Print Reference This Reddit This

Malaysian chinese marketing activities

PERFACE

Malaysian Chinese marketing activities are influenced by the growth and development of East Asian economies such as four Newly Industrialized countries (NICs) of East Asia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan and even South Korea.

How do Chinese business owned-managers achieve economic success? Several studies have revealed that Chinese value has a significant and positive correlation with success of entrepreneur attitude orientation. These Chinese values have significantly influenced the Chinese way of life and personality.

In order to understand how the Chinese value will affect the entrepreneur attitude orientation in Malaysia, the questionnaires were widely distributed to many locations. The survey is important because it can provide insight and more accurate result so to have a better understanding of the topic in a detail research.

This research is conducted with the purpose to investigate how the Chinese value will affect entrepreneur attitude orientation. We have proven that Chinese value has affected the entrepreneur attitude orientation.

ABSTRACT

Research generally concludes that in Malaysia small firm's particularly Chinese small firms have played a very important role for economic growth in this country. Chinese firms have managed to survive, grow and succeed either in Malaysia or anywhere else in the world. Most prior research found that the success factor was related to the Chinese value. Yet, researchers examined the relationship between Chinese values toward the entrepreneurial attitude orientation. Yet, it is said that Chinese management is more relationship-oriented “guanxi” than performance-oriented.

It was particularly on certain selected values related to integration, human heartedness, confusion work dynamism, moral discipline. This research proposed that Chinese values are the main factor that affect the way Chinese small firms market their operation. Thus, the current study thus proposed that how Chinese value have significant contribution to their success or their failures.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

Chapter 1 is the introductory chapter which provides an overview of the study content. This chapter covers eight parts of the study. The first section is research background which outlines the broad field of the chapter. In section one, we discussed the Malaysia Entrepreneurial History and why Chinese Value is important. Next, the second section is about problem statement. It explained the important issues behind the study. The third section is research objective (general objective and specific objective) which explained the aim of investigation. The forth section is research questions that can provide us an understanding about how the Chinese Value affect by the Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation. This chapter is continuing by chapter layout which briefly outlines each chapter of the research report. The final section is conclusion, providing a summary of the impact on Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

1.1 Research Background

In Malaysia, the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) sectors play an important part of the developed and developing economies. The SMEs sector in Malaysia plays a significant role and part in the national economy. The sector's contributions to the nation's economy can be seen from various aspects such as associated primarily with their role in stimulating economic growth due to the employment opportunities offer by as well as lead to increase economic output. Apart from these contributions, the SMEs sector in Malaysia is also known to make other valuable contributions such as regional income generation, savings, training, stimulation of competition, aiding large firms, introduction of innovation, and as a seed-bed for growth. Thus, a country can reduce its vulnerability to financial crisis by strengthening its SMEs (Hashim, 1999). In Malaysia, the growth and development of the SMEs sector may be best observed in the National Economic Policy and the Malaysian Development Plans (the five-year plans).

From the research we know that small and medium firms have played a very important role for economic growth, particularly Chinese small firms. Chinese owner-manager have managed to survive, grow and succeed either in Malaysia or anyway else all over the world. In other word, Chinese-owned companies in Malaysia were more resilient to economic and financial turmoil than businesses of other ethnic groups. In fact, Malaysian Chinese marketing activities were influence by the growth and development of East Asian economies such as four Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) of East Asia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan and even South Korea's whose culture was under the influence of Confucianism. Their successfulness is very significant and highly remarkable (Redding, 1990).

Majority of the SMEs are owned by Chinese, hence it is important to study Chinese values (Tan, 1990). For Chinese, culture counts specifically guanxi, “the ages-old practice of continuously cultivating and valuing relationships” which is also the culture that most emphasized by Chinese when doing the business. In order to for Malays to be equally successful as the Chinese such as Entrepreneurial development program for Malays must be spelt out in a master plan and definitely they need guidance and leadership in business especially in marketing from professionals. According to Forbes 5000, out of ten billionaires in Malaysia, eight of them are Chinese. For example: one of the 10 Great Malaysian Entrepreneurs is Lim Goh Tong who migrated from the China mainland in his youth.

1.2 Problem statement

Many countries have indicated successful entrepreneurship as a major component in a healthy market economy and important source of job creation (Hisrich & Peter, 1988; Jackson & Rodkey, 1994; Jennings, 1994; Kroon, 2002; North, 2002; Timmons, 1994; Van Aadrt & Van Aardt, 1997). The presence of entrepreneurial thinking in existing organizations can lead the competitive advantage (Covin and Miles, 1990) and improved financial performance (Goosen, De Coning & Smit, 2002)

According to the research of Brock and Evans (1986) conclude that small businesses are contributed to the economic development. In Malaysia and many countries, small firms had played an important role for economic development. There has been minimal research conducted to examine why most of the companies that survive, grow and succeed are mostly Chinese owner-managers compared to Malay and Indian owner-managers.

Several studies have revealed that Confucian culture has a significant and positive correlation with economic success. These cultural values have significantly influenced the Chinese way of life and personality (Wah, 2002). From the sociological point of view, the family is a basic unit of society for Chinese. In the Chinese Confucianism society, the family is the center of all relationships. Business ownership and management is normally retained within the circle of family members. It is common to find that the Chinese business is normally started by the first generation of the family with the intention to be passed down to the second generation or even third generation. Due to lack of research study on the reason in most of the companies that survive, grow and succeed are mostly Chinese owner-managers. This researches and studies give a way to have a depth understand about the Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

1.3 Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to find out the impact on Chinese value towards entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. To address the above mentioned problem the following objectives are derived:

1.3.1 General objective

To identify how the four dimension of Chinese value (integration, human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and moral discipline) determines the entrepreneurial attitudes orientation in Malaysia.

1.3.2 Specific objective

  • To examine whether there is a significant relationship between integration and entrepreneurial attitude orientation.
  • To examine whether there is a significant relationship between human heartedness and entrepreneurial attitude orientation.
  • To examine whether there is a significant relationship between Confucian work dynamism and entrepreneurial attitude orientation.
  • To examine whether there is a significant relationship between moral discipline and entrepreneurial attitude orientation.
  • To examine whether the Integration, Human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and Moral discipline is significant explain the variance in Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

1.4 Research questions

  • Are there any relationship between integration and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation?
  • Are there any relationship between human heartedness and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation?
  • Are there any relationship between Confucian work dynamism and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation?
  • Are there any relationship between moral discipline and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation?
  • Are there Integration, Human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and Moral discipline can be use to explain the variance in Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

1.5Hypothesis of the study

H1 : There is a significant relationship between Integration and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation.

H2 : There is a significant relationship between Confusion Work Dynamism and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation.

H3 : There is a significant relationship between Human-heartedness and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation.

H4 : There is a significant relationship between Moral Discipline and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation.

H5 : The independent variables will significantly explain the variance in Entrepreneurial attitudes orientation.

1.6 Significance of the study

Nowadays, the role of Chinese entrepreneurs in small and medium enterprises has been increasing. Chinese are present in everywhere, businessman in international trade will often find themselves dealing with the Chinese customers. So, a comprehensive understanding of the Chinese value is worthy to all businessman.

The importance of this study will explain the development and validation of the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation (EAO), based on Chinese Value Survey (CVS) and specifically designed to predict entrepreneurship. The (CVS) are used to access whether an impact towards the entrepreneurs attitude orientation.

Despite the importance of small firms in Malaysia's economy, there has been minimal research conducted to examine why most of the companies that survive, grow and succeed are mostly Chinese owner-managers as compared to other owner-managers.

1.7 Chapter Layout

In this research report, chapter 1 is the introductions that provide an overview on the background of the phenomena that being study. In general, this chapter will provide a clear understanding of the research topic. It introduces the research background, research objectives and significant of study is to explain the importance of the study.

Chapter 2 will be the literature review that proposed the theoretical background of the research topic. This could help the researcher to better understanding of the important variables in this research report. It serves as a fundamental of the hypothesis to be tested. Literature review is the based on the empirical research which done by previously by researcher who has studied existing work and the field with insight.

Next, is the chapter 3 research methodology that describes the collection method that is suitable for this research report which included the research design, data collection method, sampling design, operational definition of construct measurement scale and the data analysis technique use. By implementing the appropriate sampling method could help to minimize the errors that associated with the research.

Following, chapter 4 will present the pattern of the result and the analyses of the result which obtain from the descriptive analyses, reliability test and inferential analyses to examine the reliability and the relationship of the variables. Furthermore, the research result that shows the result of the data analysis figures, chart, table and graph are used to present the findings.

The last chapter in this research report would be discussion and conclusion that provides discussion of major findings and recommendations for future research. It will provide a whole summary of the whole research project and limitations that researcher faced during the research process.

1.8 Conclusion

Proposed of chapter 1 is act as a foundation for this research project. It form a brief outlines in each chapter presented the chapter. In the following chapter, the variables will be further discussed in depth and the proposed conceptual framework will be illustrated.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

In previous chapter, research problem, research objectives, research questions and hypotheses of the study have been identified. In this chapter 2, provide a literature review which convey the knowledge and ideas that have been established on this research topic and related with the research objectives. It contains the discussions and evaluation of the research topic in this section. Through reviewing the relevant journals, it provides the foundation to develop a good theoretical framework for the research. Besides that, it allows the research project lead to further identified relationship among the dependent variables and the independent variables and hypotheses testing in order to reach the research objectives.

