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This paper is a proposal /Synopsis for the final dissertation on the subject i.e. Human Resource Management, it is aimed at identifying the overall summary and to have a deep insight to define my intentions of what and how I would like to cover in my final paper/ dissertation.
In this proposal I will try my utmost to give a brief introduction of my intended research, along with its keys elements, structure and complete design. I have decided to broaden my research on Human Resource Management, in a particularly targeted area. The importance of the Recruitment and Selection Process which is very vital for any organization's success and a failure in this area might lead up to poor job performance in the future. This project is about to identify to get to an appropriate resolution of the Problems faced by HR Managers when going through the process of Recruitment and Selection. I have focused on the particular problem for instance, to determine the need for the vacancy, job description, and person specification, selection of right means of advertising, a proper wholesome procedure to follow for instance the reliability and validity.
In order to look into the problems faced by HR Managers, I would as for the first step, will try to address/ define HR, the role of the H R manager and the whole process of recruitment and selection, will also use different methodology like work sample, graphology, assessment centres, face -to-face interviews. Define the problems with current recruitment and selection and how and in what way they effect on the organisations and their efficiency and productivity. I would present the best solutions like use of performance based and competency based approaches for the determination of a criteria to provide with best results for recruitment and selection. Afterwards I will delve in more depth with more insight; in particular i would address and highlight the problems and issues related to the selection and recruitment.
Human Resource Management is not entirely a new field/branch of study in any way, it might not have been called so but in fact it has played its role quiet importantly with its essential elements in all forms and shapes. but as we see that now it has been given and gaining more importance around the globe. In the past few decades the organisations has realised the importance of learning new methods to enhance the efficiency of their employees, on an individual level and as well as on a whole or a group. By adopting new techniques and methods they recruiters have made a remarkable results so far which not only enhanced their skills and capabilities to pick the right people for right jobs but also gave a boost to make the organization ns more efficient and productive for which they have been assigned the task of recruitment .Overall objective of my thesis is to highlight the significance and challenges faced by the HR managers by addressing a few main questions in general.
Justification for the Project (why)
Human Resource Management is an exclusively important function of any business or organisation irrespective of their corporate nature or strategies. Now in today's modern world, employees or workforce is becoming increasingly diverse and organizations are trying injecting more and more techniques in order to maximize the efficiency of its different employees. Human Resource Managers are now becoming frontline key players from the old school sideline player and playing a significant part in organization building. Organizations are nowadays relying much more on their managers than they used to in old days to hunt out such people who can get the job done and of course, put the company on the list of more profitable organizations. Human Resources have always been playing an integral or central part to organizations but their strategic importance is growing bigger and bigger in today's knowledge-based corporate world like never before. An organization's success increasingly depends on the information, skills, professionalism and abilities of its employees to perform in accordance with the job descriptions they have been hired for and how well they can use their employees for the achievement of corporate goals, maximization of shareholders capital.
This project will help in trying to understand the problems faced by corporate organizations, where they have a large number of diverse forces in action within the perfectly competitive environment with firms having no bargain power especially where there corporate activities are not as strong as required, and how I have to look into this issue and analyse it to present a practically possible way out is what more important and significant to explain. It becomes a lot easier to find solutions when you develop an in depth understanding of the problem concerned and the causes related to it.
I would like to touch the following core issues and questions during my research and will aim at the core issues related to it.
I would also try to explain in detail What is Human Resource Management is and its elements? What is the role of HRM Managers in the contemporary business organisations?
What are the main or core issues related to the Selection and Recruitments and problems arising out of this and commonly faced by the HRM Managers?
There is a huge range and variety of material available on the subject which I have chosen for my dissertation. Books, e-books, articles and journals are available on the selected aforesaid subject and its particular areas of interest. In writing down my report I will try to refer to all the sources mentioned above as much as possible and would try to make the most of the resources and all helping materials available for in depth knowledge of the area of subject chosen
Human Resource Management
There are number of ways to explain the term Human Resources Management, but in the broadly speaking we can say that HRM is an organization's most valued assets consisting of people who work for it and contribute to the company on both an individual and collective basis. Human Resource Management is the strategic and logical way to look after them and their interests in a way that organization could bear more fruit of their performance and to make it more beneficial in corporate rivals.
The main features of HRM are:
To achieve a 'fit' between the business and the H R, by emphasizing, more on it and the strategic management of its people.
A comprehensives and consistent approach to the provision of mutually supporting employment policies and practices, i.e. the development of integrated HR policies and practices.
The importance placed on gaining commitment to the organization's mission and values-it is commitment oriented.
The treatment of people as assets rather than costs as they are regarded as a source of competitive advantage as human capital to be invested in through the provision of learning and development opportunities.
The performance and delivery of HRM as a line management responsibility.
HRM aims to help the organization to achieve success through people. As Ulrich and Lake (1990) remark, "HRM systems can be the source of organizational capabilities that allow firms to learn and capitalize on new opportunities." HRM is concerned with both meeting human capital requirement and the development of process capabilities, in other words, the ability to get things done effectively.
