In business, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something and as producing and earning profit is the main intention of any business or accounting cost alone is the most important thing in any of the accounting field.
Cost: According to Lal, J. (2002) ï¿½Cost is the amount of expenditure, actual (incurred) or notional (attributable), relating to a specific thing or activity. The specific thing or activity may be a product, job, service, process or any other activityï¿½. In other word Cost is the total spent for goods or services including money and time and labour.
Types of costs: Cost can be Direct and Indirect. The total of Direct cost is Prime Cost and the total of Indirect cost is Overheads.
Direct Cost: ï¿½Costs those are directly attributable to the units of output. They can be divided into direct materials, Direct Labour, and Direct Expensesï¿½. Brammer, J. and Penning, A. (2001)
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Product X ï¿½
Direct Material 20
Direct Labour 15
Direct Expenses 10
Prime Cost = 45
Indirect Cost: ï¿½Costs that cannot be directly attributed to the units of production. They are also referred to as overheads. In a manufacturing environment only the indirect costs relating to production are usually absorbed into the production costï¿½. Brammer, J. and Penning, A. (2001)
Indirect Material 15
Indirect Labour 10
Indirect Expenses 5
Overheads = 30
Prime Cost 45
Cost Per Unit = 75
Cost Behaviour: Hansen, et al. (2009) states that ï¿½Cost behaviour is the general term for describing how cost changes when the level of output changes.ï¿½ In other word cost behaviour is the relationship between cost and activity.
There are different types of cost behaviour and they are :
Variable Cost: Variable cost is a cost that varies directly with sales, such as raw materials, labour and sales commissions. It changes with a change in the volume of activity.
The diagram shows the way variable cost works and how it changes with the change in the volume of activity. In the diagram the horizontal line introduce the total number of unit and the vertical line introduce the total cost of production. As we can see from the diagram when the total unit is 5 the production became ï¿½10 so the cost per unit is ï¿½2. Itï¿½s the same for 20 but the cost per unit stays the same. So the diagram makes it clear that variable cost changes with the change in the volume of activity.
Example: Example for variable cost could be ï¿½The cost of temporary labour for a temporary staffing company.(More temps placed = more temps hired and paid.)ï¿½ and ï¿½The cost of paper for a printing company. (More jobs printed = more paper used)ï¿½
Fixed Cost: Fixed cost is a cost that remains relatively constant regardless of the volume of the operations. It doesnï¿½t change based on production or sales volumes.
The diagram above shows the way fixed cost works. In the diagram the horizontal line shows the total number of unit and the vertical shows the total cost of production. So as we can see when 10 units is produced the fixed cost is ï¿½20000 but from the diagram we also see that when the unit increases to 10 to 20 the fixed cost stays the same.
Example: As fixed costing is a never changing method the example of it would be:
Rent, Rates, Salaries, Accountancy costs, Most Marketing Cost
Semi-Variable Cost: A semi-variable cost is a cost that starts with a fixed cost and as the volume of the activity increases the cost also start increasing. Itï¿½s an expense which contains both a fixed cost component and a variable cost component.
Here, when the total unit is 20000 the total cost of production is ï¿½140000 and the fixed cost is ï¿½70000. So the total variable cost stand (140000-70000) = ï¿½70000. So it could be said that (F.C+V.C) = S.V.C
Example: As the semi-variable cost contains both of the contents of fixed cost and variable cost, the example for it would be: Mobile phone calls, Sales commissions and salaries.
Stepped Fixed Cost: Stepped fixed cost is a cost that is relatively fixed over a small volume or range of activities but is variable over a large range or volume. This cost stays fix for a relevant range but as the range exceed the cost get increased.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
In stepped fix cost when 40 units are produced the total cost is ï¿½80 but when the production increases and became 45 then the cost will also increase to Relevant Range (A+B) means 80+90 = 170. If the production of unit raise further up to 80 then the total cost will be Relevant Range (A+B+C) means (80+90+95) = 265. So it is clear that Stepped fix cost changes when the relevant range exceeds.