2.1 Review of literature

We will adopt attitude theoretical approach (Robinson., P.B., Stimpson, D.V., Huefner, J.C., Hunt, H.K.. 1991a) explaining the development of Chinese entrepreneurs behavior. This is a method of investing entrepreneurial orientated individual. Five important entrepreneurial attitudes were identified from literature, achievement, self-esteem, personal control, innovation and opportunity recognition. This instrument is called Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation Scale (EAOS).

Besides, we will obtain Chinese Value Survey (CVS) to measure and evaluate cultural values within the setting of a Chinese social value system that is derived from the Confucian ethos. In the CVS consideration is focussed on four dimensions such as Integration, human-heartedness, Confusion work dynamism and moral discipline.

2.2 Review of Relevant Theoretical Model

After read through the relevant journals, few theoretical models are being found related to the research regarding Chinese values (CV) and Entrepreneurial attitudes orientation (EAO).

2.2.1 Chinese Culture values and development

According to Williams (1968), Rokeach (1973), Rokeach, (1973) and Ball-Rokeach (1989), values provide potentially powerful explanations and influence on human behaviors because they serve as the standards or criteria of conduct tend to be limited in number and are remarkably stable over time (as cited in Fok, V. S. & Chong, V.K., 1996). Values establish and reflect expected behaviour and also used to enforce sanctions such as blame and praise as well as social inclusion and exclusion (Anderson, 2000).

Based upon psycho-sociological studies on the significance of cultural values as determinants of human behavior, the two things are related to each other (Hofstede, 1980). Hofstede (1991, p.5) describe culture as “the collective programming of the mind that differentiates one group from another group”. In early, Hofstede's study suggests that his classic model view as a traditional quantitative design with four dimension of culture. There are power distance, individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity-femininity.

However, Hofstede added a fifth dimension named long term orientation in year 2001(as cited in Fontaine, R. & Richardson, S., 2005). Hofstede and Bond (1988) derived that Confucian dynamism as one of the values that contribute to the economic growth in 22 countries during the period 1965 to 1985. Confucian values towards entrepreneurial development in Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Japan bring the name as four dragons at the same time they hold top five positions in economic growth. Mostly countries are within the Confucian influence circle and their economies have been driven to a large extent by entrepreneurship in the small and medium sized business sectors.

Another model act as an improvement on Hofstede classic model (1980) is Schwartz's model (1994). Itworks out to replace Hofstede's dimension of Individualism by two dimensions (Autonomy versus Conversation and Hierarchy and Mastery at the cultural level). Furthermore, this model used to eliminate validity and reliability limitation on Hofstede's model as it has proved valid and reliable across cultures when research have taken Schwartz's theory and developed a different instrument. Later, Schwartz's SVS act as a measure instrument which comprises 57 values represent ten dimension at the individual level (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulating, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity and security) and seven dimension at the cultural level (embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism and harmony)(as cited in Fontaine, R. & Richardson, S., 2005).

Chinese cultural values are created from interpersonal relationships and social orientations. The works of Confucius is generally regarded as the pillars of Chinese cultural values Yang (1972). There are four major studies about Chinese value orientations and development of measuring scales. First study, Ways to Live Survey designed by Morris (1956) consisting of 13 alternative conceptions which included values advocated and defended in the several ethical and religious systems of human societies. Second study found that the younger generation showed a considerable change different from their parents who pursue on traditional practices, or be influence by friends and change across time. (Lin 1966).

Continue study was Chinese Value Survey (CVS) developed by the Chinese Culture Connection (1987). It is an idiographic design which is recognized as more appropriate in cross cultural research and not based on Western social science but used 40-scale items which is the fundamental and basic values for Chinese people. Michael Bond and his colleagues conducted this research aim to develop a new questionnaire with the input from several Chinese social scientists in Hong Kong. CVS consist of four dimensions which are integration, Confucian work dynamism, human-heartedness and moral discipline respectively. This instrument that tapped concerns fundamental to the Chinese world view and identify an additional value indigenous to the Chinese people, which they termed “Confucian work dynamism” as the principle attributes reflect the teachings of Confucius and the social continuity of an extant civilization of over 2,500 years(as cited in Steven Ward, 2002).

latest study on Chinese values orientation was the Chinese Cultural Values Scale (CCVS) by Yau (1994). It is the only one scale developed for exploring the relationship between Chinese cultural values and consumer attitudes and behaviors. It is nothing related with entrepreneurial attitudes orientation.

2.2.2 Chinese Value (CV)

Chinese Value is selected to be independent variables in this research. The Chinese Value Survey (referred to as the CVS) was developed by Bond and a group of research workers known collectively as the Chinese Culture Connection in response to their perceived need to measure and evaluate cultural values within the setting of a Chinese social value system that is derived from the Confucian ethos. The Confucian ethos has tended towards the formation of a dedicated and motivated as well as educated population which manifests a responsible and enhanced sense of commitment to its ideals and institutions as well as to the identity and moral fiber of its organization with the resultant establishment of desirable outcomes (Chang et al., 1997).

Values are enduring belief of desired end-state of existence or modes of behaviour (Kluckholn, 1951). In psychology, values are operationalized as the ‘guiding principles of a person's behaviour' (Schwarts & Bilsky, 1990). The values measured by Bond and his colleagues remain universal in nature, but they also include some values which are uniquely Confucian (Hofstede, 1991). Examples are respect for tradition, humility, filial piety, and protecting one's face. This is not to say such values do not exist in Western culture, but rather their implied importance is not as great as in Eastern culture. The study used 40-scale items which were identical to those in the study so as to find out different culture dimensions in valuing (Ng, 1982).

There are four dimensions of (CVS) such as Integration, Human-heartedness, Confusion work dynamism and moral discipline. Integration dimension focuses upon social stability and can be characterized by having tolerance for others. Integration also places importance upon being trustworthy and enjoying a close friendship. It corresponds to Hofstede's power distance dimension which identifies the degree of power distance that is seen as appropriate between a superior and a subordinate. In the organizational context, it can be an indicator of the degree of centralization that is deemed appropriate.

Secondly, human-heartedness dimension deals with an individual's level of social consciousness or awareness. It is a measure of one's compassion toward others. It is characterized by the need to be kind, forgiving and courteous. In the business setting, it may be viewed as presenting a contrast between the task-oriented and people-oriented styles of management. Human-heartedness also may be viewed as comparable to Hofstede's (1980) masculinity dimension.

The third is the Confusion work dynamism, it reflects the teachings of Confucius that emphasize a social hierarchy or structure (Louie, 1980). It can be characterized by a respect for tradition with a strong desire to save "face." It also implies a need to order relationships by status and to respect the order of that status. Confucian work dynamism fills a void in the content of Western instruments which, not too surprisingly, do not include Confucian values in their constructs (Hofstede & Bond, 1988).

lastly, is the moral discipline. The focus of this dimension is upon keeping oneself under control in relation to others. It is characterized by the need to be moderate, prudent and adaptable. Following the "high road" is a part of moral discipline when compared with Hofstede's (1980) IBM research, three of the four CVS dimensions aligned closely with three of the four Hofstede dimensions (Hofstede & Bond 1988). The four Hofstede's dimensions namely are 1), individualism 2), masculinity, 3) power distance, and 4) uncertainty avoidance. Although Hofstede did not specify the relationship between culture and entrepreneurial, his culture dimensions are useful in identifying the key elements of culture related to entrepreneurial orientation. All four indices were based on responses to questions framed by Western social scientists.

2.2.3 Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation and Development

The previous research has found that various personality and attitudinal constructs in the field of entrepreneurship. Lumpkin and Dess (1996) have defined Entrepreneurial attitude orientation (EAO) as the processes, practices, decision-making activities that lead to new entry. Furthermore, Hornaday and Aboud (1971) has mentioned EAO is a set of personal psychological traits, values, attributes and attitudes strongly associated with a motivation to engage in entrepreneurial activities.

The six major schools of thought on entrepreneurship were discovered by Barton and Lischeron (1991). These are “Great Person School”, “The Psychological Characteristics School”, “Classical School”, “Management School”, “The Leadership School”, and "Intrapreneurship School”. Each of these schools of thought can be according to its interests in studying personal characteristics, opportunities, management or need for adapting an existing venture. The Psychological Characteristics School has focuses on personality factors and believes that entrepreneurs have unique values and attitudes toward work and life. Beside, Lachman (1980) has suggested that entrepreneurs can differentiate from non-entrepreneurs by personality characteristics such as the people who possess the characteristics entrepreneurs will have higher potential to perform entrepreneurial acts than those who do not possess such characteristics. Based on the three personalities characteristic to distinguish and recognize entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs. First, the personal values such as honesty, duty, responsibility, ethical behavior. Second, risk-taking propensity. Last, the need for achievement (as cited in Barton and Lischeron, 1991).

With further empirical supports personality traits contribute to entrepreneurial attitude orientation from McClelland (1961) and Collins, Hanges & Locke (2004) asserted that need for achievement is a strong entrepreneurial trait, and Gasse (1985) and Hansemark (2003) found that entrepreneurs often possess a greater internal locus of control than the general population. Brockhous (1982) identified three attributes consistently associated with entrepreneurial behavior are need for achievement, internal locus of control, and a risk-taking propensity. Krueger & Brazeal, 1994; Erickson, 2002; Frazier & Niehm, 2006 have suggested the higher self-efficacy is associated with entrepreneurship and business creation. (as cited in Harris, M. & Gibson, S., 2009). However, there are also background factors, which relate to individual personality such as gender (Buttner & Rosen, (1989) and education (Storey, 1982) which is also linked to the attitude to establish a business (as cited in Mohammad Shariff, M. N., & Basir Saud, M. 2009).

