Taking into account your dissertation project, discuss your concept...
In this proposal I am critically going to evaluate the outline and techniques used in a dissertation. Firstly a dissertation is a formal exposition of a subject or an research paper in order to complete the requirements of an doctorial or masters degree. I would like to discuss the steps involved in writing an dissertation. An dissertation requires research, referencing ,ideas and a lot of thinking. It is a crucial task that cannot be afforded to be taken lightly. A dissertation has to be well planned and researched, Introduction is basically the first thing that a reader sees when reading an dissertation which creates the first impression.The introduction chapter of an dissertation should include
The main issues of the work and to give explanation about why the topic has been chosen
Motivation of the work that is being reported
Aims and objective of the work
Providing a overview to each of the main chapters that the reader will encounter
To state and define the problems that the dissertation is trying pointing out or solve
Review of the work
Planning meticulously is very important. Organize by working out a timetable and sticking to it. Drawing up an initial reading list and making sure that it is wide ranging wide, relevant and up to date as possible. Reading with specific questions in mind and to include some survey or questionnaire, and to make this as informative and wide as possible. Some of the basic steps to be involved while doing an dissertation are to
To well plan and widely research
To show a good grasp of relevant concepts and able to apply these in the work.
To Include analysis, discussion and critical evaluation, other than simple description
To add consistent and correct referencing sources
To be structured well and expressed in an good academic way.
To show the knowledge gained on the course and able to use this to produce a well argued piece of academic work
Being aware of appropriate research methodologies
To see how the research on the specific topic fits into a broader framework
Without a clear planning it is difficult to collect a quantity of data.Developing a structural framework will quite likely help in focusing of what is intended to be done.
Intermediate theoryConceptual framework
Is a type of intermediate theory that attempt to connect to all aspects of inquiry and it act’s as an map that give coherence to empirical inquiry. It is also a theoretical structure of assumptions, rules, and principles that holds together the ideas comprising to a broader concept. It provides a focus, a rationale and a tool to the in-corporating and interpretation of information by a group of concepts that broadly define and systematically organize and classify. it usually is an word models expressed apart from concrete existence. A conceptual framework is the relating basis for many theories, such as communication theory and general systems theory. It is used in the fields of research to outline the possible course of action or presenting an preferred approach to thought or idea. Conceptual framework take different forms depending upon the research questions or problems as they are potentially so close to empirical inquiry.
Research can be defined as gathering of data and information. It is searching for knowledge and systematic investigation for novel facts ,addressing an issue or asking a problem. The primary purpose of an research is to discover or interpretate for advancement of human knowledge on variety of scientific matters of the world.
The research method is divided into two methods called Quantitative and Qualitative research.Information for research can be gathered many ways.The most commonly used research method is literature research and talking to people about their views.The sources used for research would mainly be based on primary source and secondary source which employs systematic,objective ,and quantitative research techniques using a well structured questionnaire,interviews, websites ,focus groups and participant observation which forms the primary information collected.The secondary sources data would be books, magazines, management journals.Telephone surveys is also one of the fastest way of gathering information from relatively large samples for e.g (100 to 400)respondents.
Two fundamental types of research questions
What is going on?(which is a descriptive research)
Why is it going on?(which is a explanatory research)
Descriptive research:It compasses of much government sponsored research including political census and collection of economic information such as household expenditure patterns,employment and crime statistics and the like.Descriptions can be abstract or concrete. Description of ethnic mix can relatively be concrete or changing age profile of a population or a mix of gender in a workplace.A good description provokes questions of explanatory research which can provoke why questions of explanatory research.
Explanatory research:This focuses on the why questions for e.g it is one thing to describe the crime rate in a country,examine trends over time or to compare the rates in different countries.answering the why question involves in development of casual explanations.for e.g casual phenomenon argue that (Y-income level)is affected by factor (X-gender).Some explanations can be answered simple while others are complex.For e.g an argument about there is a direct effect of gender or income i.e discrimination simple gender(fig a.1)we may argue for a casual chain that gender can affect choice of field of training which in turn affects occupational options which link opportunities in promotion which in turn turns as an affect income level(fig b.1)Or a more complex model involving a number of interrelated casual chains.
Direct casual relationship
Indirect casual relatipnship:a casual chain
Field of training
A more complex model of direct and indirect causal links
Field of training
Part time or full time work
About Qualitative and Quantative research
Qualitative research: Qualitative research is a method of augmenting knowledge used in many academic disciplines, it is traditionally used in the social sciences, but also used in market research. Qualitative researchers aims to gather an in-depth understanding and an insight of human behavior and the reasons that administer such an behavior. The qualitative method not only investigates just what, where, when but also why and how of decision making. It requires smaller but focused samples rather than large samples. Creswell ,J.W states that for an qualitative research to achieve a goal one should understand what he describes as deep knowledge of some social settings, one should spend extensive time in the field for understanding .In other words qualitative research is a phrased as questions ,but never hypotheses. It is implied on indicative reasoning to understand an particular situation or historical period.