Example: An owner of a house have to pay 1000 rent having capacity of 7 people. So he have to pay the same till the capacity of people exceed from 7 but the owners family capacity is about 8, so by extra person the owner have to acquire another house on rent and because the owner intend to keep extra person in the house so by exceeding person the owner acquire a house and the rent went double by an extra person. So such a cost which is extended by a certain range is stepped fix cost.
OUTCOME - 2
TQM is a set of management practices throughout the organization, geared to ensure the organization consistently meets or exceeds customer requirements. TQM places strong focus on process measurement and controls as means of continuous improvement.
Total Quality Management: TQM basically is an organization-wide approach to continuously improving the overall quality of its process, products, and service. According to Brammer, J. & Penning, and A. (2001) ï¿½Total Quality Management means that quality management becomes the aim of every part of an organisationï¿½. In other word ï¿½TQM is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing businessï¿½ Naidu, NVR. et al (2006)
The Philosophy of TQM: The basic principles for the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy of doing business are to satisfy the customer, satisfy the supplier, and continuously improve the business processes. There are some principles of TQM which is part of its philosophy and those are
Satisfy the customer
Satisfy the supplier &
The philosophy of TQM is to do with the quality and the quality hierarchy explain it well.
TQM is about building quality in from the beginning and making quality everyone's concern and responsibility. Consumers are willing to pay a premium for higher-quality goods and services. Organizations that employ TQM (or a similar philosophy) work on the premise that any product or service can be improved upon and this improvement equals reduced cost, better performance and higher reliability.
The Aims of TQM: TQM has a simple objective which helps it to achieve its aims and goals.
The main objective of TQM is ï¿½Do the right things, right the first time, everytime.ï¿½
TQM has some particular aim to fulfil and those are:
Making the organization market and customer focused.
Guiding the organization by its values, vision, mission and goals set through ï¿½strategic planning processesï¿½.
Changing the organization from function focused to customer focused, where customer priorities come first in all activities.
Making the organization flexible and learning oriented to cope with change.
Making the organization believe in ï¿½ and seek ï¿½ continuous improvement as a new way of life.
Creating an organization where people are at the core of every activity, and are encouraged and empowered to work in teams.
Promoting a transparent leadership process to lead the organization to excellence in its chosen field of business.
"The cost of quality."
Itï¿½s a term that's widely used ï¿½ and widely misunderstood.
The "cost of quality" isn't the price of creating a quality product or service. It's the cost of NOT creating a quality product or service.
Cost of Quality: According to McCormick, K. (2002) ï¿½Cost of quality is a tool that has been used in many industries, usually within a total quality management or performance improvement programme.ï¿½
The cost of quality can comprise an extremely large proportion of company expenditures, and yet is so diffused throughout the organization that it is difficult to compile. The accountant may be called on to determine which costs should be included in the cost of quality, as well as to develop a quality reporting system. This post tries to provide wide range of quality of cost [cross industries and services] that may useful for cost awareness [so that they can be prevented and avoided], measured and categorized for easier tracking in order to maximize profitability.
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There are four types of cost categories into which quality costs fall: Prevention Costs, Appraisal Cost, Internal Failure Cost and External Failure Cost. It is useful to split quality costs into these categories, for there are so many subcategories that it can be difficult to track them all without this method of organization.
Prevention Cost: Prevention costs are the costs associated with preventing mistakes and faulty output. They include the costs of:
Design improvements, to reduce number of rejects
System improvement for services
The development and maintenance of quality control equipment
The administration of quality control
Training employees in quality control and new methods of working
Appraisal Costs: Appraisal Costs are the costs associated with assessing quality. The include the costs of:
Inspection of goods inwards and raw materials received
Inspection of work in progress
Performance testing of finished goods
Appraisal of the quality of services
Internal Failure Costs: Internal failure costs are the costs of mistakes within the organization and they include the costs of:
Investigation and analysis of failures
Losses due to scrapping sub-standard goods or selling them at lower prices
Losses due to faults in the raw materials purchased
Reviewing product design and specification after failures
External Failures Costs: External failure costs are the costs of mistakes which result in sub-standard products or services reaching the external customer. They include the costs of:
Running a customer complaints department
Liabilities in relation to faulty products
Repairs and replacements
Loss of customer loyalty
The Balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and non profit organizations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. It is another technique to improve business.
