The purpose of this essay is to let the reader know that there are some factors that affect environment around and far away from the location of an event, and also assess any challenge that may happened when dealing with this environment problem in the event management industry. The scope of this essay is limited and not focusing on one certain event only, but only talk about some kind of events generally without discuss those events deeply. The analysis is conducted by getting the example of some events and analyzes why those kinds of events may help or even damage the environment. While on assessing the challenge, this essay finds the challenge and comment the value of them. The most important and significant findings is when the effects of an event to the environment may caused pollution by direct and indirect ways. However there is finding about the good side of an event to its environment. And some challenge for this issue is about how to solve, educate, and maintain the process in order to get this environment issue fulfilled.
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First of all we must know the definition of event itself. Based on Allen, O'Toole, Harris& Mcdonnell (2005) state that event is certain ceremony, act, presentation or tribute that are intentionally designed, programmed and created to held certain occasions or else get any benefit in cultural, social, and the goal of business. We can see the different types of events such as sport events, festivals, carnivals, parades, market, trade shows, until just a meeting( Arcodia, 2009). And based on the size we can see from just local communities with local people as audiences to mega-events in which the audience is from around the world (Allen, O'Toole, Harris& Mcdonnell, 2005.
In this essay I explore the answer for issues that will be discussed. The scope of this essay is about issues in the effect that an event can be caused, either in social, economic, and also environment. Not only the affects it selves but also this essay cover the topics in assessing the challenges that may occurs to environment management industry. I focus on identifying environments factors that effecting events by offering analysis to it. Also in this essay I set the limit about the kind of events into just festival, cultural events, and social events, so the prospects of the person who reads are limited and as a result this met their expectation since that this essay only talked about something in wide scope ,not in detail.
When we talk about environment effects of an event, we cannot be far from pollution. Pollution is the biggest issue ever that every government must face in order to protect their environment. Based on curry and Moutinho (1992) that said "the relationship between tourism and environment is a symbiotic relationship in sense that conservational area, wild life, and preservation of sites and monuments of historical interest often a response to tourism demand but have the effect of stimulating and maintaining the flow of visitors to that region," government cares about the environment because they can get profit from tourism sector. So that in defining any effects in this essay, I divide the effects into two parts. The first is the negative effect of an event to the environment, and the next one is the positive effect of an event to the environment. Then based on those negative effects I will divide it into two parts as well. The direct negative effect of an event to environment and also the indirect negative effect of an event are that parts. After that there are some challenges about environment caused by effect of events in event management industry.
Firstly we will talk about the negative effects of an event to the environment. Just like I stated in the introduction, this negative effects are divided into two categories, the direct negative effects and indirect negative effects as well. The meaning of negative is already known, it can be something bad, terrible, not proper and many more, but the meaning of direct negatives effect in this essay is about any bad effects that may occurred as the straight result of an event to its environment that come from the waste and material procession of the event itself. Then I will identify some certain events that give direct negative effect to the environment and analyze why that events may cause those damage. The first event is Taiwan lantern festival which held every year when about thousands of Taiwanese light balloon of lantern that made from oil-soaked in folded paper and then put it in high pole. This caused the debris from that lantern to litter the environment and one day this set a fire near Taiwan International Airport, thus create huge amount of cloud and later on many flight is cancelled temporarily. Those smokes may contain carcinogenic chemicals and also benzene that are harmful for people's health and also becomes pollutant that may damage environment (Adam, 2008). Similar with lantern festival is Floating Lantern Festival in Chiang may where the usage of old style natural material made from banana trunk with the leaves stick in the trunk is replaced by Styrofoam that resulting in the river banks, ponds, and parks being littered and obstructed. This lead to broken environment since the cleaning