# Analysis And Interpretation Of Data Accounting Essay

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This chapter deals with the methodology and procedure of the study. The study is descriptive in nature and survey method was used for collection of data. Data was collected through questionnaires (Appendix. A &B). The t test was applied for analyzing and interpretation of data. SPSS software was used for the said purpose.

## 3.1. Population

The population of the study comprised as following:

All 51 Assistant Professors working on TTS in the public sector universities of Peshawar.

All 211 Assistant Professors working in BPS in the public sector universities at Peshawar

Heads of Department o supervised Assistant Professors under TTS and in BPS in four public sector universities at Peshawar.

## Sampling

Following procedure was adopted in the process of sampling.

The population of study was heterogeneous, therefore, stratified random sampling technique was chosen to select sample.

No. of Assistant Professors working in BPS and on TTS in the public sector universities of Peshawar were selected for their opinion about given questionnaire. Sample of the study is given as under

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Category

University of Peshawar

University of Engineering & Technology

Agriculture University

Peshawar

Khyber Medical

University

Peshawar

Total

Sample size

BPS

Assistant Professor

90

52

44

25

211

113

TTS

Assistant Professor

4

21

18

8

51

45

## Research Tools

The following tools were used for the collection of required data for sample

A questionnaire was developed for the Heads of department for the universities at Peshawar

A questionnaire was developed for the Asstt. Professors working in BPS and on TTS in the public sector universities of Peshawar.

Thirty questions were formulated to ascertain the performance of the faculty working in public sector universities of Peshawar. The questionnaire was based on following aspects.

The environment of the university is conducive for teaching/learning.

The work load of r job is equated.

Freedom about job performance.

Adequate knowledge of subject matter.

Instructional methods to meet students' varying needs.

Use modern audio-visual aids.

Manage student behavior and reshape it.

Participation in co-curricular activities

You Participate in staff meetings and maintain good relationship with colleagues

Annual assessment is fair and recognized contribution

Satisfied with Salary and fringe benefits.

Job is secure and stable in the university

Promotion opportunities are available in your service structure

Prefer to switch over Tenure Track System

TTS primary benefits is to increase faculty earning

TTS provide adequate support for faculty development

Research and publication have been source of stress during job

Research and publications improved knowledge

The questionnaires were sent to the respondent for the collection of responses.

## 3.2.3. Pilot-testing of Tools

The questionnaires developed for two categories were tested through a pilot study. Two head of departments, three Assistant Professors working in BPS and three Assistant Professors working on TTS were taken as the sample of the pilot study. The main reason of this pilot study was to ascertain the shortcoming and limitation of the questionnaires to minimize the possibilities of vagueness and misconceptions. Improvements were made on the basis of feedback.

3.3 Procedure of Data Collection

The researcher approached to Registrar Offices/ Heads of Department of the public sector universities of Peshawar

The following information were collected

List of Assistant Professors working in BPS with names and departments/institutions.

List of Assistant Professors working on TTS with names and departments/institutions.

Name and contact numbers of heads of department/institution.

The questionnaires were delivered to 30 heads of departments out of which 20 have given response. Similarly, 120 questionnaires were given to Asstt. Professors who were working duties in BPS and 40 questionnaires were distributed among the Assistant Professors who were working in TTS in four public sector universities in Peshawar.

## 3.4 Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The opinions of heads of departments i.e. Associate Professors/Professors and Assistant Professors working in BPS and TTS were collected through questionnaire about different activities in institutions. The obtained data was tabulated, interpreted and analyzed by applying SPSS for calculating T score

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Following scale was used to calculate the mean score.

SA : Strongly Agreed 5

A : Agreed 4

UN : Uncertain 3

DA : Disagreed 2

SDA : Strongly Disagreed 1

SPSS was used to calculate the t value. The level of significant used in this study was 0.05.

## CHAPTER 4

## 4. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis of data and its interpretation was given into 2 parts i.e. part A analysis of opinions from Assistant Professors working in BPS and Assistant Professor working on TTS. Part B analysis of responses from heads of department. On the basis of the main findings the conclusion were drawn and recommendations were made and presented in chapter 5.

## 4.1 Part A:The Analysis of opinions of Assistant Professors Working in BPS and on TTS

## Table 4.1.1:t-test for environment of the university

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

## The environment of the university is conducive for teaching

BPS

38

4.29

58

.362

2.000

TTS

22

4.23

p=0.05

Application of t test yielded the value of .362 which is less than table value at 0.05 level. It means that null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while environment of the university is conducive for teaching/learning is accepted.

## Table 4.1.2 :t-test for joining service by choice

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

## You have joined the university teaching service by choice

BPS

38

4.25

58

.047

2.000

TTS

22

4.25

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .047 which is less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while they joined university by choice is accepted.

