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â By imagining in advance the response of people to your project, you can construct into your objective that will win your people's support.
It is equally essential to prioritize your risk takers. Your stakeholder record may comprise of people and associations. It is significant here to make out who are affected by your work. It is a nice idea to categorize them by their power over your work and by their curiosity in your work. For example, your manager is likely to have lofty power and influence over your projects and towering interest. Your family may have huge concern, but are unlikely to have power over it (Mind tools, 2007). After having a cautious investigation, you will be able recognize your main stakeholders. The ultimate and most vital stage is to determine what exactly motivates your risk takers and then adopt the finest way to win them. Take into consideration what type of method would be needed and what information would the stakeholders require.
Productively conduction a risk takers examination in the early stages of planning can deeply improve the worth of a project.
AÂ financial statementÂ is an official documentation of the financial activities of a company, individual, or other entity. InÂ British English language-includingÂ United Kingdom corporation law-a financial statement is usually referred to as an account, although the expression financial statement is also used, mainly byÂ accountants.
For a business venture, all the appropriate financial knowledge, presented in a well-organized manner and in a form which is simple to understand, are called the financial statements. They usually consist of four fundamental financial statements:
Balance sheet: also known as statement of financial position or condition, news on a company'sÂ resources,Â liabilities, andÂ Ownership equityÂ at a given point in time.
Income statement: also referred to as Profit and Loss statement (or a "P&L"), reports on a company's income, expenses, and profits over a period of time. Profit & Loss account provide information on the operation of the enterprise. These include sale and the various expenses incurred during the processing state.
Statement of retained earnings: explains the changes in a company's retained earnings over the reporting period.
Statement of cash flows: reports on a company's cash flow activities, particularly its operating, investing and financing activities.
"The purpose of financial reports is to present data about the financial position, presentation and amendments in financial position of an organization that is helpful to an extensive range of users in generating economic decisions. Financial statements should be comprehensible, appropriate, reliable and comparable. Reported assets, liabilities and equity are straightforwardly related to a business's financial position. Reported revenue and costs are openly related to a business's financial performance.
Financial statements are planned to be comprehensible by readers who have sensible information of business accounting and economic activities and who are eager to study the information carefully.Â Financial statements may be used by consumers for various purposes:
Proprietor and managers have need of financial statements to make essential business decisions that influence its persistent operations.Â Financial investigationÂ is then carried out on these statements to give management with extra detailed understanding of the information. These statements are also used as a component of management's yearly report to the stockholders.
Workers also require these reports in makingÂ combined bargainingÂ agreement (CBA) with the organization, in the case ofÂ labor unionÂ or for personals in discussing their recompense, promotion and rankings.
ProspectiveÂ shareholdersÂ make use of financial statements to review the viability of investing in a company. Financial examination are frequently used by investors and are organized by experts (financial analysts), thus providing them with the source for making investment decisions.
Financial associations (banks and other lending companies) make use of them to decide whether to allow a company with newÂ working capitalÂ or widen debtÂ securitiesÂ (such as a long-termÂ bank loanÂ orÂ debentures) to finance growth and other important expenditures.
Government entities (tax authorities) require financial statements to ascertain the propriety and accuracy ofÂ taxesÂ and other duties affirmed and paid by a company.
Sellers who extend credit to a business need financial statements to evaluate the credit worthiness of the companies.
Media and the local public are also involved in financial statements for a variety of motives.
Financial statements have been formed on paper for hundreds of years. The growth of the Web has seen more and more financial statements created in an electronic form which is negotiable over the Web. Ordinary forms of electronic financial account are PDF and HTML. These sort of electronic financial statements have their negative aspect, in that it still takes an individual to read the information in order to recycle the data enclosed in a financial statement.
The use of information technology for insistent benefit is well known and repeatedly applied by business firms. Using stock information for companies programmed on the rising market stock exchanges in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Russia, and South Africa, this information offers empirical proofs as to the constructive dispersions in price and volume regarding the economic happening of investments in the Internet. We demonstrate that in spite of working in highly unstable capital markets, some emerging market companies attempt to differentiate themselves in the 1990s by spending in Internet technology. Our study donates to prior disclosure literature by providing confirmation regarding the purity and speed of adjustment (efficiency) of emerging markets to the latest (value relevant) qualitative data that is on the loose electronically by public companies.Â
Internet financial reporting relates to the utilization of a firm's website to distribute knowledge about the financial routine of the businesses. Usage of Internet financial reporting is effectually a process of marketing a firm to depositors and investors (Poon et al. 2003). According to Wagenhofer (2003), Internet financial reporting has at least two main economic effects. Firstly, the Internet changes information processing rates and with it the demand and supply of financial information in investment markets. Secondly, Internet financial reporting generates a demand for consistency; this leads to growth of XBRL (Wagenhofer 2003).Â
Brown and Warner (1980) stated that event studies gave a direct test of market effectiveness; their hypothesis are that the event will be moreover reflected in traded asset prices or in trading quantity, if the company news declaration is deemed value-relevant to their shareholders. The authors that a chief concern in event studies is that they tend to review the extent to which security prices execute around the time of the economic event as unusual. They also affirm that non-zero odd security returns that persist after a specific type of occasions are conflicting with the well-organized market hypothesis that security prices adjust quickly in order to fully reflect original information (Brown and Warner 1980).
