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The basic idea of Toyota lean manufacturing has three main areas, which we can summarize to: the overloading design, the smoothing of production and finally get rid of what's left of manufacturing.
There is a lot of needless manufacturing capacity that is included in the overload. Smooth out the products includes a lot of effort to remove any conflicts that accurse in the quality and the quantity. Removing any waste products that accurse because of poor productions and manufacturing is included in the final step.
In this report I will go through the lean manufacturing concept, development and future. Plus a discussion about anything and any barriers that would help to execute a successful plans. I will also discuss the difference between lean manufacturing and mass productions. Finally, the possibility of applying the lean manufacturing in the USA textile factories
2. The rational, evolution and future of Lean Manufacturing
Definition of lean manufacturing
The final aim of lean manufacturing system is producing high quality products within low cost, and decrease of waste, and the participation of organization during empowerment. Uses the concepts of lean manufacturing to benefit from the regulation to decrease costs and waste, and reduce the time cycle, to make money, and remain competitive in the worldwide marketplace increasing.
2.1.2 Philosophy of lean manufacturing
Lean manufacturing is a process to create items using the lowest amount of resources (labour, capital, materials, land or time). in brief, it means the items to create the true quality and quantity of the right in the right place at the right time. Lean producers persistently looking for continuous development in value and reducing costs during the eradication of a variety of wastes
2.1.3 Importance of waste elimination
There are different categories of wastes that have been recognized in plants production. These consist of waste from over production, and waste a lot of association during transfer and waste (excessive progress of any of the articles). It also includes the waste (ie non-value additional steps), a waste of time in the waiting queue or product defects, and list costs. There are many techniques that be able to help the institute to reduce waste. For one, you can make cells to eliminate waste of material management, extreme movement, and inventory work in progress, and more. Employ maintenance in general efficiency and waste can be disposed of unplanned stoppages, and waiting, and other damaged parts. And even change the layout of the station can get rid of waste and transport, production and processing of needless and previous wastes.
2.2 Evolution of lean manufacturing
2.2.1 Origination of lean manufacturing
Developed by Toyota Motors Toyota Production system only after World War II, Toyota management was not happy with the section of Toyota Motor Corporation Toyota production level at the time. In 1950, less than the production of the Toyota Motor Corporation since the company started producing cars of the Ford Rouge plant was produced in one period. There were only a small number of plants a car in Japan in 1950 and it is for the production and transportation needs of various special for Japan. The production of Toyota cars and small delivery trucks, and heavy trucks, light trucks, ambulances, limousines and fire engines. The auto industry faced in Japan with this challenge, particularly Toyota to manufacture diverse product mix to meet customer demand and cost-effective. Want foreign carmakers to enter the Japanese market, but the Japanese government imposed customs duties and to prevent foreign investment in the automotive industry in Japan. These have helped the Japanese auto industry locally, but they were not match their overseas competitors in other countries
2.2.2 Lean in business processes
In a world of increasing competition, many manufacturing companies are looking for an advantage over the competition and for many manufacturing companies from the lean manufacturing edge. Lean manufacturing implementation difficult process that necessary attempt and determination. Nevertheless, received bonuses despite the fact that the transition is very difficult, through the transition to make it worth and the effort to change (Womack et al, 1991) Studies for the manufacture of lean in different companies indicate that with and can reduce times of stress causes the production of manufacturing industries by 90%, and disadvantages of virtual elimination, and increase productivity by 10 to 15% annually without capital investment, and reduce the cost of total production by 10% per year) Liker, 1997, p. 498). Moreover, the system can correctly implement lean product development times reduced by 50%, in order to address 75%, and production of physical by 90% (Womack et al., 1996). Not all companies that are trying to implement lean manufacturing are able to realize the type of success, which advocates for lean manufacturing and can move to the lean work environment, will be very difficult or almost impossible, in some industrial environments.
2.3 Future of lean manufacturing
Organization striving to be lean you will want to be just in stock is required when needed, and improve the quality defects to zero, and cut out by reducing setup time and reduce length of wait-and-sizes a lot, and review operations gradually, to achieve a minimum cost of improvements (and the Mac and Jones 1996).