According to Ajzen & Fishbein (1977), they agreed that the personality theories frequently loss its effectiveness in measuring entrepreneurial attitudes. There are still founded some limitations with lacked predictive validity in groups of entrepreneurship and non- entrepreneurship (Sexton and Bowman 1986). It means certain characteristics have differed on variety of characteristics which are supposed to be stable across time and situation according to personality theory. The possible reasons to explain the limitation are the instruments lack adequate reliability and validity and people are change across time or situation.

In order to deal with the limitation on personality mode entrepreneur research works out attitude model to correct inadequacy of psychological models based on personality. Olson and Bosserman (1984), Gasse (1986), Sexton (1987) have found that attitude in conjunction with entrepreneurship. The concept of “attitude” is a dynamic interactive way of relating to the environment in conjunction with a specific person, place, thing, event, activity, idea or lifestyle. The dynamic nature of the concept implies that it changes across time and from situation to situation (as cited in Robinson., P.B., Stimpson, D.V., Huefner, J.C., Keith Hunt, H., 1991a). . Ajzen (1982), Rosenberg and Hovland (1960) & Shaver (1987) has stated that attitude is the predisposition to respond in a generally favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to the object of the attitude. In addition, Allport (1935), Breckler (1983 and 1984), Carlson (1985), Kothandapani (1970) and others categorized attitude as the tripartite model consisting of three types of reaction to everything: affect, cognition, and conation (as cited in Robinson., P.B., Stimpson, D.V., Huefner, J.C., Keith Hunt, H., 1991b).

The following research conducted by Robinson, P.B., Stimppson, D.V., Heufner, J.C. & Hunt, K.N. (1991), they has adopted this attitudinal theoretical approach explaining the behavioral tendencies of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation Scale (EAOS) is one method of investigating entrepreneurial orientated individuals provide valid measurement based on attitude theory. Hence, this scale is used to distinguish entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs with the four important entrepreneurial attitudes included Achievement, Self-Esteem, Personal Control and Innovation. The four sub-scales described as Achievement in creating a business, Perceived self esteem as indication of self-evaluated competence in business affairs, Perception of personal controland influence over business incentives, and Innovation by acting upon business incentives. Each of the sub-scales is reported to be the product of the three theoretical attitudinal behavioural components of cognition (belief and thoughts), affection (positive or negative conviction) and conative Behaviour (intentions and actions).

Furthermore, another model came out after the attitudinal approach called entrepreneurial opportunity recognition (EOR) by Covin & Slevin, (1989). Both of the researchers have gave more attention to incorporate specific situational factors related to the emotions, cognition, behaviourial action germane to a specific environmental stimulus instead of attitudinal measures. The literature has developed a study that an association of opportunity recognition with the concept of entrepreneurship (as cited in McCline, R.L., Bhat, S. & Baj, P., 2000).

2.2.4 Entrepreneurs Attitude Orientation (EAO)

Entrepreneurial attitude orientation (EAO) is the dependent variable in our research project. Bygrave and Hofer (1991, p.14) define an entrepreneur as “. . . someone who perceives an opportunity and creates an organization to pursue it”. In formulating national policy recommendations, entrepreneurship act as “the creation of new independent businesses” (Vesper, 1983, p.1). Founder of a new business and started the business before others also can applied as an entrepreneurs (Gartner, 1985). The term has been used to define a wide range of activities such as creation, founding, adapting, and managing a venture. Entrepreneurship is not only associated with the formation of new firms, but also with entrepreneurial action in the sense of starting something new (Wennekers and Thurik, 1999).

Attitude is known as a part of personality that is supported by belief and is able to arouse emotions that investigate specific behaviors (Oppenheim, 2000). There are some research revealed that attitude is an important factor of an individual success in entrepreneurship. This is because a successful entrepreneurs is said to be influenced and stimulated by the individual own attitude. In this research, the attitude approach is the best way to explain the success of an entrepreneur because it links the individual and the ever-changing attitudinal object (Kuratko and Hodgetts 2004; Robinson et al. 1991a).Attitudes can therefore also be changed purposely to be more favorable towards entrepreneurship.

Attitude does not appear as a single aspect, but is connected to other aspects of an individual (Oppenheim, 2000). According to Oppenheim, an individual has several extraordinary characteristics that portray his or her personality. Therefore, a person need a true and positive attitude to choose and participated to become successful entrepreneurship (Mohd Salleh et al. 2005). Entrepreneurial attitude orientation is the studies of entrepreneurial personality characteristics. The work of Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner, and Hunt (1991) was one of the first to integrate an attitude scale to predict entrepreneurial activity. (Robinson et al., 1991b) adopted this theoretical approach to investigate entrepreneurial oriented individual by explaining the development of the behaviour. Robinson et al. (1991a) developed the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation (EAO) model based on the four dimensions of achievement, innovation, personal control, and self esteem in business.

The first dimension, need for achievement, is an important determining factor in choosing entrepreneurship as a career. The individual desire for appreciation corresponds to the needed motivation for becoming a successful entrepreneur is high (Davidson 1995; McClelland 1961; Moorman and Halloran 1993). The individual that possesses this need is said to be inclined in exploratory efforts and be able to become a very successful entrepreneur (McClelland, 1961). This is some characteristic such as, increases self-satisfaction, readiness in facing challenges, and the freedom to determine the amount of effort needed to succeed in the chosen field.

The second dimension is internal locus of control. It is an individual attitude in handling his or her daily affairs influences his decisions and actions. Thus, one's internal locus of control is one's belief in one's ability to control one's future, self-confidence, commitment, and creativity, among many other things. Past research has down-played this attitude in determining individual's involvement level in entrepreneurship (Hisrich and Peters 1998). The characteristic of competitiveness is essential because it is able to provide confidence, commitment, and determination, thus enabling an individual to persevere with his or her choice of entrepreneurship (Mohd Salleh et al. 2005)

The third dimensions is innovative behaviour, it is commonly view as the key to continuous entrepreneurship (Johnson, 1994), and has been presented as the main criterion for entrepreneur activity (Schumpter, 1983: Miller and Friesen, 1982). According to (Carland, 1984) the entrepreneurial individual is characterized principally by innovative behaviour. Innovation activity includes creating new products, methods, markets or a new organization. It relates to perceiving and acting upon business activities in new and unique ways (Drucker 1985).

The forth dimensions is self-esteem which is associated with feelings about oneself. It is an important construct of personality for researches because perceptions of others about self esteem may influence individuals' outcomes (Strauss 2005). Perceived self-esteem in business is pertaining to the self-confidence and perceived competency of an individual in conjunction with his or her business affairs. Self-esteem is associated with feelings about oneself (Hogg and Cooper, 2003) and self-efficacy (as part of self-esteem) is defined as belief in capability to perform the task (Chen et al., 1998). Entrepreneurship literature has also found that persons who believe that their skill and ability set is adequate for achieving success with a new venture are motivated to exert the necessary effort (Douglas and Shepherd, 2000).

The fifth dimension is known as opportunity recognition. Venkatraman (1997) noted that it is one thing to be aware that entrepreneurial opportunities exist, but a significantly different matter to know how to exploit these opportunities. There must be something quite unique about the entrepreneurial individual that gives him or her the propensities to gain economically in the midst of the change, chaos and confusion that tend to foster the emergence of entrepreneurs (Schumpeter, 1976; Stevenson, 1983). Opportunity recognition can known as perceiving possibility for new profit through the founding and formation of a new venture or significant impromevent of an existing venture (Christensen, Madsen & Peterson, 1989).

2.3Proposed Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework

In this section, the interrelationship among each variable will be discussed:

Theoretical Framework: Factors that affect the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation

2.3.1 Relationship between Integration and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation

Integration is an index of the degree of tolerance, harmony and friendship a society endorses, at the expense of competitiveness, it has a broadly integrative, socially stabilizing emphasis (The Chinese Culture Connection, 1987). It has significant relationship with Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation. Integration refers to the compatibility of decision making among various departments in the organization. It includes the use of interdepartmental committees for joint decision making, task forces which are temporary bodies set up to facilitate interdepartmental collaboration on a specific project and liaison personnel whose specific job is to coordinate the efforts of several departments for purposes of specific product (Miller & Danny, 1983). Integration assumes importance as in large firms there is a need for a coordinated effort to remain focused in pursuit of objectives of the firm.

2.3.2 Relationship between Confusion Work Dynamism and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation

Confucian dynamism is having a significant relationship with Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation. The culture of Confucianism promotes individual responsibility, the unity of family, and limited government, all of which contribute to entrepreneurial activity (Macaulay, 1986). High Confucian dynamics indicate that the individuals place more importance values associated with Confucian teachings that are future oriented (persistence, status-ordered relationships, thrift, and a sense of shame), and low Confucian dynamism indicate that the individuals who place more importance values associated with Confucian teachings that are past and present oriented (steadiness and stability, protection of face, respect for tradition, and reciprocation of greeting, favors, and gifts). Confucian dynamism associated with entrepreneurial achievement, motivation and with levels of national economic growth (Redding and Ng, 1983; Kahn, 1979).