Moreover, XBRLÂ (Extensible Business Reporting Language) is freely obtainable, market-driven, unwrapped, worldwide standard for exchanging business information. XBRL permitsÂ information modelingÂ and the appearance of semantic meaning normally needed in business reporting. XBRL isÂ based on XML. It utilizes the XML syntax and correlatedÂ XMLÂ technologies for exampleÂ XML Schema,Â XLink,Â XPath, and NamespacesÂ to eloquent this semantic meaning. One exercise of XBRL is to describe and exchange financial information, likewise a financial statement. The XBRL arrangement is build up and distributed byÂ XBRL International, Inc. (XII).
XBRL is a standards-based technique to correspond and exchange business information among business systems. These communications are described byÂ metadataÂ placed out in XBRLÂ taxonomies. XBRL taxonomies imprison the definition of personalÂ reportingÂ perceptions as well as the relationships between perceptions and otherÂ semanticÂ meaning. Information being corresponds or exchanged is provided with in an XBRL illustration.
There are several organizations all over the globe that have approved the usage of electronic financial statements, but the client has to register into the financial organization's website to enter into the document in PDF format. American Express and British Telecom utilizes this process, however once the document is downloaded it is the liability of the client to protect the document. The problem with this procedure is that the client could reject any knowledge that the information was leaked or misplaced through him or her, and could make the association likely for any act of fraud committed.
When financial information is has facilitated unauthorized admittance to a consumer's account the financial association supposes liability. In most of the cases it becomes more and more difficult to prove the client was accountable for the loss. As seen from the information commissioner's perspective if a client enters a bank's tenable website to download their bank statement, the bank ceases to be answerable for the financial figures. If the information is accessed on the customer's computer through a covert Trojan, it turns out to be the bank's liability to prove that they went through each and everything which is possible to guard that information from their end. But where tens of thousands of accounts are concerned, it becomes a threatening task to stretch the investigation to a reasonable level and will pay out to stay away from further expenses.
The Internet has generated a marketing revolution, providing a ground-breaking way for communicating with and selling to customers around the world. Undoubtedly, the character of the products and the consumer base of a company will influence how this e-marketing approach is being carried out on the Internet.Â For the typical business-to-customer (B2C) type of e-commerce, companies mainly focus on the marketing of their products to clients. During the last few years, there has been a latest marketing application of the Internet-Internet financial reporting (IFR). International Financial Reporting links to the use of the firms' web sites to broadcast information about the financial performance of the organizations. In this new approach, firms are utilizing the Internet to market their firms to shareholders and investors. In IFR firms (that is, firms that have implemented International Financial Reporting), the marketing activities no more are limited to the products, and the firms' web sites are not devoted solely to ordinary buyers.
The execution of International Financial Reporting has formed new challenge for administration and internal examiners/auditors that are accountable for establishing and evaluating the essential controls, respectively. This article serves up to initiate discussions on this matter. On the bases of studies in the US, the UK, Ireland and Hong Kong, chief concerns that administration and internal auditors should attend to if their companies have applied or planed to implement International Financial Reporting are identified here.
In a 1999 article in Accounting Horizons, the authors talked about a survey that implicated an illustration of 290 companies in the US between November 1997 and January 1998.Â Their work produced the following main findings:
While 70 percent of the samples were International Financial Reporting companies, the financial information reported by these companies varied significantly in the suitability of online reporting, and, thus, its usefulness.
The worth of a firm's International Financial Reporting relies on how easy it is to access its online financial information, the sum of this information reported and whether customers can download or evaluate this information. A 2001 editorial in Communications of the ACM described the findings of another study of International Financial Reporting in the US.Â It evaluated a total of 203 web sites. The study suggested that the collection of the financial data items to be reported on a firm's web site was determined by the relative complexity of the companies' particular customer base. The number of professional stock analysts that track the company was positively linked with relatively objective, more widespread information, for example, same-day stock prices. On the other side, the number of retail investors (personals investing for their own accounts) was positively linked with relatively subjective, more condensed information, such as discussion of the benefits of possessing a companies' stock that contained management analysis. (It was understood that retail investors normally were less sophisticated financially.) An analysis of the top 50 firms (in market capitalization) in the UK by LymerÂ Â in 1997 established that:
Of the samples, 60 percent have put International Financial Reporting into practice.