The Role of Human Resource Manager
The personnel or HR manager's work is directly related to the employees. It involves recruiting and training them, conveying the management's expectations, pay-roll, justifying management's actions, seeking to modify management actions that could produce unwelcome employee response and satisfying employees' work related needs. Although HR is a management function, HR interests are different to traditional management interests, in the sense that the interests evolve around the employees, and when not able to understand and articulate them, it becomes ineffective. (M. Malcolm, J. Tricia).
In broader sense we can say that the role of an HR Manager includes following duties:
Explaining management expectations
Justifying management actions
Satisfying employees' work-related needs
Dealing with employees' problems
Seeking to modify management's actions
Enhancing motivation, commitment and job engagement
Recruitment and Selection
The importance of the recruitment and selection process is vital for organization success, and a failure in this area can lead to poor future job performance. As organizations respond to economical and technological pressures, job roles can also change, and this needs to also be taken into account. The process of staff recruitment and selection is complex, and HR functions, as described above, are in place to maximize chances of success. (Nankervis, Compton & McCarthy, 1999, p190)
Theories of Recruitment-- Recruitment Strategies
1. Objective theory
2. Subjective theory
3. Critical Contact theory
Types of Recruitment
There are two types recruitment in Human Resource Management, i.e. internal and external. This means that a person already employed by the firm can fill a vacancy or an outsider can be appointed.
Problem likely to be faced by Human Resource manager
Companies and human resource professionals have made great inroads and improvements in the area of recruitment and selection over the years. It is surprising, however, by the recurring problems that plague many recruitment and selection processes - time and cost inefficiencies, low validity and reliability, high turnover and high potential for grievances and litigation. Despite this mountain of problems, too many companies and organizations continue to rely on these ineffective and potentially damaging practices to fill vacancies. Before beginning to learn about Performance-based Selection, it's important to understand some of the problems with current selection practices.
Credentials and years of work experience do not ensure success on the job
Too many interviews, too many delays
Grievances, complaints, termination and turnover
Problems with current advertisement
Research design gives out a blue print of whole the dissertation that shows how and in what pattern will be the dissertation. It gives a broader view to develop the understanding of the research. It joins the different elements and links together so that the whole dissertation makes sense. In my research is over all a qualitative approach, which includes different kinds of methods for collecting, analysing, formulisation and interpreting the data and information. My research will be in the following manners:-
In this step I will try to gather information on the topic of role HRM and problems faced by the HR Managers. HRM is a very vast subject and there are huge numbers of resources available but I will confine myself only to the particular question that I will address. But to get the right and relevant information I will try to refer to the available resources as much as possible, i.e. books, publish articles, journals, news papers and internet. Both Primary Data and Secondary data would be used to achieve the objectives of the research. For gather primary data, I will prefer to do face to face interview as it is easier for me to gather relevant information related to my research objectives. Furthermore, the main purpose of choosing primary data method is to put some fresh and up to date information in the dissertation instead of using just secondary data information. I would like to know the current issues and solutions related to my research problem. On the other hand, for secondary data collection, I will prefer to gather information from a case study. At the end, I would like to compare and contrast the information gathered through primary and secondary data collection to finalize and to find a possible solution for the research problem. From this way, I will find an up to date solution for my research problem. Moreover, I would like to give some suggestions as well for future research relating to my research problem.
Secondary Data Collection:Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
For Secondary Research Method, data collection will be completed through library based research to investigate that how the role of project manager is affected by the changes surrounding an organization and issues that affect the progress of the organization that will be done by "a case study" that has been written in the past to sum up a conclusion. In defining the case study method, academics have laid emphasis on it being a method to investigate contemporary phenomena in real life context and the use of multiple sources of evidence to gain such evidence (see Yin 2003 and Schramm ( 1971). For the purpose, the information will be gathered from different databases. Secondary data will be derived from books, articles, journals and magazines. The secondary data would also be ascertained from the following sources: Ayton Library, UMSIT, Journal Articles and Databases like Emerald, Pro-quest, and Business Resources Premier.
Justification for Case Study for Secondary Data Collection:
The researcher has some advantages due to which the researcher has preferred to use case study like it makes the researcher in a position to efficiently investigate and understand all the issues and obstacles faced by project manager in real particle life and to analyze the companies.
Qualitative methods such as the outcome-matrix and histograms will be used. Quantitative statistical tests will also be use to confirm the impact of identified factors on case outcomes.
After gathering data from Questioner (Primary Research), I will analyze and compare it with information gained earlier through library research i.e. case study (Secondary Research) to conclude my research objectives and to provide possible solutions for the current problems faced by project managers.
For Primary Research Method, after digging the information from different sources, I will make a questioner that contains question relevant to my dissertation that contains around 30 to 50 questions for the HRM Managers. These questions will address the overall role of HRM and the question that will identify current problems faced by the HRM Managers for selection and recruitment of employees. Furthermore, for the purpose, I would like to take face to face interview to the participant because it is more suitable to the research problem.