2.3.3 Relationship between Human-heartedness and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation

Human-heartedness may present a contrast between the task oriented and people oriented styles of management. Thus, it has a significant relationship with Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation. The decline in the value of Human-heartedness probably reflects a move towards more individual values since the benefits of cooperation without government support would have been more prevalent for those people (Ward el at., 2002). When clearly emphasis on cultural traits such as strong-heartedness and risk taking, it encourage the entrepreneurship by taking advantages of opportunities but being mindful of the corresponding risks at the same time (Co and Mitchell, 1990). The human-heartedness value relates to the typology of an individual's leadership style (Bass, 1990). For instance, there has been a comparable grow over 12 years period in people orientation in both Hong Kong and mainland China, such that they remain divergent from one another (Ralston, 1997).

2.3.4 Relationship between Moral discipline and Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation

Moral discipline is having a significant relationship with the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation. In Confucian doctrine, rectification is the clear and express establishment of the moral guideline of a society. The most effective way to develop the mind is moral discipline, which at the same time appeals to the goodness in human nature and leads to crime prevention. Moral discipline allows people to exercise self control by virtue (Ramirez, 2010). The focus of this dimension is upon keeping oneself under control in relation to others. That entrepreneurial success requires moral imagination, in addition handling of the strategic dimensions of starting a new venture (Dunham et al., 2008). Some entrepreneurs may indeed generally place a greater emphasis on ethical behavior (Bucar and Hisrich, 2001) and exhibit higher levels of moral reasoning (Teal and Carroll, 1999).

2.4 Hypothesis Development

H1 : There is a significant relationship between Integration and Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

H2 : There is a significant relationship between Confusion Work Dynamism and Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

H3 : There is a significant relationship between Human-heartedness and Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

H4 : There is a significant relationship between Moral Discipline and Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

H5 : The independent variables will significantly explain the variance in Entrepreneurial attitudes orientation

2.5 Conclusion

In chapter 2, from review of literature, Entrepreneurial attitude orientation (EAO) is the dependent variable is our research project. EAO model based on the four dimension of achievement, innovation, personal control, self esteem in business. Chinese value is selected to be independent variable in this research. There are quite number of Chinese value determinants affecting EAO which is human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism, integration and moral discipline. In review of relevant theoretical model, few theoretical models are being found related to the research regarding CV and EAO. While in the proposal theoretical conceptual framework, the interrelationship among each variable will be discussed. Further explain will be discuss in the following chapter.

Chapter 3 Research Methodology

3.0 Introduction

The research methodologies that used for the study of how the Chinese Value affects by the Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation will be describe in this Chapter 3. This chapter will explain on the outline of major methodology used to collect data and information that required for the study. There are several essential elements which are necessary for carrying out the research study systematically. It includes the research design, data collection method, sampling design, data processing and data analysis.

3.1 Research design

Research design refer to the plan that providing the overall framework for collecting the data and draw out the steps in the study with the way of data gathering (Strauss & Corbin, 1997). Further explanation a research design is a plan or structure applied during the investigation in order to answer the research questions (Mc Millan & Schumacher, 1993). On the other hand, research design can be a tool as creation of means of obtaining reliable and valid data by means of which formal announcements about the phenomenon may be confirmed or rejected (Booyse, J.J., Dednam, A., Du Toit L., Landsberg, E. I. & Van Wyk, P. C.,1993).

3.1.1 Quantitative research design

Quantitative research is the standard experimental method of most scientific disciplines which sometimes referred to as true science and use traditional mathematical and statistical means to measure conclusively (Shuttleworth, M., 2008). The objective of adopting the quantitative research design is to test the developed hypothesis and determine the relationship among the important variables which are CV and EAO.

3.1.2 Causal research

Causal research knows as predictive research as well given way researchers seeks to explain what is happening in a particular situation and identify cause and effect relationship among variables. It aims to generalise from an analysis by predicting certain phenomena on the basis of hypothesised general relationships (Eric Williams, 1998). This investigation is sought to determine the relationship between the impact on CV and EAO.

3.2 Data Collection Method

Through this section, data source available and the chosen data collection techniques will be discussed. In order to enhance the accuracy of this study, the primary method is being used. The data obtained will then be used to analyzed and become the basic for informed decision making; thus, this will in turn helps to reduce the risk of making costly error (Zikmund, 2003)

3.2.1 Primary Data

Primary data are the data usually gathered and assembled specifically for the project at hand. The researches will collect the primary data through the information provided from questionnaire, survey and observation and etc. The reason that researches use primary data to conduct this research because it is first hand information and the information gathered are more suitable in this research.

3.2.1.1 Questionnaire Design

Questionnaires are the primary sources for using in this research. We have decided to use this instrument because questionnaires allow the collection of primary data in an expensive way within a short period of time from a large number of respondents. A good questionnaire appears to be clear and simple. It should be designed in a way that it is self explanatory in nature where the respondent could complete it themselves. Therefore we were using self-administered questionnaire

Each of the members in this research will distribute 50 questionnaires to the targeted respondents. The total distributed and collected is 300. The questionnaire consists of 3 sections: section A, section B, section C. Section A consists of questionnaire on demographic profile. The purpose of demographic questions is to know some basic information of the respondents. The questions include gender, age, industry, education level, and years of experience. Section B is to know the degree of importance of each value of entrepreneur. Section C is to known respondents' strength agreement about a group of statements.

3.3 Sampling design

One of the stages in the basic business research procedure is sampling design. This step involves defining the target population, sample element, sample technique and sampling size. Sample is a subset of the population where by studying sample, researcher will able to draw conclusion to the population of interest (Zikmund, 2003). It helps to provide reliable information which is more convenience, cost-saving and data can be collected quickly, therefore it is useful for the researcher to carrying out the research systematically. If a sample was being measured and manage properly, the sample will be able to represent for the overall population.

3.3.1 Target population

Target population defines as the specific, complete group relevant to the research project. Researcher need to define the target population precisely in order to get accurate result. In this research study, the target populations are the baby boomers (1946-1960), Generation X (1960-1980) and Generation Y (1980-1996) in Malaysia whose is an entrepreneurial. The reason of choosing those respondents as the research's sample is because of they are more closely related to the study of how the Chinese Value affects by the Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation. The chosen sample size for this research study is 300 respondents.

3.3.2 Sampling frame and sampling location

Sampling is the process of using a small number of items or parts of larger population to make conclusion about the whole population (Zikmund, 2003). A sampling frame is a list of elements from which the sample may be drawn in the appropriate population. In this research study, the sampling frame consists of Perak, Pahang and Pulau Pinang areas which those entrepreneurial are located. The main reason for choosing these areas is because there are easier for the researcher to collect the questionnaires which the respondents are located near researcher's hometown. Researchers distribute the questionnaire to the entrepreneurial who manage the business which are the researchers target scope.

3.3.3 Sampling element

The research study's respondents are including all the Chinese entrepreneurial and have the ability to manage the day-to-day business operation. The reason researchers focus on the respondents who are manage day-to-day business operation is because some essential information is needed to find out about what kind of Chinese Value can impact and motivate them to start a business.

3.3.4 Sampling technique

The major alternative sampling plans may be grouped into two: probability sampling and nonprobability sampling.

Non probability sampling is the element do not have known or predetermined chance of being selected as subjects. Non probability sampling design is used when time or others factors, rather than generalize ability, become critical (Sekaran, 2003). The selection of sampling units in non probability sampling is relying heavily on personal judgment. There are no appropriate statistical techniques for measuring random sampling errors from a non probability sample. Thus, projecting the data beyond the sample is statistically inappropriate (Zikmund, 2003).

For non probability sampling, the first sampling is Convenience sampling refers to sampling procedure of obtaining the people who are most conveniently available. Second, Judgment sampling is an experience individual selects the sample upon his or her judgment about some appropriate characteristic required of the sample members. Third, Quota sampling is mean subject are conveniently chosen from targeted group according to some predetermined number or quota. Fourth, Snowball sampling is mention to a variety of procedures in which initial respondent are selected by probability method, but additional respondents are then obtained from information provided by the initial respondent (Zikmund, 2003).

In the researcher's research, the research sampling design that is suitable to used is nonprobability sampling. It is because researchers do not have whole list of population for the entrepreneurial. Moreover, the probability for selecting any particular entrepreneurial of the population is unknown. The types of sampling technique that researcher using in the research is convenient sampling. It is due to this technique is easy and economical to obtain information from respondents, it save time and cost for looking a respondent. 300 sets of questionnaires are distributed based on the technique of convenient sampling.

3.3.5 Sampling size

The number of population is the sample size of statistical sample. It is always denoted by “n” and a positive integer. The bigger the sampling size means the more accurate the data generated but the sampling size was different due to the different situation (Malhotra and Peterson, 2006). Larger sample size will increase accuracy of various properties in the population. The result would be less accurate because it affected by systematic errors.

During questionnaire distribution, a total 300 sets of questionnaires have been prepared and distributed through convenience sampling method within the time and other resource constraint. Researchers are focus on the entrepreneurial which located in Perak, Pahang and Pulau Pinang areas in order to test the how Chinese Value affects by the Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation. All sets of questionnaires were collected and completed between September 2010 and October 2010, after the pilot test was success.

3.4 Research Instrument

In this research, questionnaire was the instrument that the research used to collect primary data. The questionnaire was set according to the hypothesis of the research project, and refers to the literature review and other reading materials which are clearly explain in the Chapter 2.

In order to improve understandability of questionnaire, the structure of questionnaire should be simple and question must be easily to understand and to the point. There are one types of question ask in the questionnaire in the research, that is closed question.