The most general financial information on web sites was unaudited provisional accounts, which emerged out in 57 percent of the International Financial Reporting companies. A reasonable explanation is that companies tried to distribute the newest information available about their activities.
Of the International Financial Reporting companies, 96 percent made their online financial information obtainable not beyond than one hyperlink from their web sites. This high level of openness indicated that International Financial Reporting FR companies considered the data to be of considerable interest to their site's visitors. In Ireland, an equivalent study by Brennan and Hourigan in 1998 included 91 public companies scheduled on the Irish Stock Exchange along with 15 commercial semi-state firms.Â They discovered that, on average, 65 percent of the models were International Financial Reporting companies. In accumulation, they revealed that:
The position of online financial information was not always clear. For example, in a few International Financial Reporting companies, the financial data was placed improperly in the press release area.
On numerous sites, the linked web pages were not connected by means of hyperlinks. The stipulation of hyperlinks for linked web pages would have been helpful in navigating among linked online financial items.
The arrangement and contents of financial information normally were not modified to the new reporting intermediate. Most companies prepared data in sheets rather than screens, and consumers had to scroll back and forth through large numbers of data to bring together all the information.
Motivated by the increasing reputation of International Financial Reporting in western states, the authors of this article carried out a study in April 2002 to comprehend the existing International Financial Reporting implementations in Hong Kong.Â It would be of huge interest to recognize how well developed the implementation of International Financial Reporting has been followed in Hong Kong, where the usage of the Internet to broadcast financial information is currently on a discretionary basis.
The top 100 stocks scheduled in the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong restrict (in terms of average market capitalization in the previous 12 months and collective turnover for the past 24 months) were reviewed. These 100 companies composed the Hang Seng Index (HSI), which is a well acknowledged indicator of the Hong Kong stock market.
The key findings were:
From all of the 100 firms considered, 94 of them have prepared their own web sites, whereas the rest six have not. Of the 94 companies with established web sites, 87 have supplied online financial information of different categories and extent. Bearing in mind the difference in time periods between our study and the formerly explained investigations, the percentage of International Financial Reporting companies in Hong Kong (87 percent) is still at any rate comparable to that in the US (70 percent), the UK (60 percent) and Ireland (65 percent). Table 1 displays the proportions of International Financial Reporting companies across major industrial zones, as defined by HSI. The table above shows that International Financial Reporting implementations are well-liked across all kinds of industries under study.
The online financial information supplied by the 87 International Financial Reporting companies comprises yearly reports, provisional reports, yearly or provisional results, real-time share price movements and previous payments for every share. Table 2 demonstrates the division of each of these five forms of information in the International Financial Reporting companies. The table point outs that the three most common forms are yearly reports, provisional reports, and yearly or provisional results. This statement is in line with finding (b) by LymerÂ concerning the popularity of the distribution of unaudited provisional accounts on companies' web sites. In addition, the provision of temporary reports and results, and real time share price movements, as shown in table 2, proposes that many International Financial Reporting companies have understood the significance of timely online reporting, which largely influences the usefulness of the reported financial data.
Most of the annual or provisional reports/results were incorporated into the companies' web sites in PDF layout. A possible reason for this is that it needs a minimal attempt for producing the online electronic edition based on the hardcopy edition. This practice, however, will lessen the usefulness of companies International Financial Reporting. As affirmed earlier in the findings of the UK study, the reported financial information would be more useful if it were arranged in a format that facilitates subsequent data investigation (for example, by the information in an electronic spreadsheet).
Generally, the higher the net profit the company has, the higher the chance the company can apply International Financial Reporting. For example, of the selected companies whose net profits are below HK $500 million, merely 76 percent of them have applied International Financial Reporting. As compared to those whose net profits are more than HK $500 million, about 96 percent of them are International Financial Reporting companies.
The market capitalization of companies is not noticeably correlated to whether the company has implemented International Financial Reporting. However, if only International Financial Reporting companies are careful, those with better market capitalization tend to supply more types of online financial information on their web sites. For example, only about 44 percent of the International Financial Reporting companies with market capitalization below HK $2,000 million have provided yearly reports, provisional reports and other forms of financial information on their web sites.
On the other hand for International Financial Reporting companies with market capitalization exceeding HK $20,000 million, this percentage boosted up to 81 percent.
