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The basic concepts of Human Behaviour

Motivation is a basic concept in human behaviour and also in employee behaviour. My research project is on motivation because motivation has a huge value in determining performance, and employee morale. An employee's performance typically is influenced by motivation, ability, and the work environment. Happiness in the workplace is very important if a Manager would like to retain their workers. When an employee is discontented, it becomes the manager’s responsibility to make the appropriate changes. Motivating employees can be disguised in many different situations. Getting to know your employees on a more personal level can help to keep them happy.

The organisation I'll be concentrating on will be a 24 hour Tesco Extra Store; which is situated in lea valley. I chose to study motivation in Tesco due to having communication access i.e. contacts. I would comfortably get information about the organisations. This is because I am familiar with Tesco Lee Valley.

For the research I have been using both questionnaires and face to face interviews. I did arrange a meeting with the manager to provide me with some background information about the organisation and the staff and completed the questionnaire. One week later upon return to Tesco, I gathered a few questions to interview the manager and the employees from level 1 and level 2 to collect more in depth information about the organisation and how they motivate the staff.

The study reveals that there is a good relationship existing among employees. The employees are satisfied with the present incentive plan of the company. Most of the workers agreed that the company is eager in recognizing and acknowledging their work. There are some employees between the age of 17 -20 feel that they are not motivated and not getting enough support.

CHAPTER 2

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this project is to conduct a study on EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION with special reference to Tesco Extra Store which is situated at Lee Valley. This project will identify the factors which will motivate the employees in Tesco Extra Store of Lee Valley.

The term “Motivation” is derived from the Latin word ‘MOVERE’, meaning ‘to Move’ (Kreitner R., Kinicki A. & Buelens M., 2002, p: 176) which means as facts, need, emotion, and organic state which encourages a person to do an action.

Employee motivation is a key factor within a successful organization or business. The quality of work that people express is often a result of the motivation they possess. Companies have several ways to motivate their employees and to keep them satisfied. Businesses set goals, and when employees reach those goals, they should be recognized within the company. To know that someone appreciates your effort is a great feeling. Management jobs are concerned with people at work and with their relationships within an Organization. Since Manager’s work with and through people, they need to have a good understanding of what motivates people. Motivation refers to the way drives, needs, and aspirations of human beings direct or control or explain their behavior. It explains how and why people behave as they do.

Managers and Management Researchers have long believed that Organisational Goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of members of the Organisation. Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a person’s degree of commitment. Motivation includes the factors the cause channel and sustains human behaviour in a particular direction. Hence a Manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. This study also focuses on the employee motivation among the employees of Tesco Extra Store of Lee Valley.

Several sources have been used to gather information to do this project, followed by interviews and through questionnaires with the employees of Tesco Extra Store at lea valley. All interviews were recorded and summarized and provided the basis for the present.

2.2 Significance OF THE STUDY

Pursuant to research on Tesco Extra Store at Lee Valley, I would be aware of the way the employees work and will be able to understand the employee’s behaviour at an early stage.

In every organisation motivation is a major subject. Every organisation wants its employees to be motivated to work and the organisation will try to help its employees to be motivated to their work.

In summary, this research is of both personal and generic value in illuminating the impact of motivational techniques within a chosen organisational setting.

2.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

To critically evaluate the literature to identify key theories and models of motivation.

To undertake primary research among the first line management in order to evaluate identified key theories of motivation.

To draw conclusions and give recommendations for areas of improvement.

2.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

There are two types of data have been used. I.e. Primary data and Secondary data for the study,

Primary data been collected by personally interviews and questionnaires, whereas the Secondary research has been done from journals, books, internet and articles.

The sample size taken is small i.e. 25 people due to time constraint. I gave questionnaires and have personally interviewed both level 1 and level 2 staffs.

Work level 1 – frontline jobs staff who works directly with customers doing various tasks in store, such as filling shelves with stock.

Work level 2 – leading a team of employees who deal directly with customers.

2.5 NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES

The statistical data I have collected is through questionnaires. A copy of a questionnaire is attached in the appendix of my assignment. My questionnaire is about motivation at work, how employees and employers get motivated.

CHAPTER 3

3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

The question of what motivate workers to perform effectively is not an easy one to answer.(Vroom & deci 1970 ) . The difficulty is that the researchers involved how to make assumption about the motives for behaviour that they have observed. Theres always an element subjectivity in any judgement made about motivation. . Evans (1992) defines the First-Line Manager, as "the supervisor is the official manager of the work Like a manager he is responsible for determining objectives, planning/organising, communicating, controlling, motivating, etc", and this will be the definition brought forward for this study. However, the core of the study is motivation, and forms the basis of the literature review.