up progress may consume more time. (Jonal, 2009). The next event is Diwali festival that held in India that consist with bursting crackers. This event may pollute air since the crackers may release toxic gases. The third example is about Bourgas festival in Bulgaria. In that festival, people build seven stages and then makes tent in sea garden park which resulting everlasting and significant effects to its animals and plants. The result is becoming worse every year. This damage to environment mainly caused by that construction, mass amount of people with tents, and the poor of storage bin with poor restroom facilities as well (Illiev, 2009). The last example of direct effect to environment is the Ganesh Festival in Western India. In this festival, big doll is created using plaster of paris and noxious metals which are destructive substance and then coated with paints that may contains cadmium, mercury, and carbon. All of this doll is put into water that resulting in the decrease of oxygen level in the water which later on may lead to dangerous health for human who eat any fish that contaminated in that water. This festival is clearly polluted the water with the ecosystem within it (Nita, 2007). However, pollution is not restricted only to material pollution but, "Poorly designed hotels and other tourist facility buildings, and inadequate or inappropriate landscaping, create visual pollution in an area", ( Kaur &Batra, 1996)
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Now we go to the indirect negative effect of an event to its environment. The meaning of this indirect effect is any consequence from the performance of an event that resulting in the damage of environment by people activity that they did in order to be able to participate in that event. People do everything they could to participate in any certain festivals, sport events, and more events or they just become spectators in that event. By doing that thing, realized or not they have been participating in the destruction of environment. People don't realize when they littering in the area where the events was held. It is still okay if government or official clean up the mess, but the problem occurred when the mess is not quickly being cleaned as it may pollute the environment. They even don't realize that when they go to an event, they use vehicle such as cars, planes, and even ships which all of them is participate in polluting any land, water, and air. The bigger a festival is, the more people will come all around the world. For instance is Glastonbury Festival of Contemporary Performing Arts which is the biggest music festival in the world. Many arts performed there such as music, arts, cabaret, and dance (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, 2009). Being the biggest in the world, we can imagine how many people from different contingents in this world travel only to England where the event took place. Most people must be use planes, ships, and even cars. In Vietnam, many different countries in Europe, U.S., and Asia are participating Hue cultural festival that have tourism, buy and sell and investment fair that participated by qualified local and foreign business (Viet Nga Tourism, 2008). With so many foreign countries participate in, we can assume that more different region of people will come to Vietnam. The other events that contain many different countries are when 15 countries attend Asian-African Children Art and Culture Festival in Jakarta, Indonesia. Even the committee expected up to 25 countries will bring their delegation to attend arts performance, games, and storytelling (Zhao, 2009). Of course it is not as big as Glastonbury festival that may attended by million people or more, but this events still makes people around the world go by plane that participated in air pollution that damage the environment. At this moment I will analyze why cars, planes, and ships that all of them are used by people to attend any events is damaging the environment. Pollution from car is the most pollution that people committed. Any emission from car is give bad effect to the driver and people around that car. Climate change is the responsibility of car as well since the engines create greenhouse gas accumulation. The change in climate may produce extreme weather that lead to failure in production of plant fields (Environmed Research, Inc., 2009). Global climate change also worsen by plane that some people belief that it produce more main greenhouse gas than cars each time since it produce carbon dioxide more in average. Annual global warming as big as Africa Island was also produced by planes (Kirby,2000). And finally is the ship pollution that worsens the environment condition. It makes noise that bother natural world, its ballast tank destroy algae and animals while sometimes it produce illegal waste to the sea. Its sulphur oxide makes acid rain that later on damage crops and when its' inhaled by people lead to heart attack. Moreover Cruise ship that people tend use to held some events like festival, concert abroad it or just as a transportation facility to attend any event in different island. Cruise ship produce solid sewage ,oily bilge, and of course air pollutants (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2009).