Quantitative research: Quantitative research is widely used in social sciences such as political science, sociology , anthropology. By definition even Research in mathematical sciences such as physics is called 'quantitative' but the use of this term differs in context. In the social sciences the term is similar to information gained by means of observation, experience, originating in both history of statistics and philosophical positivism, which differentiates qualitative research methods.it is phrased as questions or hypotheses which implies seductive reasoning
The role of Qualitative and quantitative strategies in the process of research
Qualitative and quantitative research don’t merely involve different methods for collection and analysis of data,an even more fundamental difference is the research strategies used.the difference are so considerable that the communication research strategie between ‘quantitative’ and‘qualitative’researchers is provoked with difficulties, among Qualitative’researchers. Qualitative research is shown by examples by the approach put forward by kleining(1982:1995)Kelling stated the importance of the heuristic moment in the qualitative research,Kelling assumes that all the research methods are based on everyday methods.he said that he had an advanced four rules for conducting qualitative research. The resulting research strategy on the basis of his fourth rule can be called as circular, which will be contrasted with the linear strategy used in the quantitative research. In qualitative research there is usually little or no information about a specific phenomenon available. Usually an inductive reasoning strategy is followed resulting in the generation of hypothesis or hypotheses .An exploratory ,descriptive and contextual design is followed .In quantitative research usually a deductive strategy is followed.A conceptual framework directs the research process and form parameters with in which the research is conducted. Quite often hypotheses testing form the basis of the research process.These two strategies within this context are not in opposition to each other so would rather say they complement each other.
C:\Users\Suraj.k\Desktop\spatscheck-wolf03.giftable 1:illustrating the main difference between quantitative and qualitative research design
Methodology of the research
Methodology of a dissertation is very important component that maps the methods used when researching and writing a dissertation. Methodology includes four basic parts .the first part is a simple review of all the problems that need to be considered in the subject. In other words it is simply determining the questions that are attempting to be answered. The methodology chapter should include a general definition or a type of overview of the approach that is to be used while conducting the research. The next step is to provide a description of how necessary data will be collected as well as analytical procedure used to draw the conclusions based on the information.
A research problem is the situation where an researcher feels apprehensive or confused.it is an boundary of an problem within an certain context involving Who,what,where,and when or why of the problems situated.
There are many problems that may give rise to research.Three sources that usually contribute to the problem identification. The source of problem supply would be once Own’s experience or the experience of others, the second source could be scientific literature. One would find certain fields which is not covered in certain findings which could lead to research problem. the third source could be deficiency in theories.
Identifying an research problem
This process starts by clearly identifying the problem of the study and considers the possible methods for an solution.An research problem is seen as an felt difficulty in an given area.Such difficulties are an set of introduction to an obstacle or a puzzle for an individual or individuals and they prevent the progess of accomplishment of an desired objective.These kind of situations must often be an concern to an researcher in order to find an solution.To identify an research problem it is crucial to elaborate some features of the the problem that is created for an clear picture of the problem,beginning a particular research,one should bear in mind that all not all problems are researchable.A researchable problem is one that is amendable to investigation.this implies that it is possible to gather an relevant data to test the theory or finding an answer to an question under consideration,(Akuzilo,1993).
Formulating a research problem
Researchers plan and control their research by formulating and defining a research problem which helps them focus the research process so that they can draw a intuitive assumption reflecting the real world in the best possible way.
In research an Hypothesis is set of propositions that explains the occurrence of some specific group of a phenomena either asserted as a provisional reasoning which involves the formation of conclusions from incomplete evidence to guide investigation which is also known as working hypothesis or accepted as highly probable in establishment of facts.
A variable is nothing but something that changes according to different factors. It depends on different factors for a change easily like stock exchange value but other variables are most constant. Research often seek to measure variables. Variable can be a name or number ore anything else where a value can change.In research variable typically defines according to what is being measured. A researcher would often like to measure an independent variable(the cause),while the dependent variable is the effect which is dependent on individual variable.these variables are often stated in an hypothesis.
Reviewing the literature
A dissertation literature review is a complete essay with abstract, introduction and the discussion work cited page. Dissertation literature is very important to prove the paper or dissertation accuracy. Writing a faulty literature is one of many ways to derail a dissertation, if the literature review is flawed then the remainder of an dissertation could also be flawed as the researcher cannot perform significant research without understanding the literature in the field.(Boote and beile 2005,p.3).The purpose of an literature review is not only to give the list of used material but also to show the importance of its influence and general information. While creating the dissertation literature review, one can express their own ideas for the chosen resource or describing the future using the statements given in it.
The main aim of a conclusion is not to analyze a particular issue but it is to give a constructive and precise evaluation or result on the study topic.A conclusion helps the reader to comprehend the final say on any research and summarizing the thoughts and to demonstrate the results to drive the readers for new perspective about the subject.The conclusion is where one can get a chance to sum themselves and really make the point to hit home for the reader .It makes the the paper to stand out and be memorable.
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