Certainly, International Financial Reporting will become more and more popular globally. In November 1999, a squad of academics organized a discussion paper referred to "Business Reporting on the Internet" for the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC).Â Similar programs correlated to International Financial Reporting as well have been made by the US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).Â In large part the reasons of these studies were to determine the kind of corporate (including financial) information companies report outside of financial statements, and to shed new light on the exciting potential and problems of the Internet and technology on the business reporting universe.
The International Financial Reporting implementation by companies generates new tests to management, establishing the control structure and to internal examiners/auditors in charge of evaluating the controls. LymerÂ has quarreled that satisfying the model of International Financial Reporting (firms provide, users use), which leads towards many composite issues further carried out in four aspects:
What to report
When to report
How to report
Who is accountable to report based on the earlier described surveys, various important matter to which administration and internal examiners/auditors should give attention, follows:
What to report: The coverage and the intensity of International Financial Reporting have to be measured.
Important matters in this facet comprise: - Coverage- What types of financial information should the company report online? This study has acknowledged five common forms of online financial information, namely yearly reports, momentary reports, yearly or temporary results, real time share price movements and previous payments per share, as exposed in table 2. Are these forms of financial information sufficient and adequate for the variety of predicted users? If not, what other thing should be reported? It has been recommended that comparative complexity of the users should be taken into consideration. From an auditing point of view, where information can be disaggregated to their components, the auditing of GAAP faithfulness becomes inappropriate.Â This is because the information can be manipulated in its place through a variety of GAAP filters to create accounts in any GAAP that may be essential.
When to report: The rate of recurrence and time of reporting will rely on the type of financial information accounted. Some essential issues are: - Should the provisional results be reported on a quarterly or half yearly basis? - Should the yearly report (which includes the examiners report) be provided online straight away after the completion of the yearly check exercise? - How lengthy should the financial performance information is posted to the company's web site after the figures have been released legitimately by means of the press?
How to report: In his administrative statement,Â the chief executive of Companies said that data should be transported in such a way that clientele find it most suitable to receive and utilize. To attain this end, administration and internal auditors/examiners should consider the following matters: - Are consumers able to download online financial information in a format that assists subsequent investigation (for example, in the shape of an electronic spreadsheet)? - Is the financial information positioned in the appropriate section on the company's web site? - How profound from the home page of the web site do consumers have to navigate to recover the relevant financial information? - Is the online financial information set in an appropriate screen format to shun the requirement for the users to unnecessarily scroll back and forth through large volumes of information? - Are the web pages that include the online financial information inter related through hyperlinks? - Should the extended business reporting language (XBRL) be utilized for IFR? XBRL constructs use of the extended markup language (XML) to ease the distribution of business reporting information. (XML allows data to be "obvious" in such a way as to encapsulate figures or sequences of words not only for demonstrate, but also as objects including information, numbers and words with close meaning and context.)
Who is accountable to report: The people or the business units in the company that are involved in IFR will have an impact on the accurateness of the accounted financial information. Typical matters are: - Who is/are accountable for deciding which financial information should be posted online? - Who is/are to blame for redistribution of the online financial information? - Who is/are answerable for confirming and approving the online financial information?
The business size, liquidity, auditor and industry are features linked with the voluntary implementation of Internet financial reporting. Bigger companies with lesser levels of liquidity that were inspected by local auditing companies associated with the Big Four international audit companies were more probable to connect in Internet financial reporting. In addition, insurance firms were more probable to connect in Internet financial reporting than other industries. These conclusions mean that the issues explaining voluntary acceptance of Internet financial reporting in rising countries were size, liquidity, auditor and industry; whereas, size and cross-listing are the most essential descriptive variables in developed countries.
Internet financial reporting amongst corporation domiciled in developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe, New Zealand and China are dissimilar as compared to those in developing countries.
There are various prospect research opportunities in this area. The study of the determinants of intentional adoption of Internet financial reporting by firms planned around the globe could be repeated at a future expected date to conclude whether more firms had approved Internet financial reporting and what forced them on doing so. This would supply essential advices to regulators. Additional studies in other developing states would be of attention, as the International Accounting Standard Board aims to standardize Internet financial reporting. International evaluations of the determinants of Internet financial reporting would be helpful in the progress of a comprehensive forecasted Internet financial reporting replica.
Without ambiguity, the growing reputation of Internet Financial Reporting (IFR) will persist in many states and its following cities, after business have recognized many benefits connected with it. It will be hazardous for the management and internal inspectors of a company to pay no heed to Internet Financial Reporting (IFR). Certainly, in the interest of the users of financial information, organization and internal auditors have to grant their proficiency to make sure that the electronic forms of reporting creates quality financial information. This paper serves to instigate discussions on this subject, and lists main issues that management and internal auditors should pay notice to in relation to Internet Financial Reporting (IFR).