Balanced Scorecard: Balanced Scorecard is a standardised collection of indicators to evaluate the operations of an organisation. It also can be said that balanced scorecard is a Performance management tool that recapitulates an organization's performance from several standpoints on a single page.
ï¿½Balanced Scorecard is the new synthesis created by the collision between the irresistible force to build long-range competitive capabilities and the immovable object of the historical-cost financial accounting modelï¿½ Kaplam & Norton (1996)
The 4 Perspective of Balanced Scorecard: The balanced scorecard system of Kaplam and Norton is a strategic approach and it helps organization to translate a companyï¿½s vision and strategy using the 4 perspectives.
1. Financial perspective
2. Customer perspective
3. Business process perspective
4. Learning and growth perspective
The Financial Perspective: Kaplan and Norton didnï¿½t disregard the traditional need for financial data. Managers will make sure to provide timely and accurate funding data and it will always be a priority. There is a hope that more of the processing can be centralized and automated with the implementation of a corporate database. But the point is that the present emphasis on financial issues leads to an unbalanced situation with regard to other perspectives. Perhaps there is a need to include the financial data, such as risk assessment and cost-benefit data.
The Customer Perspective: The philosophy of recent management shows that there is an increase in realization of the importance of customer satisfaction and focus in any company. There are some leading indicators which shows that if company doesnï¿½t satisfy customer needs they might go to another supplier. Poor performance from this perspective could prove dangerous. Though the current situation is good but in future customers should be analyzed.
The Business Process Perspective: The perspective of business process refers to internal business process. The managers can see how their business is running by the measurement based on this perspective. It will also show the managers whether its product and services is need to the customers. These metrics should only be design by the persons who knows the processes very well. Two kind of business processes could be identified in addition to the strategic management processes and they are
Learning And Growth Perspective: The perspective of learning and growth includes corporate cultural attitudes and employee training related to both individual and corporate self-improvement. People are the main sources in a knowledge worker organization. In todayï¿½s world it has become important for knowledge worker to learn continuously. Sometime government agencies find it difficult to hire new technical workers. Kaplan and Norton said that learning is something more important than training; it includes things like mentors and tutors within organization.
The integration of these four perspectives into a graphical image makes things more appealing
OUTCOME ï¿½ 3
A budget is a financial document used to project future income and expenses. The budgeting process may be carried out by individuals or by companies to estimate whether the person/company can continue to operate with its projected income and expenses.
A budget may be prepared simply using paper and pencil, or on computer using a spreadsheet program like Excel, or with a financial application like Quicken or QuickBooks.
Budget: According to Kemp, S. & Dunbar, E. (2003) ï¿½Budget is a plan that which includes the money you will spend and when you will spend it.ï¿½ In a simple word budget is a plan of incoming and outgoing monies.
Objectives of Budgeting: Managers have a responsibility for achieving the objectives of the operation. A strategic plan will set out overall objectives and goals of a business and such kind of plan helps any organization to define the type of business. The management team is usually the reason for the preparation of budgets. Any operational are which is seen as essential to achieving the operational objective will have a specific budget. The number of budgets prepared in an organization is depends on the specific needs of management. The accounting system of the operation provides the information of what happened in the past and give a view to managers to keep track of whether or not they are meeting their current budgets. Only the budget from the past is not enough for managers they also need the financial information to provide expectation for the future. So it can be said that budget is an expectation of what managers agrees is achievable within the immediate future and are mostly expressed in financial terms.
Budget Committee: Budget Committee is a Cabinet Sub-Committee that is responsible for considering all Budget related matters and making appropriate recommendations to Cabinet.
Roles of Budget Committee: The roles of budget committeeï¿½s are:
To establish financial policies and reviews how those policies are implemented.
Strive to optimize the limited financial resources available to meet the goals of the company.
Making the budget process easier to understand for members of the committee and the larger community, and to evaluate and implement opportunities for a more effective budget process.
To review the companyï¿½s operating and capital budget and make decisions and recommendations about the allocation of available funds.
Review the requests for changes to the budget.