Closed question is fixed- alternative question whereby respondent are allowed to choose only one answer among a set of the alternative given by researcher (Sekaran, 2003). Hence, researcher had use this types of question to set questionnaire. It is because respondent can make quick decision in choosing the answer among the several alternative. It is not only save the time of respondent, while it also help researcher getting the result more efficiently.

3.4.1 Pilot test

Pilot test is preliminary test or study of the program or evaluation activities to try out procedures and make any needed changes or adjustment (Glossary, n. d.). Before distributing questionnaires to the actual target respondent, a pilot test is being conducted. This pre-testing allows researcher to obtain data to help plan the full study before going to actual target population. Pilot test help to helps improve the quality and usefulness of questionnaire.

During the pilot test process, a group of 30 entrepreneurs were randomly select surveyed to comment on representatives and suitability of the question. Respondent were given a chance to voice out their opinion, comment, and suggestion towards the questionnaire. Respondent can evaluate the questionnaire structure and response option. Grammar and vocabulary mistake also can be detected. After collecting and analyzing the result, researcher modifies and rearranges the sequences of the question in a more accurate way where potential mistake and error were corrected. After that, researcher has run reliability test by using SPSS and found out that the CV reliability value are integration (0.887), Confucian work dynamism (0.821), human heartedness (0.890), moral discipline (0.608). EAO reliability values are achievement (0.967), personal control (0.860), innovation (0.898), opportunity recognition (0.929), self-esteem (0.800). The overall questionnaire was reliable. Finally, 300 questionnaires were distributed.

Table 3.1 : Reliability of pilot test

CV

Elements

Cronbach's Alpha

N of items

Integration

0.887

11

Human-heartedness

0.890

5

Confucian work dynamism

0.821

8

Moral discipline

0.608

5

EAO

Elements

Cronbach's Alpha

N of items

Achievement

0.967

23

Self-esteem

0.800

14

Personal control

0.860

12

Innovation

0.898

26

Opportunity recognition

0.927

6

As a conclusion for this chapter, a sample of 300 respondents was selected to investigate impact on Chinese value towards entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Besides that, SPSS version 15 was used to analyze the collected data according to the question after we collect back the entire questionnaire. There are six hypotheses formulated to test and explain relationship between four Chinese value and EAO.

3.5 Construct Measurement (Scale and Operational Definition)

Scale is a continuous spectrum or series of categories. (Sekaran, 2003) defined the scale as a tool or mechanism by which individual are distinguish as to how they differ from one another on the variables of interest to our study. There are four basis types of scales: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. In this research study, we are using three types of scales which are nominal, ordinal and interval scale.

3.5.1 Nominal scale

Nominal scale is a scale in which the numbers or letters are assigned to object serve as a label for identification or classification (Sekaran, 2003). It is the simplest type of measurement scale. In this questionnaire, some of the questions in section A are used by the nominal scale to measure the gender of respondents and industry category of business.

Sample of question as below:

3. Gender 性别 : Male 男 Female 女

3.5.2 Ordinal scale

An ordinal scale is next up the list in terms of power of measurement. An ordinal scale also is a ranking scale. It place objects into a predetermined category that is rank ordered according to some criterion such as age, education level and years of experience of the respondents. There is no objective distance. Ordinal data would use non-parametric statistic.

Sample of question as below:

2. Age 年龄 : 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40

41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60

Others 其它 ____

3.5.3 Interval scale (Likert)

An interval scale uses numbers to rate objects or events so that the distances can be identified. Thus, with an interval scale differences between points on the scale can be interpret and compare meaningfully. Interval scales are also scale which is defined by metrics such as logarithms. In these cases, the distances are noted equal but they are strictly definable based on metric used.

A likert scale attempts to measure attitudes or opinion. Likert scale in section B uses a nine scale to show and express the degree of important of each value of entrepreneurial while section C uses ten point scales to show and express the respondents' strength agreement about a group of statements. The questionnaire set with nine point and ten point scale in research because it provides respondents to give the actual answer from their real feeling.

Every question in section B is given nine points. In section B, the rating of 8 or 9 are the same meaning but different degree of importance of each value, 1 or 2 are the same meaning but different degree of importance of each value and 5 is stand for neutral to statement. However, every question in section is given ten points in section C. The rating of 9 or 10 are the same meaning but different agree level of the statement, 1 or 2 are the same meaning but different disagree level of the statement and 5 or 6 also represent neutral of the statement.

Sample of question as below:

Task significance

1 (of no importance to me at all) ß à 9 (of supreme importance to me)

1 (对我来说最不重视的) ß à 9 (对我来说最重视的)

3. Tolerance of others 容忍

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

3.6 Data Processing

3.6.1 Data Checking

Questionnaires checking involve checking for completeness and interviewing quality. All the research questionnaires need to be checked once the questionnaires are collected from the field in order to detect any problem that exist in the survey early, and to take any necessary corrective actions (Aaker, 2006).

3.6.2 Data editing

After the questionnaires are being checked, data editing process will conducted. Data editing process involves screening of the questionnaire to identify illegible, incomplete, inconsistent, or ambiguous responses to ensure that the data collected were completed, consistent and avoid inaccuracy. (Malhotra & Peterson, 2006)

3.6.3 Data coding

According to Aaker (2006) coding means assigning a code or number to each possible response to each question. The code includes an identification of the column position and date recorded it will occupy. In the research project, the Statistical Package for Social Science version 15 (SPSS software version 15) will be used for the data coding. Answer will be grouped into categories and numbers will assign to each answer.

3.6.4 Data transcribing

According to Malhotra (2007), transcribing means that the data was transcribe into computer through key-punching. Key punching is the most frequently and commonly used method for drop-off surveys when mark sense forms and optical scanning is unavailable.

3.7 Data Analysis

The SPSS software version 15.0 was used for analyzing the data collected. This is because its capability to perform many types of statistical analysis within a short period of time.

3.7.1 Descriptive analysis

Descriptive analysis is used to describe the sample characteristics of typical respondents and disclosing the general patterns of responses (Burns and Bush, 2006). There are several types of descriptive analysis, which is obtained from interval and ratio scales, the proposed measures of descriptive analysis include central tendency (mean), dispersion (standard deviation and/or range), and distribution (skewness and kurtois) and the normal and ordinal scales, the central tendency (mode) and the bar chart are used to describe the sample characteristics. Data that deal with the research questions are going to be analyzed using frequency procedure. Frequency analysis indicated the frequency with which respondents give a particular answer. This consists of the tabulation of data where frequency and percentage will be displayed. Frequency analysis is used to analyze section A of questionnaires and at the same time represents the frequencies of the demographic of the sample such as gender, age, industry, education and experience. For section B and C, mean was used to analyze data and are determined by using nine-ten-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

3.7.2 Scale Measurement (reliability test)

The reliability test can be used to determine the stability and consistency with which the research instrument measures the construct. The extent of consistency between a measuring instrument and concept can be shown by using Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient to assess the reliability (Cronbach, 1951). Cronbach's Alpha reliability test varies from 0 to 1 and value of 0.6 or less generally indicates unsatisfactory internal consistency reliability.

Table 3.2 : Rules of thumb about Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient Size

Alpha Coefficient Range

Strength of Association

<0.60

Poor

0.60 to < 0.70

Moderate

0.70 to < 0.80

Good

0.80 to < 0.90

Very Good

0.90>

Excellent

3.7.3 Inferential Analysis

Inferential analysis is goes beyond drawing conclusion about a larger population based on smaller sample (300 respondents). This is important for establishing the representativeness of the smaller sample population which is usually based on random distribution and describing the characteristics of data and the examination of correlation between variables.

Pearson Correlation is to examine the relationship between two metric variables. Through the measurement provide a way to indicate the association and strength and significance of the bivariate relationship among all variable that were measured at an interval or ratio level. It range the value from -1.00 to +1.00, with zero represent absolutely no association between two variable, Pearson correlation with a probability not more than 0.05 is considered statistically significant.

Suanders, Lweis and Thornhill (2007) mentioned a value of -1 represent a perfect negative correlation, -0.7 represent strong negative correlation, -0.3 represent perfect negative correlation, 0 represent perfect independence correlation and +1 represent prefect positive correlation. In this research, the Pearson Correlation analysis is used to measure the association between six independent variables integration, human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and moral discipline and the dependent variable entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. If the significant p value was smaller than 0.005 or 0.01, the alternate hypothesis was accepted and vice versa.

Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken (2003) revealed that the multiple regressions is a flexible method of data analysis that may be appropriate whenever a quantitative variable (the dependent variable) is to be examined in relationship to any other factors (expressed as independent variables). This analysis is used to determine which among the independent variables that influence the dependent variable the most. Furthermore, if the analysis result show that the two variables are correlated, it imply that the variable can be used to predict the other variables through the equation and which can be expressed in the form of : Y= A + B₁X₁+B₂X₂+B₃X₃.

The multiple regression analyze for Chinese value have four variables that significantly in contributing towards entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Analysis among the variables to establish an equation that enable the researcher to have better understanding toward which variable have great impact on entrepreneurial attitudes orientation which is the dependent variable.

3.8 Conclusions

As a conclusion in this chapter, the methodology of this research has been carried out in term of research design, data collection methods, sampling design, research instrument, measurement scales, and methods of data analysis. Thus, the research can be proceeding to the next chapter 4.