## Table 4.1.3 :t-test for teaching of students

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

## Teaching is an opportunity of service for students

BPS

38

4.18

58

-.886

2.000

TTS

22

4.32

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.886 which is less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while teaching is an opportunity for service for students is accepted.

## Table 4.1.4 :t-test for status

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

## Your status in the university is adequate to your qualification.

BPS

38

3.84

58

-1.750

2.000

TTS

22

4.32

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -1.750 which is less than table value,so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while status in the university service is adequate to their qualification is accepted.

## Table 4.1.5 :t-test for work load

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

The work load of your job is equated with your appointment

BPS

38

4.18

58

-1.755

2.000

TTS

22

4.25

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -1.755 which less than table value . It means thatthere is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while work load is adequate with their appointment is accepted, therefore, null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.1.6 :t-test for freedom of job performance

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

There is freedom about your job performance

BPS

38

3.89

58

1.084

2.000

TTS

22

4.14

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.084 which less than table value, so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for freedom about their job performance is accepted.

## Table 4.1.7 :t-test for adequate knowledge

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

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This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our workYou have adequate knowledge of subject matter being taught by you.

BPS

38

6.50

58

1.027

2.000

TTS

22

4.50

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.027 which less than table value, so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for adequate knowledge of subject matter being taught by them is accepted.

## Table 4.1.8 :t-test for instructional methods

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You select different instructional methods to meet students' varying needs

BPS

38

4.62

58

1.592

2.000

TTS

22

4.21

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.592 which less than table value, so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for selection of different instructional methods to meet students' varying needs is accepted.

## Table 4.1.9 :t-test for audio-visual aids for teaching

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You use modern audio-visual aids to teach your subjects

BPS

38

4.29

58

-.909

2.000

TTS

22

4.50

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.909 which less than table value, so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for using modern audio visual aids for teaching is accepted.

## Table 4.1.10 :t-test for manage student behavior

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You manage student behavior and reshape it in the classroom

BPS

38

4.18

58

-1.552

2.000

TTS

22

4.36

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.1.552 which less than table value, so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for managing students behavior in class-room and reshape it is accepted.

## Table 4.1.11 : t-test for developing self confidence in students

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You try to satisfy and develop self confidence in your students

BPS

38

4.26

58

-.449

2.000

TTS

22

4.32

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.449 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for developing self confidence in students is accepted.

## Table 4.1.12 :t-test for guidance to the students

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You provide guidance to the students in spare time

BPS

38

4.50

58

1.450

2.000

TTS

22

4.27

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.450 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for guidance to the students in spare time is accepted.

Table 4.1.13 :t-test for opening and closing classes

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Prompt at opening and closing of classes according to schedule

BPS

38

4.27

58

.948

2.000

TTS

22

5.82

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .948 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for opening and closing class as per schedule is accepted.

## Table 4.1.14 : t-test for evaluation of students' performance

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You observe and evaluate students' performance and redesign it.

BPS

38

5.42

58

.745

2.000

TTS

22

4.29

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .745 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for evaluation of students performance and redesign it is accepted.

Table 4.1.15 : t-test for participation in co-curriculum activities

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You participate in co-curricular activities

BPS

38

.924

58

-1.084

2.000

TTS

22

.640

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -1.084 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for participation in co-curriculum activities is accepted.

## Table 4.1.16 :t-test for participation in staff meeting

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You Participate in staff meetings and share your ideas and concerns

BPS

38

4.32

58

1.261

2.000

TTS

22

4.05

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.261 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for participation in staff meeting and share ideas and concerns is accepted.

## Table 4.1.17 :t-test for good relationship

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You maintain good relationship with your colleagues

BPS

38

4.25

58

.780

2.000

TTS

22

4.32

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .780 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for maintaining good relationship with their colleagues is accepted.

## Table 4.1.18 :t-test for professional development

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You are engaged in professional development activities such as trainings, workshops.

BPS

38

4.24

58

-1.713

2.000

TTS

22

7.95

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -1.713 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for professional development and training activities is accepted.

## Table 4.1.19 : t-test for annual assessment

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your annual assessment is fair and appreciate you endeavors for teaching/learning

BPS

38

3.97

58

.801

2.000

TTS

22

3.77

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .801 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while their annual assessment is fair and appreciate endeavors for teaching/learning is accepted.

## Table 4.1.20 :t-test for recognizing contribution

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your university recognized your contribution towards the achievements of its' goals

BPS

38

3.32

58

1.292

2.000

TTS

22

2.95

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.292 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while recognizing their contribution towards achievements of the university goal is accepted.

Table 4.1.21 :t-test for award of outstanding teaching

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You have received award for out standing teaching.

