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- 1) Mountain-The Alps (main) 2) Uplands 3) Lowlands
- Europe once forested, now mostly fields and grasses
- Temperate Midlatitude Cimate (NW Europe)- Warmed, wetted by North Atlantic Drift/Gulf Stream. Mediterranean climate (Southern Europe)- Hot, dry summer, with mild, winter rainy season. Europe looks to have big impacts from climate change, North Europe could be cooler and drier; Mediterranean drier.
- No pristine environments. Europe gets most electricity from a combo of Russian gas piped long distances and nuclear. Increasingly look to wind, and solar where applicable, Iceland does geothermal, which is using steam from underground to power turbines to generate electricity or heat homes directly.
- Feudalism- where competitive knights protected serfs who cultivated their land
- Humanism- that protected right if individual. Renaissance, The Protestant Reformation,
- Age of Exploration- , Started with Spain and Portugal (building on Italians wealth)
- Industrial Revolution-
- Democracy came slowly, violently, to all classes- To women later than men.
- Nation state- (1 people 1 country)
- The two World Wars – which leveled Europe and included the holocaust against Jews, Roma and other groups – shifted power to U.S. and U.S.S.R. In 1980’s, reforms and then democratic revolutions in Eastern Europe
- Predecessor: The European Economic Community (EEC), in 1958, Removed some tariffs, cooperate instead of war. In 1992, a treaty enlarged the concept of the EEC to that of the EU, which would be political as well as economic.
- The Economic and Social Integration, A Common European Currency, The European Union in the Global Economy, Common regulation and deliberation, Geopolitical Counterforce to the United States.
- Economic and Social Integration- Create one giant, free flowing market, Create common human-rights, environmental laws, Lessen economic difference between members. Common European Currency- The Euro (initiated in 1999, widely used in 2002)
- Has exacting standards for membership,political stability, democratically elected government, functioning market economy, respect for minorities. Original members worry about effect of new members on economy. Turkey
- Starting around 2001, several Icelandic Banks began loaning money and accepting overseas deposits whose value was many times bigger than the actual economy of Iceland. This is the opposite of what happened in Greece. Badly run Greece took deposits from equally foolish banks and had massive debt. It could not deflate currency because it had the Euro, so it decimated social services as part of terms for a bailout from Germany which repaid banks.
- Deindustrialization-Was once, with US, greatest industrial area in the world. Tourism is 1/8 of jobs, b/c of generous state mandated vacations
- Consumers willing to pay higher prices for freshness, small farms and environmental friendliness
- More people in apartments, post WWII apartment blocks semi-detached (town-homes) homes, walking friendly
- Because couples average less than 2 children, population is actually shrinking in some places. Problems- Need workers to fund welfare program, Need workers to fill skill jobs, consume, Need young workers to care for aged.
- Schengen Agreement removed many border checks within European Union, Easier for Europeans to move within in the continent for tourism. Fears that Europeans, who prided themselves on being distinct from one another, are homogenizing.
- Guest workers- from nearby North Africa and Turkey are invited to fill open jobs. Policies of host countries regarding guest workers vary dramatically from one country to the next.
- Assimilation- before acceptance differ U.S. and Canada practice acculuration model immigrants only need to be self-supporting and functional.
- Higher representation of women in politics than anywhere else (esp. North Europe). Double Days-
- Social Welfare System- The elaborate, high tax supported systems that serve all citizens. Social democratic (Scandinavia) attempt to achieve equality across gender and class lines. Rudimentary (Southern Europe, Ireland) provide minimal support and rely on extended family. Post-communist (East Europe) free apartments, women’s work, free meals collapsed with command economies.
- Horse Racing, Fox Hunting, Cricket. The half-day off on Saturday gave workers free time, Playing Fields and the urban parks legislation turned parks and green space into center of leisure time for workers, Owners- schoolmasters saw team sports as way to teach teamwork and discipline, As professional teams emerge, allows people to spend time as spectators. 1960’s begin to see the turnaround, when former colonies begin surpassing colonizers (Brazil in Soccer, India/West Indies in Cricket, table tennis in China).
Russia and Former-Soviet States
- North European plain is most densely populated. permafrost which keeps water on surface, make marshes. steppes (grasslands).
- Region dominated by continental climate- Little moderating water effects, land heats and cools to extremes, Siberia has many resources (including its taiga forest), but its size and temperature makes them hard to remove (although people are trying, especially at forestry), Little good agricultural land, short growing season. Caucuses grew fruits and vegetables, Ukraine is “bread basket”
- Development now taking precedence over environmental controls.
- Many residential areas built next to major industrial complexes. “non-point” – not identifiable to a single source.
- Because of large size, little regulation, clear cutting of forests occurs in Siberia- Likely to get worse as economy picks up. Causes flooding which destroys habit, Also get thermal pollution where turbine heated water causes temperature shift, kills small animals, plant.
- Aral Sea is disappearing- Cotton in Central Asia is a very lucrative crop, must be irrigated, By 1980’s no water reaching sea, Lost 75% of volume, 50% of surface area, Salt, chemicals blown from seabed destroying lungs, B/c so lucrative, not going to stop.
- Much of region once dominated by Central Asian nomads who herded from Black Sea to Lake Baikal. Slavs emerged in Poland/Ukraine/Belarus around 600, Rus (maybe from Scandinavia) between 800-1000.
- Began colonial type relationship with conquered lands outside of European Russia. Was incredibly inequitable: czar and small aristocracy owned land and serfs who were bound to them.
- Bolsheviks, a small group of strict communists, gain control, to own and profit from means of production. Goal to establish a purely egalitarian, eventually stateless society-goal didn’t happen.
- Under Stalin a command economy instituted- ? Led to rise of secret police and gulag archipelago (Siberian prison system).
- Bureaucrats in Moscow decided levels, types, and locations of production for state companies and farms. Most investment in military and heavy equipment, little for consumers.
- Cold War. Russia dominates after dissolution, despite many new states.
- Pros: Extend influence throughout territory, Also, dispersed, hard to attack. Cons: Transport cost very high, Poor transport kept mega industrial regions, with their co-dependent efficiencies, from developing.
- The acronym is BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China).