Chapter 4 Research Results

4.0 Introduction

This chapter presents the findings of the survey that has been carried out on entrepreneurial that located in Perak, Pahang and Penang state. It will show the finding of the analysis made based on the objective and research question stated in Chapter 1.

This chapter will be divided into three parts which are descriptive analysis, scale measurement, and inferential analysis. Demographic analysis included gender, age, education level, industrial categories of business, and year of experience of entrepreneurial. Reliability test is used to examine the relevancy of statements in each variable towards our studies. The results of the overall reliability test will be shown after we collected 300 questionnaires.

4.1 Descriptive Analysis

4.1.1 Respondent Demographic Profile

4.1.1.1 Age

Age of the entrepreneurial

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

20-25

55

18.3

18.3

18.3

26-30

70

23.3

23.3

41.7

31-35

33

11.0

11.0

52.7

36-40

17

5.7

5.7

58.3

41-45

27

9.0

9.0

67.3

46-50

35

11.7

11.7

79.0

51-55

35

11.7

11.7

90.7

56-60

18

6.0

6.0

96.7

others

10

3.3

3.3

100.0

Total

300

100.0

100.0

Table 4.1 shows that the percentage and the number of respondents in term of age.

Based on table 4.1 show that most of the respondents were within 26-30 years old which include 23.1 percent (70 respondents), 18.3 percent (55 respondents) are 20-25 years old. While 48-50 years old and 51-55 years old are 11.7 percent (35 respondents). 11.3 percent (33 respondents) are 31-35 years old. Then 9 percent (27 respondents) are 41-45 years old and 6 percent (18 respondents) are 56-60 years old. 5.7 percent (17 respondents) are 36-40 years old. The least number of respondent is comprise of 3.3 percent (10 respondents), which is above 60 years old. For those respondents who are below 20 years old, their entrepreneur power is lower compared to the categories state on above. Therefore this category is not in the consideration on this study.

4.1.1.2 Gender

Gender of the entrepreneurs

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

male

198

66.0

66.0

66.0

female

102

34.0

34.0

100.0

Total

300

100.0

100.0

Table 4.2 shows that the percentage and the number of respondents in term of gender.

The Table 4.2 shows that the percentage and the number of gender as respondents involved in this survey. In this survey, the gender is comprised of 66 percent (198 respondents) male respondents while 34 percent (102 respondents) is female respondents. This indicates that majority of the respondents are male.

4.1.1.3 Education level

Education level of the entrepreneurs

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

SPM

117

39.0

39.0

39.0

STPM/Diploma

69

23.0

23.0

62.0

Degree

40

13.3

13.3

75.3

Master

2

.7

.7

76.0

PHD

5

1.7

1.7

77.7

others

67

22.3

22.3

100.0

Total

300

100.0

100.0

Table 4.3 shows that the percentage and the number of respondents in term of education level.

Based on table 4.3 shows that most of the respondents were belong SPM level which is 39 percent (117 respondents). 23 percent (69 respondents) are belong STPM or diploma level. While 22.3 percent (67 respondents) are belong to other education level. 13.3 percent (40 respondents) are belong to degree level. Then 1.7 percent (5 respondents) is belong to PHD level. The least number of respondent is comprise of 0.7 percent (2 respondents), which is belong to master level.

4.1.1.4 Industry categories of business

Industry category of business

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

food & beverage

48

16.0

16.0

16.0

services

65

21.7

21.7

37.7

printing & stationary

16

5.3

5.3

43.0

transportation & logistics

18

6.0

6.0

49.0

health care

8

2.7

2.7

51.7

telecommunication & media

17

5.7

5.7

57.3

agriculture

17

5.7

5.7

63.0

auto workshop

9

3.0

3.0

66.0

manufacturing

20

6.7

6.7

72.7

others

82

27.3

27.3

100.0

Total

300

100.0

100.0

Table 4.4 shows that the percentage and the number of respondents in term of industry category of business

Based on table 4.4 shows that most of the respondents were own other business which is not listed at above, it has 27.3 percent (82 respondents). Then 21.7 percent (65 respondents) are own service line business. 16.0 percent (48 respondents) are own food and beverage business. 6.7 percent (20 respondents) are own manufacturing business. There is 6.0 percent (18 respondents) are own transportation and logistics business. Furthermore, the respondents who own telecommunications and media, agriculture business are 5.7 percent (17 respondents). There is 5.3 percent (16 respondents) are own printing and stationary business. 3.0 percent (9 respondents) are own auto workshop business. The least number of respondent is comprise of 2.7 percent (8 respondents), which is own health care business.

4.1.1.5 Years of experience

Years of experience of the entrepreneurs

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1-5

104

34.7

34.7

34.7

6-10

74

24.7

24.7

59.3

11-15

33

11.0

11.0

70.3

16-20

19

6.3

6.3

76.7

21-25

24

8.0

8.0

84.7

26-30

33

11.0

11.0

95.7

others

13

4.3

4.3

100.0

Total

300

100.0

100.0

Table 4.5 shows that the percentage and the number of respondents in term year of experience

According to table 4.5, most of the respondents working experience were within 1-5 years which is 34.7 percent (104 respondents). 24.7 percent (74 respondents) are within 6-10 years experience. While 11-15 years experience and 26-30 years experience are 11.0 percent (33 respondents). There is 8.0 percent (24 respondents) are within 21-25 years experience. Then 6.3 percent (19 respondents) are 16-20 years experience. The least number of respondent is comprise of 4.3 percent (13 respondents), which is above 30 years working experience.

4.2 Scale measurement

4.2.1 Reliability of CV

Elements

Cronbach's Alpha

N of items

Integration

0.839

11

Confucian work dynamism

0.844

8

Human heartedness

0.696

5

Moral discipline

0.818

5

Table 4.6 Reliability Analysis of CV

Researchers generally consider a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.6 as a minimum. Table 4.6 shows that the integration alpha value of 0.839 which is considers very good (Cronbach, 1951) according to strength of association. Therefore we can conclude that the eleven items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

Confucian work dynamism alpha value is 0.844 which it is consider as very good based on strength of association. Thus, we can conclude that the eight items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

The table shows the Cronbach's Alpha of human heartedness is 0.696, it is moderate value according to strength of association, so we can conclude that the five items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

Moral discipline alpha value of 0.818 which is considered very good based on strength of association. Hence, we can conclude that the five items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

Elements

Cronbach's Alpha

N of items

Achievement

0.937

23

Personal control

0.879

12

Innovation

0.813

26

Self-esteem

Opportunity recognition

0.718

0.852

14

6

Table 4.7 Reliability Analysis of EAO

Table 4.7 shows that the achievement alpha value of 0.937 which is considers very good (Cronbach, 1951) according to strength of association. Therefore we can conclude that the twenty tree items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

Personal control alpha value is 0.879 which it is consider as very good based on strength of association. Thus, we can conclude that the twelve items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

Table 4.7 shows the Cronbach's Alpha of innovation is 0.813, it is consider very good according to strength of association, so we can conclude that the twenty six items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

Self-esteem alpha value of 0.718 which is consider good based on strength of association. Hence, we can conclude that the fourteen items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

Table 4.5 shows the Cronbach's Alpha of opportunity recognition is 0.852, it is consider very good according to strength of association and therefore we can conclude that the six items can be combined to measure Chinese Value towards Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation.

4.3 Inferential analyses

4.3.1 Pearson Bivariate Correlation Analysis

4.3.1.1 Integration

H0: There is no significant relationship between the integration and EAO.

H1: There is significant relationship between the integration and EAO.

Table 4.8 : Integration and EAO

Correlations

integrationIV1

EAO

integrationIV1

Pearson Correlation

1

.745(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

EAO

Pearson Correlation

.745(**)

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.8 indicated that the result of the relationship between integration and Entrepreneurs Attitudes Orientation (EAO) is positive. The Pearson correlation is 0.745 and the significance level 0.000. Furthermore, Pearson Correlation Coefficient is fall under coefficient range from ±0.71 to ±0.90 considered as high. (Suanders and et al., 2007). From the table, we have confirmed that integration is significantly correlated with entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. It can be concluded that there is significant relationship between integration and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation.

4.3.1.2 Human heartedness

H0: There is no significant relationship between the human heartedness and EAO.

H1: There is significant relationship between the human heartedness and EAO.

Table 4.9 : Human heartedness and EAO

Correlations

human heartedness IV2

EAO

human heartednessIV2

Pearson Correlation

1

.677(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

EAO

Pearson Correlation

.677(**)

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.9 indicated that the result of the relationship between human heartedness and Entrepreneurs Attitude Orientation (EAO) is positive. The Pearson correlation is 0.677 and the significance level 0.000. Furthermore, Pearson Correlation Coefficient is fall under coefficient range from ±0.41 to ±0.70 considered as moderate (Suanders et al., 2007). From the table, we have confirmed that human heartedness is significantly correlated with entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. It can be concluded that there is significant relationship between human heartedness and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation.

4.3.1.3 Confucian work dynamism

H0: There is no significant relationship between the Confucian work dynamism and EAO.

H1: There is significant relationship between the Confucian work dynamism and EAO.

Table 4.10 : Confucian work dynamism and EAO

Correlations

confucian work dynamism

EAO

confucian work dynamism IV3

Pearson Correlation

1

.727(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

EAO

Pearson Correlation

.727(**)

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.10 indicate that the results of the relationship between Confucian work dynamism and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation (EAO) is positive. The Pearson correlation is 0.727 and significance level 0.000. Furthermore, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient is fall under coefficient range from±0.71 to ±0.90 considered as high (Suanders et al., 2007). From the table, we have confirmed that Confucian work dynamism is significantly correlated with entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. It can be concluded that there is significant relationship between Confucian work dynamism and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation.