BPS

38

2.87

58

3.085

2.000

TTS

22

1.91

p=0.05

Application of t test yielded the value of 3.085 which is higher than table value at 0.05 level. It means that thereis significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for receiving award for outstanding teaching. Hence null hypothesis is not accepted.

## Table 4.1.22 :t-test for satisfaction with salary

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You are satisfied with Salary and fringe benefits.

BPS

38

5.00

58

.813

2.000

TTS

22

3.77

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .813 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for satisfaction with salary and fringe benefits is accepted.

Table 4.1.23 :t-test for job security and stability

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Job is secure and stable in the university

BPS

38

4.24

58

2.582

2.000

TTS

22

1.68

p=0.05

Application of t test yielded the value of 2.582 which is higher than table value at 0.05 level. It means that there is significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for job security and stability. Thus null hypothesis is not accepted.

## Table 4.1.24 : t-test for promotion opportunities in service

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Promotion opportunities are available in your service structure

BPS

38

2.92

58

.929

2.000

TTS

22

2.64

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .929 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for promotion opportunities available in service structure is accepted.

## Table 4.1.25 : t-test for switching over to TTS

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

You Prefer to switch over Tenure Track System

BPS

38

2.63

58

-4.867

2.000

TTS

22

4.09

p=0.05

Application of t test yielded the value of -4.867 which is higher than table value at 0.05 level. It means that there is significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for switching over to TTS. Hence null hypothesis is not accepted.

## Table 4.1.26 :t-test for TTS benefit is to increase earning

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

TTS primary benefits is to increase faculty earning

BPS

38

3.53

58

1.618

2.000

TTS

22

3.00

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.618 which less than table value. It means that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while TTS primary benefit is to increase earning so null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.1.27 :t-test for TTS provides faculty development

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

TTS provide adequate support for faculty development

BPS

38

3.24

58

2.292

2.000

TTS

22

2.59

p=0.05

Application of t test yielded the value of 2.292 which is higher than table value at 0.05 level. It means that there is significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while TTS provides adequate support for faculty development. Hence null hypothesis is notaccepted.

## Table 4.1.28 :t-test for research and publication stress during job

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

The demand of research and publication have been source of stress during job

BPS

38

3.66

58

3.580

2.000

TTS

22

4.25

p=0.05

Application of t test yielded the value of 3.580 which is higher than table value at 0.05 level. It means thatthere is significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty while demand of research and publication has been source of stress during job. Hence null hypothesis is not accepted.

Table 4.1.29 :t-test for research and publication improved knowledge

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Research and publications have improved knowledge of your relevant subject

BPS

38

4.03

58

2.207

2.000

TTS

22

4.25

p=0.05

Application of t test yielded the value of 2.207 which is higher than table value at 0.05 level. It means thatthere is significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty research and publication improved the knowledge of subject. Hence null hypothesis is not accepted.

## Table 4.1.30 :t-test for attending events, lectures, symposia, workshop

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

There are opportunities for you to attend events lectures, symposia, workshops

BPS

38

3.76

58

.621

2.000

TTS

22

3.59

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.000 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .621 which less than table value so null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between BPS and TTS faculty for opportunities for attending events, lectures, symposium and workshop is accepted.

## 4.2 Part B: The Analysis of opinions of Heads of the Department

Table 4.2.1 :t-test for the opinion of HoD regarding university environment

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

The environment of the university is conducive for teaching/learning

BPS

15

3.67

18

-1.536

2.101

TTS

5

4.20

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -1.536 which less than table valueso there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's regarding the environment of the university is conducive for teaching/learning. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.2 :t-test for joining service by choice

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors have joined the university teaching service by choice.

BPS

15

4.40

18

-.933

2.101

TTS

5

4.80

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.933 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's regardingjoined university by choice. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.3 :t-test for teaching is an opportunity of service of students

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Teaching is an opportunity of service for students.

BPS

15

4.53

18

1.830

2.101

TTS

5

4.00

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.830 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's regarding teaching is an opportunity for service for students.Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.4 :t-test for status in the university

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors status in the university is adequate to their qualification.

BPS

15

4.13

18

-.609

2.101

TTS

5

4.40

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.609 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's regarding status in the university service is adequate to their qualification. Hence null hypothesis is accepted

## Table 4.2.5 :t-test for work load

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Their work load of job is equated with their appointment.