When we talk about positive effect of an event to its environment, we talk about any good thing that may help and prevent the environment from damage. The first example is about Tzu Chi bazaar of food held in Medan, Indonesia. This bazaar's profit will be allocated to the development of any ruin building caused by earthquake in Padang. Moreover in this bazaar that sold vegetarian food, and environment friendly tools, people must bring their own recycle bag because in this bazaar forbid any plastic bag that might damage the environment (Redaksi Web, 2009). Other positive event is Plant for the Planet: Billion Tree Campaign which backed by Kenyan environmentalist, Prince of Monaco, and ICRAF. This campaign rehabilitates million hectares of land by planting billion of trees that will bring back soil and water resources, ecosystem of forest that later on reduce global warming by hold the carbon dioxide level in the air (West,2009). Based on The Nature Conservancy (2009), Nature conservancy campaign to help protect coral reefs also can be a positive effect for environment. That campaign is just similar with thousand island conservancy event in Indonesia that start everything about Hawksbill Turtle from hatching, rearing, tagging, and releasing that can be joined by general people (Pulau seribu.net, 2008).
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Then if we want to assess the challenge that provided to this environment issue in event management industry, we must know the challenge itself. The main challenge of course is how to prevent and reduce the pollution that occurs from the celebration of events. Many ways can be done to prevent the pollution, such when held Taiwan Lantern festival, people can use virtual lampoon instead of real fire. People can follow the rule not to littering and leave no trace campaign that they must clean up any mess that occurs because of them. Make substitution for event properties such as doll made from natural friendly material can help protect the environment as well. In order to reduce the car pollution is by buying fuel-efficient cars, use bio-fuel gasoline, and do not drive a car in often time (Environmental Defense Fund, 2009). To reduce plane pollution is by not flying into near distance of destination; go to event close to home and use teleconference technology in spite of use flight for business (Kirby, 2000). And finally in order to reduce and protect the water pollution, any ships are supposed to have good management in recycling or hold the waste, and they must use bio-fuel to reduce air pollution. Urban green tourism can help to reduce the pollution with more natural friendly program. " By extension , green could also be read as sustainable or healthy and UGT is then about ecological, cultural, and economic sustenance for the good health of people and their environment''(Gibson, Dodds, Joppe &Jamieson, 1992). The second challenge to this industry is whose responsibility for the environmental damage this is. This is not only individual attendee, not only government, but it is the responsibility of all parts that make this event happened. So company, government, individual participant and sponsors are sides that have liability to the environment around the event. Education from government and the event committee is needed to make people realize that if they damage the environment, they will suffer from consequences as well. This education must decrease resistance to care about environment and otherwise they must become enthusiasm with this problem. Next challenge is the speed of action after any suggestion or campaign to reduce pollution caused by an event to be done by people. Whether the speed is slow or fast, it depends on the self-awareness of each person. Accuracy is also important that the campaign can target people with the effective and efficient way, so they tend to protect the environment. The last challenge is about the term where this campaign or education about caring to the environment is being executed. This can be short term where people are tend to keep the education only when this thing is booming, by follow the main stream, or in a long term where people are full of aware in protecting the environment for good.
There are some effects on environment that affected by some particular event. This effect can be measured as negative and positive effect. The negative effects are occurred when the event with its instruments and participants create pollution directly as a trace to an event existence and more over people who attend in certain successful event will give pollution to air, land, and water, by driving, use flight and cruising with ship just to see the entertainment becomes indirect negative effect to environment . The positive effects can be completed if there are environmental friendly festivals, bazaars, and campaign about safety to environment and event to protect ecosystem as well. In this case people should increase the frequency of positive events, and try to reduce activities that may harm the environment. And for assessment of challenges in environment that provide to event management industry is about challenge that we face in this industry. The challenge is about preventing and repair environment from pollution by substituting instruments of events and reduce the usage of any vehicles. Green tourism is one of solution that can reduce the pollution. Then people who have responsibility in the effects of environment become some issue that must be discussed further. Next challenge is about education that must be educated to all people who will attend certain event and then they realize how environment is important for their live. Accuracy and speed are the challenge that objective and measure people's sequence in realize about this big issue. And finally the term of this campaign to reduce challenge is determine the successful of this movement, the longer of the term is the best object so that environment during the show of an event can be secured.
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