A working definition of motvation ‘ motivation is a process in which people choose between alternative form of behaviour in order to achieve personal goal.

Motivation can be simply describe as behaviour cause some stimulus but directed towards a desire outcome. This can be better illustrated as follows:-

Stimulus → Appropriate behaviour → Desired goal / objectives

3.2 BASIC ASSUMPTION ABOUT MOTIVATION

Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing and is one of the several factors that go into a person’s performance (ability, resources and conditions). Motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment. It is like the heat in a home during winter month in northern climates. Motivation is a tool with which managers can arrange job relationship in organisation.

3.3 DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION

Motivation is a process in which people between alternative behaviour in order to achieve personal goal.Motivation is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is not a personal trait. It’s the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal.

Energy: a measure of intensity or drive.

Direction: toward organizational goals

Persistence: exerting effort to achieve goals.

Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.

People work to satisfy their needs. They work at their best when they are achieving the greatest satisfaction from their work.

3.4 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

There are many motivation theories that attempt to explain the nature of motivation. Some of the theories may be partially true and help to explain the behaviour of certain people at certain times.

The motivational theorists focus on examining human needs considering how the needs are met and can be better met in work. It may be defined as the “processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal”. Organisational behaviour (9th edition) by Stephen P Robbins pg 155

Among various behavioral theories embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg, a psychologist, proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg's, developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs. These theories are widely cited in the business literature.

3.5 MASLOW’S MOTIVATION

In 1943 an important humanistic psychologist, Abraham Maslow, published his now – famous need hierarchy theory of motivation. (Buelens M., Broeck H., Vanderheyden K., Kreitner R. & Kinicki A., 2006, p: 177) “Maslow proposed that motivation is a function of five basic needs – physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization (see figure). An advantage of this theory is that it is built upon human behaviour, whereas the reinforcement theories of motivation were inferred from lab rat experiments.” (Buelens M., Broeck H., Vanderheyden K., Kreitner R. & Kinicki A., 2006, p: 177) “He identifies that with the most basic need emerging first and the most sophisticated need last. People move up the hierarchy one level at a time. Satisfied needs lose their strength and the next level of needs is activated. As basic or lower-level needs are satisfied, higher-level needs become operative. A satisfied need is not a motivator. The most powerful employee need is the one that has not been satisfied.

3.6 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Physiological needs: - For Maslow this is the first level of needs that individuals have to satisfy because these needs are primary / basic. Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as: Air, Water, Food, and Sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.

Safety/Security Needs: - Provided that physiological are adequately satisfied that security needs will influence on behaviour. Security needs include protection against physical and physiological harm. Such needs include the need for job security, age, industrial accidents, and illness. Many organisations try to satisfy these needs by providing a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighbourhoods and shelter from the environment.

Social needs: - This level of needs is concerned with man’s need for love, friendship; acceptance, attachments and families help fulfil this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community or religious groups. In organizations people tend to join different groups to satisfy their social needs. By forming groups and encouraging sufficient interaction among employees. Managers can make sure that their subordinate’s social needs are satisfied.

Esteem needs: -. This level represents peoples higher order needs that is man needs for self respect, and recognition by others. The need for success self confidence, recognition and appreciation of achievement are all examples of esteem needs. It is this area in particular that managers can play a significant role in satisfying the needs of their employees, namely by rewarding high achievement with recognition and appreciation.

Self actualisation needs: - The highest of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the need for self actualisation. This represents the apex of all men needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential. Maslow describes the self actualisation needs as follows “a musician must make music” and at least must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. The self actualisation need is the most difficult to address. In an organisation context, a manager can help by impressing and challenging job to master so that they can in their work.

3.7 FREDERICK HERZBERG'S MOTIVATION AND HYGIENE FACTORS

Frederick Herzberg was born in Lynn, Massachusetts on April 18, 1923 and died on January 18, 2000 in Salt Lake City.Frederick Herzberg conducted a study in the fifties on motivation consisted of interviews with 203 accountant and engineers employed by different industries in Pittsburg Pennsylvania in USA. In this study, each person in the test group was asked to think of an incident in which they had felt exceptionally good or bad about their job. They were asked to give a reason and a description of the sequence of events giving rise of that feeling. Responses to the interviews were consistent and revealed that there are two different sets of factors affecting motivation and work. Frederick Herzberg examined motivation in the light of job content and contest. His dual process theory is a job enrichment theory of motivation. It describes needs in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. It is a two-step process. First provide hygiene’s and then motivators. One time ranges from no satisfaction to satisfaction. The other time ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. (Buelens M., Broeck H., Vanderheyden K., Kreitner R. & Kinicki A., 2006, p: 186). Therefore, Herzberg’s theory is also known as “two-factor motivation theory”.

Hygiene factors

According to Herzberg hygiene are those which do not lead to motivation but these factors prevent de-motivation. At a more simple level firm managers should make sure that the employees have the necessary hygiene factors so that there won’t be any dissatisfaction at work resulting to a decrease in motivation. His study reveals the following as hygiene factors:

Company policy and administration

Supervision

Relation with supervisor

Working conditions

Salary

Personal life

Relation with subordinates

Status

Security

Motivators

According to Herzberg motivators are those factors which lead to satisfaction and hence can motivate employees at work. When employees are deprived of these factors there will be dissatisfaction leading to reduction to motivation. However if employees are provided with these factors, they will surely be motivated. The main motivators are

Achievement

Recognition

The work itself

Responsibility

Advancement

Growth

CHAPTER 4

4.1 TESCO PROFILE

Early history

Jack Cohen founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell surplus groceries from a stall in the East End of London. The Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. Tesco plc is one of the largest retailers in the world, operating more than 2,300 supermarkets and convenience stores and employing 326,000 people. Tesco's core business is in Britain, where the company ranks as the largest private sector employer in the United Kingdom and the largest food retailer, operating nearly 1,900 stores. Tesco the company ranks as the largest online supermarket in the world. The company also offers financial services through Tesco Financial Services, which controls 4.6 million customer accounts roughly divided between credit cards and car insurance policies. Through the more than 100-unit Tesco Express chain, the company ranks as the largest seller of gasoline in the United Kingdom.

Tesco's UK stores are divided into five formats, differentiated by size and the range of products sold.

Tesco Extra is larger, out of town hypermarket stock Tesco’s entire product ranges. The first Extra opened in 97 thanks to the Tesco Hypermarkets that opened in 1976.

Tesco stores are standard large supermarkets, stocking groceries plus much smaller range of non food goods than Extra. They are referred to as "superstores" for convenience, but this word does not appear on the shops.

Tesco Metro stores are sized between normal Tesco stores and Tesco Express stores.

Tesco Express stores are neighbourhood convenience shops, stocking mainly food with an emphasis on higher-margin products (due to lack of economies of scale) alongside everyday essentials.

Tesco Home plus: These stores offer all of Tesco's ranges except food in warehouse-style units in retail parks.

4.2 TESCO EXTRA STORE AT LEE VALLEY’S PROFILE

I have chosen Tesco Extra Store which is situated in Lee valley, Edmonton, London and which is a 24 hour store. You can find a huge range of products; from a wide selection of top electrical brands to expertly arranged bouquets of flowers. The Tesco's products, including various non-food ranges (for example, Books, DVDs and Electrical items under the ‘Extra’ banner), Tesco Personal Finance and the telecom businesses, as well as services offered in partnership with specialist companies, such as dieting clubs, flights and holidays, music downloads, gas, electricity and DVD rentals, clothing. Tesco has something for everyone all at Tesco's everyday low prices. Plus you can earn Club card points for all your purchases. Tesco Extra Store in Lee Valley has about 354 workers. There are many different jobs at Tesco, from checkouts to stock control, deli to non-food, and grocery to in-store bakery. There are six work levels within the organisation. This gives a clear structure for managing and controlling the organisation. Each level requires particular skills and behaviours.

Work level 1 – frontline jobs staff who works directly with customers doing various tasks in store, such as filling shelves with stock. They require the ability to work accurately and with enthusiasm and to interact well with others.

Work level 2 – lead a team of employees who deal directly with customers. They require the ability to manage resources, to set targets, to manage and motivate others.

Work level 3 – running and operating unit. They requires management skills, including: Planning, Target setting and Reporting

Work level 4 – supporting operating units and recommending strategic change. They require good knowledge of the business, the skills to analyze information and to make decisions, and the ability to lead others.

Work level 5 – responsible for the performance of Tesco as a whole. They require the ability to lead and direct others, and to make major decisions.

Work level 6 – creating the purpose, values and goals for Tesco plc. Responsibility for Tesco’s performance. They require a good overview of retailing, and the ability to build a vision for the future and lead the whole Organization.

Tesco has a seven-part framework that describes the key skills and behaviours for each job at every level in the company.

CHAPTER 5

5.1 ANALYSING THE DATA IN LEVEL 1 AND 2

5.2 Numerical Techniques

5.2.1 Response from staff about the manager support

(Table 1)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Highly satisfied

10

40

2

Satisfied

8

32

3

Neutral

4

16

4

Dissatisfied

3

12

Total

25

100

Source: filled up Questionnaire

Graphical Representation

Interpretation

Table 1 shows that 40% of staff is highly satisfied, 32% are satisfied, 16% are neutral, 12% are dissatisfied.