4.3.1.4 Moral discipline

H0: There is no significant relationship between the Moral discipline and EAO.

H1: There is significant relationship between the Moral discipline and EAO.

Table 4.11 : Moral discipline and EAO

Correlations

moral disciplineIV4

EAO

moral disciplineIV4

Pearson Correlation

1

.645(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

EAO

Pearson Correlation

.645(**)

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

300

300

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.11 indicate that the result of the relationship between moral discipline and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation (EAO) is positive. The Pearson correlation is 0.645 and significance level 0.000. Furthermore, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient is fall under coefficient range from±0.41 to ±0.70 considered as moderate (Suanders et al., 2007). From the table, we have confirmed that moral discipline is significantly correlated with entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. It can be concluded that there is significant relationship between moral discipline and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation.

Table 4.12 : Overall correlation and significant of independent four variables

Independent Variable

Correlation

Significant

Integration

0.745

0.000

Human-heartedness

0.677

0.000

Confucian work dynamism

0.727

0.000

Moral discipline

0.645

0.000

Table 4.12 indicated that the correlation of integration is the highest among four independent variables which is 0.745. In this study shows that integration have a high strength of association which means that there is a relationship between integration and EAO. However, the lowest of correlation is moral discipline which is 0.645. All the correlation results indicated that integration human-heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and moral discipline are significantly correlated with EAO which is 0.000 respectively.

4.3.2 Multiple regression analysis (ok)

4.3.2.1 Integration, Human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism, Moral discipline and EAO

H0: The independent variable will not significantly explain the variance in Entrepreneurial attitudes orientation

H1: The independent variable will significantly explain the variance in Entrepreneurial attitudes orientation

Table 4.13 : Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.780(a)

.609

.604

.74183

a Predictors: (Constant), moral disciplineIV4, human heartednessIV2, confucian work dynamism IV3, integrationIV1

According to the table 4.13, the R value is the correlation coefficient between dependent variable and the independent variables taken together. The R square figure of the four elements of independent variables is 0.780. The coefficient of determination (R square) 0.780 show that 78 percent of the variance (R square) in the entrepreneurial attitudes orientation has been explained by the four elements of independent variables (integration, human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism, moral discipline). In the case, the percentage of 22% unexplained in this study (Cohen et al., 2003). This implies that there are other additional variable that are important in explaining entrepreneurial attitudes orientation that have not been considered in this study.

Table 4.14: ANOVA(b)

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

252.813

4

63.203

114.849

.000(a)

Residual

162.343

295

.550

Total

415.156

299

  1. Predictors: (Constant), moral disciplineIV4, human heartednessIV2, confucian work dynamismIV3, integrationIV1
  2. Dependent Variable: EAO

According to the table 4.14 (ANOVA), p value (sig 0.000) is less than alpha value 0.05. The F-statistic is significant and large, the model for this study is a good descriptor of the relation between dependent and predictor variable. Therefore, the independent variable (integration, human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism, moral discipline) are significant explained the variance in entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. The alternate hypothesis is supported by the data.

Table 4.15 : Coefficients(a)

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

B

Std. Error

1

(Constant)

1.568

.251

6.239

.000

integrationIV1

.358

.072

.386

4.966

.000

human heartednessIV2

.037

.059

.045

.627

.531

onfucian work dynamism IV3

.263

.068

.273

3.897

.000

moral disciplineIV4

.130

.051

.143

2.533

.012

a Dependent Variable: EAO

Y=1.568+ (0.386)X₁+(0.45)X₂+(0.273)X₃+(0.143)X₄

X₁= Integration

X₂= Human heartedness

X₃=Confucian work dynamism

X₄=Moral discipline

4 Dimensions

ǀ Beta ǀ (β)

Rank

Integration

0.386

1

Confucian work dynamism

0.273

2

Moral discipline

0.143

3

Human-heartedness

0.045

4

Table 4.16 Ranking of 4 dimensions

In relation to the impact on Chinese value towards entrepreneurship attitudes orientation, integration has the highest contribution (β=0.386). This would suggest that integration is most important contribute to the entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Furthermore, this would suggest that integration is less important over four dimensions contribute to the entrepreneurial attitudes orientation.

4.4 Conclusion

As a conclusion in this chapter we present the result analyze and patterns of result which are relevant to the research questions and hypotheses. The research questions that we analyses are descriptive analysis, scale measurement, and inferential analysis. Therefore, we can proceed to the next chapter.

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

5.0 Introduction

The main objective of this research is to understand the relationship between Chinese values with the Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation. The finding obtained from this research study showed that the Chinese values had a significant relationship with Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation. The overall objectives of this study have been achieved. However, it is susceptible to some limitations. Based on the results obtained from chapter 4, in this chapter the researchers are going to present the discussion of the findings from the research conducted. This chapter encompasses discussions on findings and analysis, implications, recommendations, limitations, future prospects and conclusion.

5.1 Summary of Statistical Analyses

Review to chapter 4 research result, descriptive analysis for age shows that majority of the respondents are under 26-30 years old which represent 23.3 percent or 70 respondent out of 300 respondents. However, the least numbers of respondents are under “ others” categories of age who are above 60 years old. These groups of respondent are represent 3.3 percent or 10 respondents out of 300 respondents. From the total survey, the majority of the respondent are male comprised of 66 percent (198 respondents) while female comprised of 34 percent (102 respondents).

The majority of the respondent's education level is SPM which occupies 39 percent or 117 respondents. The least number of respondent's education level is Master which only occupies 7 percent (2 respondents). The majority of the respondent's industry category of business is fall under “others” which is the industry category of business are not listed in the survey form which is 27.3 percent (82 respondents) whereas the industry category of business is health care business which comprised of 2.7 percent (8 respondents). The majority of respondent are holding 1-5 years of experience running their business which represent 34.7 percent (104 respondents) whereas the least number of respondent are chosen “others” represent they are holding above 30 years of experience comprised of 4.3 percent (13 respondents).

Based on the inferential analyses result, Bivariate Analysis shows that all independent variables (integration, human-heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and moral discipline) have significant relationship with the dependent variable (EAO). All the dependent variable and independent variables is moving in the same direction and it shows that there is positive relationship between the two variables. All the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables are all significantly correlated with the significance level 0.000 which is lower than 0.05.

Through the multiple regression analysis show that there is significant relationship between the dependent (integration, human-heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and moral discipline) and independent variable (EAO) and the regression equation was establish for each significant relationship between dependent and independent variable regression equation was established as Y=1.568 +(0.386)integration+(0.45)human heartedness+(0.273)Confucian work dynamism+(0.143)moral discipline.

5.2 Discussions of Major Findings

5.2.1 Integration

Our first hypothesis is the research of integration relation with the entrepreneurs attitude orientation. As our research result, the Pearson Correlation is 0.745 which shows a high positive relationship. Besides, we also conclude that there is a significant relationship between integration and entrepreneurial attitude orientation by reviewing the research result as the significant level is 0.000, which is lower than the significant level of 0.05 (2-tailed).

Integration is important to promote entrepreneurs attitude orientation. According to Morris and Somerset, increase in the scale or range or interaction is necessary and those barriers to interaction must be broken down if entrepreneurship is to occur (Morris and Somerset, 1971). This dimension focuses upon social stability and can be characterized by having tolerance for others. Integration also places importance upon being trustworthy, and enjoying a close friendship. On the one hand, for example, declining parental interaction with their offspring may reduce the preparation and motivation of children from business families to continue in their parent's entrepreneurial footsteps.

Integration may serve as an indicator of the degree of centralization that is regarded as appropriate within a work organization (Bond, 1998). There are many successful Chinese entrepreneurs because they always help each other and cooperate with them. Integration value is important for entrepreneurs to expand their business and form a good business with their suppliers and customers.

5.2.2 Human heartedness

Our second hypothesis is the research of human heartedness relation with the entrepreneurial attitude orientation. As our research result, the Pearson Correlation is 0.677 which shows a moderate positive relationship. Besides, we also conclude that there is a significant relationship between human heartedness and entrepreneurial attitude orientation by reviewing the research result as the significant level is 0.000, which is lower than the significant level of 0.05 (2-tailed).

This dimension deals with an individual's level of social consciousness or awareness. It is a measure of one's compassion toward others. It is characterized by the need to be kind, forgiving and courteous. In the business setting, it may be viewed as presenting a contrast between the task-oriented. Thus, the human-heartedness value relates to the typology of an individual's leadership style (Bass, 1990). Entrepreneurs that apply human heartedness value will doing things in a right way that benefit themselves and everyone where they always sustain himself, sustains others, and desiring to develop himself, develops others. In other words, the people with human heartedness will have the tendency to become entrepreneur for personal development.

This can be one of the advantages for those people with human heartedness that having a good relationship with other and easy to build up their relationship network in their business. Individuals are born with human-heartedness and experience human-heartedness through the sacrifice and devotion of their parents (Sang-Chin Choi & Uichol Kim, 2004). Therefore, there are many Chinese entrepreneurs has work harder to keep their family business.

5.2.3 Confucian work dynamism

The third hypothesis is tested the relationship between the Confucian work dynamism and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation (EAO). The research result was showed that is a high positive relationship with the value of the correlation coefficient 0.727. Therefore, it can be conclude that there is a significant relationship between Confucian work dynamism and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation by reviewing the research result as the significant level is 0.000, which is lower than the significant level of 0.01 (2-tailed).