To review financial reports prepared for management review, and to take action when the budget shows significant deviations.
Types of Budget: Budget is divided into different types. Each type has some different sub-points of its own. Normally budget can be divided into 4 parts and those are:
Incremental Budget: Incremental budget is a budget which is prepared using a previous periodï¿½s budget or actual performance as a basis with incremental amounts added for the new budget period.
In incremental budget the budget is stable and the change is gradual. The system of this budget is relatively simple to operate and easy to understand and for the simplicity of this budget managers can operate their departments on a consistent basis. On the other hand in incremental budget thereï¿½s no incentive for developing new ideas, no incentives to reduce costs and this budget may become out of date and no longer relate to the level of activity or type of work being carried out.
Zero Based Budgets: Zero based budget is a budget that requires all levels of management to start from zero and estimate budget data as if there had been no previous activities in their unit.
Zero based budget forces budget setters to examine every item and develops a questioning attitude. Zero based budget also prevents creeping budgets based on previous yearï¿½s figures with an added on percentage. In zero based budget managers are encouraged to look for alternatives but the problem with zero based budget is it is a very complex time consuming process and here short term benefits may be emphasised to the detriment of long term planning.
Activity Based Budget: Funding necessary to continue an agency's approved ongoing activities. The activity-based budget does not include significant changes in the way the agency provides services. The activity-based budget is developed at the beginning of each biennial budget cycle.
Activity budget can identify opportunities for improvement and cost reduction and it relates costs to performance data. Activity budget also enables assessment of processes that are effective in serving customers but this budget requires and accounting system that records at the needed level. This budget is also very time consuming and it requires detailed project plan.
Rolling Budget: A plan that is continually being updated so that the budget time frame remains stable while the actual periods covered by the budget change. At the end of each period (month, quarter, or year), a future period is added to the budget.
The main advantage of a rolling budget is that it should prevent a variance arising from external and uncontrollable circumstances. This gives a more powerful meaning to the variances, which remain. They are fully attributable to management effort. Rolling budgeting system is very hard and time consuming.
Behavioural Aspects of Budgeting: The way in which budgets are administered impacts on their effectiveness in helping to achieve an organisationï¿½s goals. ï¿½The budget in any company has a dual role of being a forecast of the year and a yard stick of managerial performance.ï¿½ Schiff, M. And Lewin, A. (1978)
It can also be argued that by using the budget to measure managerial performance there is an attempt to use it as a tool for control. If this is linked with a reward and/or punishment system ï¿½There is a general tendency for managers to distort the information they pass on to their superiors, so that the unfavourable items are under-emphasisedï¿½. Lamberton, G. And Harvey, D. (1991) Such distortion of information is undesirable and counter-productive. Some organisations use sanctions and punishment to encourage adherence to budget. The use of sanctions and punishment is synonymous with an authoritarian style of management.
The behavioural aspects:
ï¿½ Maintain supportive and cooperative relationship with staff
ï¿½ The use of punishment (authoritarian style) tends to encourage attempts to ï¿½beat the systemï¿½
ï¿½ Padding the budget means overestimating costs and/or underestimating revenue
ï¿½ Participation in the budgetary process tends to result increased productivity and satisfaction
There are some advantages arises from participation and those are:
ï¿½ Improved communication
ï¿½ Greater understanding of the factors involved
ï¿½ The opportunity to thrash out problems at budget meetings before the budget is set
ï¿½ Increased acceptance of the budget
ï¿½ Improved commitment
Other factors affecting behaviour:
Dysfunctional behaviour may be caused by the following budgetary problems.
ï¿½ Budget targets that are perceived by employees as too difficult to attain will result in resentment and a feeling of stress.
ï¿½ Budget targets that are perceived by staff as too easy to achieve do not provide a challenge and may lead to a slipshod performance by staff.
ï¿½ Managers may experience a loss of autonomy by being hemmed in by the budget and not having sufficient flexibility to use their own initiative.
ï¿½ Managers may become narrow minded, focusing only on their own department, and create disadvantages for the organisation as a whole.
ï¿½ The emphasis on financial goals to the detriment of non-financial goals may have a debilitating effect on the organisation.