The Six Sigma combines of Lean the Six Sigma method with lean manufacturing equipment. Lean Six Sigma is an approach based data to find the origin making of problems, and management strategy, lean project management in achieving financial goals, and uses the DMAIC (measure, define, improve , analyze and maintain) a process for planning operations .Also, there could be a possible application of effective developed in the industry. Engineers can arrangement and modify plans and run and correct programs and machines. Can be used to support the virtual manufacturing lean manufacturing, in the casing of disruption, and system simulation can be run on virtual manufacturing to find the finest method to resolve the problem.
3. Differences between Lean and Mass Production Strategies
3.1 Mass production
Mass production is a way to manufacture Merchandise in large quantities on low cost. To remain cost-effective, mass production requires mass utilization (Womack et al., 1991). Henry Ford's revolutionary assembly line manufacturing industries by the author 1908 Model T mass quantities available to the public. Behind World War II and during 1950 and 60, and the in general approach and manufacturing in an effort to reach to the maximum extent possible without consider to the waste or cost of waste. It was consists of Mass production of low-skilled workers using machines to a single purpose. To maintain high rates production, product destruction and many stores, such as workers from outside, supplies and space. The design is not changing in Mass producers of products in many cases to help keep costs down, so they continue producing the same products for a long time as long as possible( Womack et al., 1991).
Mass production has several advantages, such as the use of machinery and high minimum set of operations. nevertheless, it has also some disadvantages like: the inventory of waste (storage space is not sold costs money and ties for the company's income), and delay (must wait for customers to produce too much whole, rather than the quantities just the needs of customers), and low quality (storage of excess inventory is the retail opportunity that will should be abolished or modified, which adds to the cost of the product).
3.2 Comparison between mass production and lean manufacturing
Several companies have been taken in the Transmission from traditional methods of mass production fot lean manufacturing methods for the reason that the enormous advantages of lean manufacturing over usual methods. Both of (Houshmand and Jamshidnezhad) compared with lean manufacturing production systems and the other as shown in Table 1.
4. Barriers to Successful Lean Manufacturing Strategy Implementation
There are many potential problems that can occur while trying to implement lean manufacturing. According to Boyer and Sovilla (2003), and these barriers are located in different categories, including operational issues, cultural issues, and management issues, implementation issues and technical matters. Each one of these categories is important, and if taken into account can reduce the potential obstacles in the way of lean manufacturing
4.1 organisational barriers
The representative of the company to the successful implementation of lean manufacturing techniques include getting a commitment from top level executives, and get ideas from workers, and the implementation of standardized work, and achieving this is definitely a culture change. Cultural issues to deal with the reaction to new concepts, responsibilities and procedures. Is in the nature of most people to resist change, and this aspect of human nature often find a way in the culture of the company. Can be taken into account the cultural aspects of the company's assistance in planning and preparing for potential problems because of the people resist change.
4.2 Operational barriers
Implementation issues occur from poor planning, and rushed solutions without a rule of principle, insufficient knowledge of lean manufacturing, and dedication to continuous improvement, etc ... "... Companies have an ad hoc approach to planning and implementation of strategies and then lean in spite of good intentions, but they have seen mixed results" (Mejabi, 2003).
In accordance with the Boer and Sovilla (2003), and technology issues arise from a misunderstanding of the principles of lean, lean manufacturing approach in certain parts of the system instead of the system and have not been implemented on the basis of theory.
4.3 Human barriers
Operational issues occur when executives are not exactly a company dedicated to making the switch to lean manufacturing and sufficient knowledge of the principles of lean manufacturing. The conversion process is difficult, and if senior management is not on the plane, it becomes more difficult.
Closely linked to issues of operational management issues that the administration must be dedicated to the transfer of lean manufacturing and have sufficient knowledge of lean manufacturing to make a difference
4.4 Other barriers
Zayko and Hancock (1998) also mentioned some of the factors that must be met when the expected WIP line manufacturing. These factors to determine the number of kanbans to use, and modify the materials and containers in one piece, the operations flow. Each one of these factors need to be studied carefully, and manufacturer must be willing to work in the withdrawal of the "flow" system.
Lean manufacturing is very useful and effectual because it helps organizations to develop their operations, It is not complicated to realize and the adoption of lean manufacturing. But, it is not suitable to each organization, commercial or industrial process, as discussed before. One of the involved industries that can Interest from Planting of lean manufacturing and the Texture industry, the organization is recognized in this study is a textile factory in USA. For this plant for the Enforcement of lean manufacturing, and can be grouped into various barriers to create a list of barriers and proposed solutions. These barriers are highlighted for the plant to the implementation of the Basics of lean as a competitive strategy of business.