Face-to- Face Interview:
A face to face interview is a very commonly used process of selecting the right candidate. It gives management a better option to meet the candidate and ask questions and hear the arguments given by the candidate for his selection and competence for the job. An interview works out in a way that candidate comes in front of the interviewer or panel of judges. Judges then ask question directly from the candidate and form their judgment on the suitability of candidate for the job. In most of the interviews, candidates are not informed about interview decision. First board interview all the candidates, then after consulting each other make any decision. An interview is always considered to be more suitable because both interviewer and interview have a chance to talk about their suitability about the job. In this stage, the panel can assess the various areas of knowledge and competency will be assessed, areas such as including teamwork, leadership potential, communication skills, problem solving, lateral thinking and decision-making ability.
Apart from that we can say that interviews can be of two types which are as follows.
In some of the organizations employers call the applicant for an informal interview. These interviews are very helpful in exchange of information concerning about the candidates previous gained work experience and knowledge. Apart from that it also helps the applicants to know about the organization and get to know the role and nature of job. It should be noted here that informal interviews has no effect on the selection decision of the candidates.
Formal interviews are those which affect the selection decision of the candidate. In these interviews, candidates come in front of the selection board and reply to the question asked by the panel. The whole purpose of the interview is to see and access the suitability of the candidate.
Justification for Interview for Primary Data Collection:
There are many advantages for choosing face to face interview for the research problem. The main purpose of face-t-face (or direct) interviews are that the researcher could clarify its questions quite easily and he/she could easy explain the question properly to the participant during interview meeting. It saves time as well as compare to email questionnaire responses. Furthermore, another bit advantage for choosing face to face interview is that the researcher could get any discomfort through body language of the participant from where it could be judged weather the person is answering right or wrong. From body language of the participant, it will become easy for the researcher to get the right information related to the research problem which could not be possible to detect from a telephone interview or from any email questionnaire responses. Moreover, face-to-face interview guides and supports the interviewee to gather the desired results in short period of time from the participant. Therefore, from this kind of interview, the research could judge the feelings and expressions of the participant that weather the respondent is replying truth or not.
Limitations of the face to face interview:
There are many limitations and disadvantages as well of the face to face interview like the respondent might feel uncomfortable and uneasy to reply to the questions at the moment of interview. To get time for interview is another problem as well for the researcher as it is a big problem to get time for the meeting. So the researcher could get problem of having meeting with the participant. Moreover, another main disadvantage of the face-to-face interview is that there could occur the geographically limitations as well depends on the survey either it is to be carried out nationally or internationally.
It is the third step of my dissertation, the data gathered through questioner, I will analyse and compare it with the information gained earlier through a lab-research. I will analyse the data as I am going on right track or not. I will find out that whether the gathered information is relevant to my dissertation objectives or not?
After having both bookish and empirical knowledge, I will identify the issues highlighted in text and problems and flaws faced by the HRM Managers and try to compare the difference.
Suggest a Solution
This will be going to be the last concluding part of my dissertation where at the end I will try to provide a possible solution for the current problems faced. I will try to suggest more related topics for further future research as well to my dissertation problem.
Problems andÂ ethical issues
Problems and ethical issues are part of any research, especially when research includes more of qualitative data, interviews or survey forms. In my research I can face several problems relating to my project in general and specific, i.e. most important obstacle is making and drafting survey form, which can identify the problems faced by HRM Managers relating to selection and recruitment. Then second problem I might face is to convert the qualitative data into quantitative form. It is important because different firms or organisations have different resources. So I will have to confine my research into small, medium and large organisation. This discrimination is important because problems faced by a small business organisation are different from a large organisation.
Ethical issues are also of great importance and need to be carefully considered while doing research. Ethical issues may come across at any stage and place. Especially while doing any interview. The respondent will provide the required information easily when he/she feels comfort with the interviewer. Therefore, I will definitely keep the ethical issues in my mind. I will make sure the participant that the gathered information will be kept saved to me and will not be shared to any other purposes except my dissertation. It is a very wide topic so I need to carry out the research to cover this topic and I can face the problem like race against the time. I will try my best to overcome the time problem and for the purpose I did make the timetable as shown below:-
Plan or timetable
Below is the time table, week wise that plots when I will do major elements of the project. Â Through-out these activities, I will do the writing of my report simultaneously in order to save my time and convenient. Some students may find it easy to write a rough draft while doing the major elements but whereas I find is a little hard. My timetable defining the various major activities with the time are as follows.
1-3rdWeek: I will gather all relevant information from available resources.
3-6th Week: I will formulate questioner with the help of teacher and distribute.
6-8th Week: I will analyse the gathered information and will make a comparison.
8-11th Week: I will identify issues & will propose a Solution.
12-14th Week: I will cross do checks with Lecturer.
15th Week: I will submit my final dissertation in university to my supervisor.