The research result also proved that Confucian teaching is important to promote entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Based on the research result shows that Confucian teaching has a high effect towards entrepreneurial attitudes orientation because most of the Chinese entrepreneurs are hold the teachings of Confucius and they are respect for tradition with a strong desire to save face (Charles F., 1908). By reviewing to the past, Chinese people mostly will succeed their business from their family and continue to put more effort in order to keep intact of their parent's hard earned business. Besides, there is a need to order relationships by status and to respect the order of that status as well. They are respect to superiors and for the aged, so they are more aggressive to do business which is inherit from their parent and pay more attention to find out the way to expand the business.

According to Redding and Ng (1983), Confucian dynamism is associated with entrepreneurial achievement, motivation and with levels of national economic growth. Further evidence showed that Chinese entrepreneurs are more likely to have adaptable values with respect to work and individual achievement and but just lack of risk sharing (McGrath, MacMillan, & Scheinberg, 1992). Through the success of some of the Chinese entrepreneur like Lim Kok Tong, the founder of Genting Highlands that can support to the pervious mentioned.

5.2.4 Moral discipline

The third hypothesis is tested the relationship between the moral discipline and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation (EAO). The research result was showed that is a moderate positive relationship with the value of the correlation coefficient 0.645 Therefore, we can conclude that there is a significant relationship between moral discipline and entrepreneurial attitudes orientation by reviewing the research result as the significant level is 0.000, which is lower than the significant level of 0.01 (2-tailed).

Moral discipline is focus upon keeping oneself under control in relation to others and allows people to exercise self control by virtue in order to develop moderation in people mind. The people who are adaptability, prudence and follow the middle way of doing things contribute to the behavioural tendencies of entrepreneurs (Ramirez, 2010). When the people apply the middle way of doing things usually they are low tendency involve in the illegal action.

According to Dunham et al. (2008), people with moral imagination mostly contribute to the success of entrepreneurs because they have the ability of handling of the strategic dimensions of starting a new venture. They holding the enduring value with comply the rule and regulation that not easily done something illegal and unacceptable with the organisation and society. Buchholz and Rosenthal (2005) argue that the qualities required for successful entrepreneurship included imagination, creativity, novelty, and sensibility as well they are systematically and theoretically crucial to ethical decision-making. Therefore, the previous evidence has found that ethics and entrepreneurship are closely aligned.

5.3 Implications of the Study

5.3.1 Managerial Implication

After the four hypotheses being tested regarding the impact on Chinese values (integration, human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism and moral discipline) towards entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. The result showed that the most important dimension of Chinese value is integration, follow by Confucian work dynamism, human heartedness and moral discipline.

With this study, Entrepreneurs should apply integration value in their business. This is because the entrepreneurs of these businesses also function as parents in extended families, responsible for both managing the business and solving employee's personal problems (Xing 1995). Entrepreneurs have an important impact on organizational outcomes because of the decisions they are empowered to make for the organization. Since these managers make decisions consistent with their cognitive base, which is in part a function of their personal values and experiences, their personal experiences and values can be linked to organizational outcomes. This dimension leads to trust based on consistency of past actions, credibility of communication, commitment to standards of fairness and communicate accurately, openly and transparently. In addition, entrepreneurs should act openly that is, being clear about the intentions and motives for one's actions. This helps the other party calculate their trustworthiness accurately, because they are willing to act transparently and to be monitored for compliance.

Entrepreneurs need show concern for others. The trust others have in you will grow when you show sensitivity to their needs, desires, and interests. Acting in a way that respects and protects other people, and refraining from engaging in self-interested pursuits to the detriment of others will also contribute greatly to the trust others place in you. Educators can assist by using classroom experiences such as dialog groups, problem-solving workshops, simulations and role-plays to practice trust-building at various stages of relationships.

Besides, human-heartedness value is important to the entrepreneurs. Human-heartedness values will ultimately develop into a cordial, relaxed and friendly relationship among fellow employees (Sheh 2001). Young entreprenurs can learn to be human heartedness that follows their ancestor or parents guidance since kids. Parent's guidance effects how a people behave. Thus, parents and schools should stress up the human heartedness value that can provide a good entrepreneurs. Human-heartedness value such as kindness, patience and sense or righteousness is very helpful in building a harmonious work environment since conflicts between people at different levels are avoided. Human-heartedness suggests a gentle and compassionate approach in contrast to a harsh and legalistic approach.

Confucian work dynamism also consider as the important part contribute to the impact on Chinese values towards entrepreneurial attitudes orientation. Government or high level management of the companies needs to pay more attention to promote the teachings of Confucius in order to improve the nation economy and management of the companies. Entrepreneurs who holding teachings of Confucius or Chinese value will has more persistence to their business because they are save face and not easy to give up upon their business once they are started. Besides, respect for tradition will bring Chinese people succession to their family business and they do not want their skills and business going to loss. By the way, government are suggested to promote the teachings of Confucius and culture in high level of education for the Chinese, Malay and India potential entrepreneurs and the companies can provide training course to high managerial employee to learning the teachings of Confucian in order to improve the entrepreneurial attitudes orientation as well as the management of a business.

Moral discipline was play important role to ensure the action are taken in moderation and place a greater emphasis on ethical behavior in doing a business. High level of management is suggested to attend some of the seminar talk to improve their moral discipline and to cultivate the ethical entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs need to take consideration for ethical decision making in order to bring the good for the society. Moral discipline appeals to the goodness in human nature and leads to crime prevention.

5.4 Limitation of the Study

In this research study, although the findings of the research were acceptable, however, there do exist some of the limitations during the process of the study which it may affect the accuracy of the research results. During the process of completing the research project, researcher has faced many obstacles.

Firstly, researchers are facing some limitation on convenience sampling. Convenience sampling are selected is because it easy to recruit for the study and the researcher did not consider selecting respondents that are representative of the entire population. Thus, the result respondents get may not 100 percent represent all the Chinese entrepreneurial in Malaysia.

Secondly, there are some problems on geographical area. Researchers only conduct and distribute the questionnaire nearby the resident's area such as Perak, Pulau Pinang and Pahang. Thus, researchers are only able to focus on all the entrepreneurial respondents around these three states and cannot reach all the respondents which located at other states. A wider courage of sample can generate more accurate outcome but in these circumstances, researchers have to abide with it. Therefore, in this research, convenient sampling has been used in selecting the sample. Traditionally, a larger sample size will enable the researchers to come out with good research as it is more representative of a large population (Zikmund, 2003).

lastly, it was found that some respondents filling up the questionnaire without proper and careful consideration. Thus, respondents' bias and error will occur and it may affect the accuracy and reliability of research outcome. This is well because the respondents did not understand the questions and hope to keep away from it in order not to waste their time. They may even tend to simply answer in a certain way that due to their amount of time and emotion status respondents willing to allocate during the finishing point of the questionnaire. Some respondents are not highly educated, they will misunderstand the words, thus researchers need to explain more on the questionnaires.

5.5 Recommendations for Future Research

Develop more variable to examine the relationship

Future researcher should be study as many variable as possible to ensure the validity of the study as it can provide a clear picture of the how the Chinese value will affect the Chinese entrepreneurs. Is the variables are limited, it will not enough evidence to support by the data in conducting future research. Other variables such as other Chinese value measurement or background and attitude of Chinese entrepreneurs. It is strongly discourage just rely on one Chinese measurement.

Increase of sample size

Even though the samples represent the target population, it does not cover all the Malaysian Chinese entrepreneur and the result may not apply to all sector of economy. The convenience sampling methods restrict the generalization. Since 300 sample sizes may not provide us an adequate result, in the future research, research may need to enlarge their target respondents. Therefore, distributing questionnaire to more respondent is helpful for us to an adequately measure the outcome of study. Besides, questionnaire should be distributed throughout the whole Malaysia. It is not enough if just focus on several areas, such Penang, Pahang and Perak.

Choosing questionnaires as their data gathering methods as it may not be suitable because there is chance that the question may be misinterpret,
People sometime are not always willing to fill questionnaires and just simply to fill, rendering the answer useless. Researchers are recommended using different data collection methods such as personal interview, telephone interview and observation methods. Hence, the results obtained would have more detailed and accurate information that will helpful to research project.

5.6 Conclusion

The researchers undertake this study to understand that how Chinese value affect the Malaysian Chinese entrepreneurs. There are four number of Chinese value determinants affecting EAO which is human heartedness, Confucian work dynamism, integration and moral discipline.

In addition, the research result supported the hypotheses and the objective of this study. Based on the result of this study, these studies identify the 4 important variables that will influence the successful of Chinese entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Moreover, the research result showed that all the 4 have a moderate positive relationship with the EOA. According to level of significant, these 4 independent variables have significant correlated with the dependent variable.

Others than that, the sample size in this study is just the small subset of the population which just representing the few areas which Perak, Pahang and Penang. Apart from that, we made up suggestion for future research in research solely on certain group of people that will yield more accurate result so to have a better understanding of the topic in a detail research. It is hoped that the future study can provides better result after reviewing this study's limitations and recommendations.

Need help with your dissertation proposal?

Our qualified researchers are here to help. Click on the button below to find out more:

Dissertation Proposal Service

Related Content

In addition to the dissertation proposal above we also have a range of free study materials to help you with your own dissertation: