Examining perspectives on CAAP and PPC

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Establish concepts for the incorporation of Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP) and Production Planning and Control (PPC). Characterizes the current situation regarding integration by a one-way communication from CAPP to PPC, since a revised link is not envisaged. Introduces a new approach to full integration by the extension of functions within both systems' components as well as integration of both data and information technology.

Moscoso, et al. (1999, pp. 1492-1506) said that 'In a business era characterized by a dazzling rate of change, the improvement of production planning and control begins to be a main objective for manufacturing industries. This paper postulates four main statements to be considered for the design of production planning and control systems (PPC-systems) comprising human and technical sub-systems. The first is that production models required for the design of PPC-systems (i.e. design models) cannot be identical to production models required for planning and control of production systems (i.e. regulatory models). The design of PPC-systems must primarily focus on the quality of interaction between the regulatory models. This insight supports the second statement, which postulates that the design of PPC-systems requires a complementary design approach. Complementary design means to take explicitly into account that human and technical sub-systems- based on the differences in strengths and weaknesses of both- can achieve through their interaction a new quality, possible neither to human nor technical sub-systems alone. The third statement is that a complementary design of PPC-systems will only be possible if a fundamental change of mind from a static to a dynamic as well as from a technical to a socio-technical perception (i.e. a complete perception) of production systems takes place. Without a complete perception of production systems, designed PPC-systems will not be sufficiently reliable, maintainable and flexible, will be difficult to comprehend, and their elements will not be re-usable for further applications. The fourth statement is that the integral support of the design process requires a dual modelling framework comprising a meta- and an object-model. Considering these fundamental insights that were confirmed by a practical case study, a dual modelling framework for the design of PPC-systems which incorporates criteria for complementary design is outlined'.

Wiendahl H-P. and Breithaupt J-W. (June 1999, pp. 389-401)

Nowadays, in a fast-changing production environment, companies have to adapt their production structures rapidly. Therefore, new methods for production planning and control (PPC) are required that consider these dynamic changes. Today's PPC systems are mainly based on static models. Now, a dynamic production model has been developed applying methods of control theory. Using the funnel model and the theory of the logistic operating curve, a continuous model of a single production system has been developed. For the control task, a backlog as well as a work-in-process (wip) controller have been developed. The controllers interact to adjust the capacity and input rate of the work system to eliminate the backlog as soon as possible and to set the wip to a defined level. Simulation experiments confirm that this concept ensures the synchronization of capacity and work. In an ongoing research project, an extended model for several work systems connected via the material flow has been designed, which is based on the elementary one. A suggestion to integrate the strategy into PPC on the planning level has already been generated. The objective of this approach is to develop the present open-loop control realized in PPC into a closed-loop control with defined control and reference variables.

Zülch G. and Fischer J. (March 2003, pp. 146-154)

During the realization of the CAESAR planning games, which has been supported by the European Leonardo da Vinci Programme, the use of modular planning games within a global scenario has shown to be very effective in concisely relaying educational content from the area of production management. In particular the close-to-reality situations have proven, time and again, to be highly motivating for seminar participants. In order to improve the transferability of acquired knowledge into practise, the ifab-Institute of Human and Industrial Engineering of the University of Karlsruhe has further developed the INSIGHTS-PPC planning game for production planning and control, in such a way that the planning tasks to be tackled are set in direct relation to market similar repercussions. This is realized in a new market share model. The market share model will be explained, paying particular attention to the practical consequences which come along with the implementation of such a model. Despite the potential of the developed market share model and the positive feedback from seminar participants there is a risk of the participants being diverted from the intended educational content, that of production logistic fundamentals and techniques, and of them perceiving the focus of the seminar as a relaying of market mechanisms.

Alessandra Orsoni and Romeo Bandinelli (2007, pp. 19 - 31)

Remote scheduling is a fast growing area of research in the wider area of Production Planning and Control (PP&C). Many solutions have been reported in the literature and many scheduling tools are currently available, however, the criteria for their evaluation and comparison remain loosely defined. This paper proposes an overview of existing solutions, highlighting their advantages and limitations, to support academics and industrial users in their choices of scheduling techniques and Inter Process Communication (IPC) solutions for the remote and online scheduling of production. This paper also proposes design guidelines and performance measures against which production managers can evaluate and improve their solutions.

Gonzalez, V.; Alarcon, L. F.; Mundaca, F. (July 2008 pp.461-474)

Variability is a well-known problem in construction projects, which leads to the general deterioration of project performance. During the last decade, the Last Planner System (LPSâ„¢), a production planning and control system based on lean production principles, has been increasingly applied in the construction industry to improve planning reliability reducing the negative impacts of variability. LPSâ„¢ promotes actions to increase planning reliability, monitoring the percentage of plan completed (PPC) in a short-term period. However, there is limited research evidence about the relationship between planning reliability and project performance. In this paper, the authors report on a detailed research analysing this relationship during the construction phase of a home building project at activity and project levels. By doing so, two indexes are proposed: an activity planning reliability index called the process reliability index (PRI), and a project aggregate labour productivity index, called the project productivity index (PPI). Statistical analyses using the proposed indexes were conducted showing positive and strong relationships between planning reliability and performance at activity and project levels. Finally, the research findings provide the guidelines of a preliminary methodology to forecast the impacts of planning reliability over project performance, when lean production methodologies are applied in project planning and control.

Wiendahl H.-P.; Seliger G.; Perlewitz H.; Burkner S. (December 1999 pp. 718-726)

Closing product and material cycles have emerged as a paradigm for industry in the 21st century, and are directed towards an economical and responsible use of our limited resources. Disassembly plays a key role in recycling. It enables the recovery of functioning components for re-use of pure materials for re-utilization and the separation of harmful substances. Major challenges are presented by the enormous variety of products to be disassembled, by uncertainty as to quantity and by their unknown properties. An appropriate planning and control of disassembly processes is essential for an economic disassembly. Based on an investigation of the suitability of common production planning and control (PPC) methods for disassembly, a specific disassembly planning and control concept (DPC) is outlined.

Wiendahl, H.-H.; Von Cieminski, G.; Wiendahl, H.-P. (1Oct2005. pp.634-651).

Manufacturing companies often complain about the difficulties they face in meeting their customers' logistic requirements. Many blame the perceived inadequacies of their production planning and control (PPC) software for their performance deficits. The paper illustrates why this is only a partial view of the causes of the shortcomings. PPC software is just one of six configuration aspects of the entire PPC system. The authors argue that the configuration of the PPC aspects objectives, processes, objects, functions, responsibilities and tools has to be carried out methodically and consistently in order for the PPC system to function properly. The analysis of examples of so-called `stumbling blocks' of PPC, inadequate configurations of one or several of the aspects, supports this claim. The paper closes with the proposal of a checklist that the authors suggest as a first approach to ensure the consistent configuration of PPC systems.

Olhager J.; Wikner J. (April 2000. pp. 210- 222).

There are numerous tools available to be used for production planning and control purposes. The number of tools is ever increasing, and so are the levels of sophistication as well as complexity. For the specific manufacturing firm, the task of selecting the most appropriate set of tools is not trivial. However, in recent years, the understanding of the relationship between tools and manufacturing environments for which they are suitable has increased. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of production planning and control tools available today, as well as new trends, issues and ideas.

Luczak H.; Nicolai H.; Kees A. (July 1998. pp.448-456).

The growing number of production enterprises that use software systems to support the production planning and control (PPC-systems) and the limited life-time of these systems imply that many enterprises have to decide whether or not an existing PPC-system is worthwhile reengineering. The factors that have an impact on this decision are non-quantifiable. Since the fuzzy-set-theory provides facilities to deal with nonquantifiable variables, a decision-tool based upon a fuzzy model was conceived.

Starbek M.; Grum J. (1 December 2000. pp. 765-774).

There are many computer-aided production planning and control (PPC) systems available on the market which can provide a solution to the complex task of production planning and control. However, the question remains, how can a company find an optimal system from the vast amount of available systems? This article proposes that a company, having decided to buy one of the available systems, starts a project for selection and implementation of the PPC system.

Hermann Kuhnle, Hans-Jurgen Braun, Jorg Buhring (1994. pp. 21 - 27).

Introduces concepts for the integration of Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP) and Production Planning and Control (PPC). Characterizes the current situation regarding integration by a one-way communication from CAPP to PPC, since a revised link is not envisaged. Introduces a new approach to full integration by the extension of functions within both systems' components as well as integration of both data and information technology.