5.2.2 Response of staff as to whether the management interested in motivating employees

(Table 2)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Strongly agree

11

44

2

Agree

7

28

3

Disagree

3

12

4

Neutral

4

16

Total

25

100

Source: filled up Questionnaire

Graphical Representation

Interpretation

The table shows that 44% of the respondents are strongly agreeing, 28% agree, 12% Disagree, 16% neutral that the management is interested in motivating the employees.

5.2.3 Type of incentives that motivates employees

(Table 3)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Financial Incentives

7

28

2

Non financial Incentives

8

32

3

Both

10

40

Total

25

100

Source: filled up Questionnaire

Graphical Representation

Interpretation

The table shows that 40% of the respondents have expressed that both financial and non financial incentives will equally motivate them.

5.2.4 Satisfaction with the present incentives scheme

(Table 4)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Highly satisfied

10

40

2

Satisfied

8

32

3

Neutral

4

16

4

Dissatisfied

3

12

Total

25

100

Source: filled up Questionnaire

Graphical Representation

Interpretation

The table below show 40% of staff is highly satisfied, 32% are satisfied, 16% are neutral, 12% are dissatisfied.

5.2.5 Job Security existing in the company.

(Table 5)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Strongly Agree

8

32

2

Agree

9

36

3

Neutral

5

20

4

Disagree

3

12

Total

25

100

Source: filled up Questionnaire

Graphical Representation

Interpretation

The table shows that 32% of the respondents are strongly agreeing, 36% agree, 12% disagree, 20% neutral

5.2.6 Effective promotional opportunities present in the job

(Table 6)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Strongly Agree

5

20

2

Agree

10

40

3

Neutral

7

28

4

Disagree

3

12

Total

25

100

Source: filled up questionnaire

Graphical representation

Interpretation

The table shows that 20% of the respondents are strongly agreeing, 40% agree, 12% Disagree, 28% neutral

5.2.7 Periodical increase in salary

(Table 7)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Strongly Agree

8

32

2

Agree

9

36

3

Neutral

5

20

4

Disagree

3

12

Total

25

100

Source: filled up questionnaire

Graphical representation

Interpretation

The table shows that 32% of the respondents are strongly agreeing, 36% agree, 12% Disagree, 20% neutral

5.2.8 Good safety measures existing in the organization.

(Table 8)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Strongly Agree

8

32

2

Agree

10

40

3

Neutral

4

16

4

Disagree

3

12

Total

25

100

Source: filled up questionnaire

Graphical representation

INTERPRETATION

The table shows that 32% of the respondents are strongly agreeing, 40% agree, 12% Disagree, 16% neutral

5.2.9 Factors which motivates you the most

(Table 9)

NO

PARTICULAR

Number of

Respondents

Percentage

1

Salary increase

9

36

2

Promotion

8

32

3

Leave

2

8

5

Recognition

6

12

Total

25

100

Source: filled up questionnaire

Graphical representation

Interpretation

The table shows that the 36% of the respondent is responding that increase in salary will motivate them the most

Chapter 6

RESEARCH ANALYSIS

From the above finding from Tesco Lee Valley in London what we can conclude some of the staff is motivated and some doesn’t.

Herzberg's motivation theory is still valid. One important point to note is that salary itself is NOT a motivator but a hygiene factor. Nowadays, people are often concerned with the fairness of salary than the amount itself. Some of the staff planning to leave, mainly from the youngsters age of 17 to 20 due to chance of promotion somewhere else, better pay, more challenging work, a more exciting place to work and more lengthy and varied work.

Many companies have different policies, and some are more concerned than others of their employee's satisfaction. Companies are to consider the working conditions, wages rates and safety always to meet basic needs with the local laws or legislation governing minimum wages and benefits. Employers can concentrate on satisfying the three higher level needs of employees. It is interesting to note that these are very close to Herzberg's motivating factors.

Money is not the only thing that can make a person happy in actuality there are many things before money that assist in ones happiness."While money is important to employees, what tends to motivate them to perform at high levels is the thoughtful, personal kind of recognition that signifies true appreciation for a job well done.

CONCLUSION

From the above discussion, it is evident that motivation plays important key role in a knowledge-based organisation and that an employee’s efficiency increases when individuals is being motivated.

RECOMMENDATION

Skills of the employees should be appreciated.

Motivates the staff more mainly the youngsters age 17 - 20

Better carrier development opportunities should be given to the employees for their improvement.

Add a note to an employee's Payslip highlighting something great he/she did that week

Give credit where credit is due.

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