BPS

15

4.00

18

.000

2.101

TTS

5

4.000

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .000 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's regarding work load is adequate with their appointment. Hence null hypothesis is accepted

## Table 4.2.6 :t-test for freedom of job performance

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

There is freedom about their job performance

BPS

15

3.87

18

-.296

2.101

TTS

5

4.000

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.296 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's about freedom of job performance. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.7 :t-test for adequate knowledge

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' have adequate knowledge of subject matter being taught by them

BPS

15

4.27

18

.283

2.101

TTS

5

4.20

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .283 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's about adequate knowledge of subject matter being taught. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.8 : t-test for instructional methods

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' select different instructional methods to meet students' varying needs

BPS

15

4.13

18

1.857

2.101

TTS

5

4.20

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.857 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's about selection of different instructional methods to meet students' varying needs. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.9 : t-test for using modern audio-visual aids

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' use modern audio-visual aids to teach their subjects

BPS

15

3.93

18

-.640

2.101

TTS

5

4.20

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is 1.857 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's about using modern audio visual aids for teaching. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.10 :t-test for manage student behavior

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' manage student behavior and reshape it in the classroom

BPS

15

3.47

18

-.718

2.101

TTS

5

3.80

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.718 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutmanaging students behavior in class-room and reshape it. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.11 :t-test for developing self confidence in students

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' try to satisfy and develop self confidence in their students

BPS

15

3.73

18

-.176

2.101

TTS

5

3.80

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.176 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutdeveloping self confidence in students. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.12 :t-test for guidance to the students

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' provide guidance to the students in spare time

BPS

15

3.07

18

-.826

2.101

TTS

5

3.60

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.826 which less than table value so there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutguidance to the students in spare time. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.13 : t-test for opening and closing classes

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' prompt at opening and closing of classes according to schedule

BPS

15

5.80

18

.664

2.101

TTS

5

3.60

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .664 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutfor opening and closing class as per schedule. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.14 :t-test for evaluation of students' performance

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' observe and evaluate students' performance and redesign it.

BPS

15

3.60

18

.694

2.101

TTS

5

3.20

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .694 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD'saboutevaluation of student's performance and redesign it. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.15 :t-test for participation in co-curriculum activities

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' participate in co-curricular activities

BPS

15

3.87

18

.135

2.101

TTS

5

3.80

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .694 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutfor participation in co-curriculum activities.Hence null hypothesis is accepted

## Table 4.2.16 :t-test for participation in staff meeting

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors Participate in staff meetings and share their ideas and concerns

BPS

15

4.00

18

-.630

2.101

TTS

5

4.20

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.630 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutparticipation in staff meeting and share ideas and concerns. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.17 : t-test for relationship with colleagues

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' maintain good relationship with their colleagues

BPS

15

3.93

18

.394

2.101

TTS

5

3.80

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is -.630 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutmaintaining good relationship with their colleagues. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.18 :t-test for professional development

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' are engagedin professional development activities such as trainings, workshops.

BPS

15

4.13

18

.938

2.101

TTS

5

3.80

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .938 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutprofessional development and training activities. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.19 :t-test for annual assessment

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Annual assessment is fair and appreciate their endeavors for teaching/learning

BPS

15

4.000

18

.982

2.101

TTS

5

3.80

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .938 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutannual assessment is fair and appreciate endeavors for teaching/learning. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.20 :t-test for recognizing contribution

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

University recognized their contribution towards the achievements of its' goals

BPS

15

3.47

18

.142

2.101

TTS

5

3.40

p=0.05

Table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. Calculated value is .142 which less than table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutrecognizing their contribution towards achievements of the university goal. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.21 :t-test for award of outstanding teaching

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' have received award for out standing teaching.

BPS

15

2.47

18

1.035

2.101

TTS

5

2.00

p=0.05

The calculated value of t is 1.035 and table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. It is less that table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutreceiving award for outstanding teaching. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

## Table 4.2.22 :t-test for satisfaction with salary

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' are satisfied with salary and fringe benefits.

BPS

15

4.00

18

.000

2.101

TTS

5

4.00

p=0.05

The calculated value of t is .000while table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level. It is less that table value.Its means that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD's aboutsatisfaction with salary and fringe benefits. Hence null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.2.23 : t-test for job security and stability

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors' job is secure and stable in the university

BPS

15

3.33

18

-.442

2.101

TTS

5

3.60

p=0.05

The calculated value of t is -.442 while table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level . It is less that table value.Its means null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD'sjob security and stabilityis accepted.

## Table 4.2.24 :t-test for promotion opportunities in service

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Promotion opportunities are available in their service structure

BPS

15

3.20

18

-1.389

2.101

TTS

5

4.00

p=0.05

The calculated value of t is -1.389 while table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level . It is less that table value.Its means null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD'spromotion opportunities available in service structure is accepted.

Table 4.2.25 : t-test for switching over to TTS

## Statement

## Status of service

## N

## Mean

## df

## Calculated value

## Table Value

Your Asstt Professors prefer to switch over Tenure Track System

BPS

15

2.20

18

-.832

2.101

TTS

5

2.60

p=0.05

The calculated value of t is -.832 while table value of t is 2.101 at 0.05 level . It is less that table value.Its means null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the opinions of HoD'sfor switching over to TTSis accepted.

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