€Lean requires cultural Modification. Explanation: instruction about the types of waste and lean Notions€cultural modify requires the Collaboration and Uphold of everybody in the industrial unit.
Explanation: teaching, and hard support from all levels of the management.
€People are Resistance in many cases to change.
Explanation: teaching and exercise, feedback, and the system of Remuneration for suggestions to improve and the Accomplishment of projects
€ Staffs need to get Property of their place of work in order to continue to improve. Explanation: teaching and exercise, feedback, and official recognition of the members of team, and Remuneration system for the of Accomplishment projects
€A Cut off is found in many cases between the manufacturing business, marketing, sales, and product progress side. Explanation: Adjacency the total organization towards achieving the goals of dissimilar departments to work with each other.
€ A few may notice Textile equipment and resources that cannot be missing idle for any period of time. The explanation: the imposition of the concept that long-term care of the company is more important than financial targets in the short term
€ Had the impact of Refinement that takes a long time to materialize. The explanation: continue the case of proposals and projects through the holding of periodic meetings and panels.
Different approaches used by organizations:
4.1Kaizen: It is a movement across getting better quality. The Masaaki Imai, founder of the philosophy of Kaizen. It aims to each employee alignment and function in a coordinated effort of eliminating waste, and Constant Evolution the capacity of the Organization and its staff. It supports continuous development in work life and personal life, domestic life and social life. It includes everybody without considerable capital Development. This is a culture of continuity and continuous development with a centre of attention on eliminating waste in all systems and processes. It starts and ends with people and Guides people to improve them evidence to achieve high quality at low cost and delivery time. Kaizen helps the organization to obtain a competitive advantage. It has two main elements.
Improvement for the better
With no any one of the elements of this concept cannot be considered as Kaizen. It is based on the belief that not to lose even one day. Kaizen mindset is Not a single day must go beside without some type of development organism made somewhere in the company
Just In Time: JIT is an exercise helps to control inventory costs on both fronts of the cost of purchase, as well as the cost of the contract. To reduce the cost of purchase, and uses a steady association and electronic links b / w company and its vendors. As raw materials up to the level of rearrangement Seller ships materials automatically and up to the company at that time the exact condition. Emphasizes two important and mutually reinforcing: the participation of peoples, and the total quality control, Characters JITs' consistent production rate, and many small volumes, and closer relations resource, high quality products, fast and affordable equipment and skilled manpower of multiple, flexible and effective facilities maintenance and continuous improvements in working methods, Thus, it can be applied successfully to each of manufacturing and service organizations.
Total Quality Management: philosophy, which seeks to carry on quality improvement organization-wide, through the involvement of everyone in the organization. Total Quality Management removes the consequences faced by the traditional method. It makes every person responsible for the organization quality. Total Quality Management insists that every section should be considered by the staff of other departments and clients. The centre of attention is on team building and empowerment of staff. Tools are
Contribution of shop floor employees during initiatives like quality circles.
Development in interdepartmental organization and performance through initiatives like QITs.
appropriate maintenance of machinery during initiatives like whole efficiency management
The process of continuous development has the following steps:
Understanding the process
Determining the information needs
Choosing a tool for the task
Identifying the root cause
Implementing the solution
Reviewing the results
Standardizing the change
Six Sigma: The Six Sigma by Motorola in the 1980s, it is a precise technique used to manage the procedure of variation, which causes distortions of the work and methodology for the management of these deviations in order to remove Deficiencies. It solves the quality problems are complex. DMAIC is a main tactic aimed at Realization world class performance, reliability and value to customers through the control of defects. DMAIC is a Manual stands to identify measure, analyze, improve and control. These are the 5 stages of Six Sigma that are interrelated. Because it enhances the quality of the current process for any organization, Six Sigma is the estimated fractional difference in the items 99.73% CL.
Lean production leads to a divers market demand, numerous methods in management are used to exceed the growth and profitability and the wise and best use of the resources to optimize the economical benefits for project participation. The main idea of lean production is to reduce waste products, poor quality and providers and fail in achieving the objective of low-cost high-profit.
Lean production helps in making the management get better, improve the global competiveness of manufacturing. To make the best use of lean production, it is significant to be pleased with the use of it techniques and to be aware of the theory of it. according to the example in the report above, the textile factory could be improved as manufacturing enterprise. The factory would benefit from the high quality high-profit in the perform of the acceptance of the core of lean production.