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The Strength Of An Organisation Management Essay

The strength of any organization is its people. If people are attended to properly by recognizing their talents, developing their capabilities and utilizing them appropriately, organizations are likely to be dynamic and grow fast. Ultimately the variety of task in any organization has to be accomplished by the people. Some of them have capabilities to do certain tasks better than other tasks, and some of them may not have capabilities to do the task assigned to them. In any case one of the important process goals of any dynamic organization is to assure that its people are capable of doing the variety of tasks associated their role/position.

Development of their capabilities keeps them psychologically vital. This development needs to be monitored in terms of matching it with the organizational requirements. Therefore, any organization; interested in developing the capabilities its employee should understand the nature of capabilities required to perform different functions as well as dynamics underlying the development of these capabilities in an and organizational context. Thus proper and timely training programs should be conducted in an organization.

In this report I have presented by study on T&D at ‘Telenor’. The study limit to understanding the existing system and through a survey of employees to know their feedback of the T&D system & procedure. The study for time and other resources is limited in its scope but is a sound preliminary work for a researcher in this field.

INTRODUCTION

The involvement of the private sector to foster the improvement of the workforce can affect the entire economy. The operations of the companies in the formulation and implementation of the training is having its own potential to grow as a strategy. The provided opportunity to the professionals deserves an upgrading approach into their skills and to their careers.

Training is defined as a continuous learning process in which the employees will acquire knowledge, enhance professional skills and improve attitudes and behaviors to excel well on the job. The objectives of the training department to identify the required training needs of an organization and fill the gap with a host of training methods for the welfare of the organization and employees on a whole.    

The basic difference between training and development is: Training helps to make the employee of a company to be more effective and efficient in the present role and responsibilities of the job i.e. fulfill short term needs of any company but development helps to improve the overall personality dimensions of an employee to take up any future assignments if any and better equipped to handle any critical situations might occur i.e. fulfill long term needs of any company.

Background of the Study and Problem Statement

Problem statement

What is the impact of training on employee career development?

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Objective

Examining the impact of training on career development in private organization of Pakistan.

How training impacts career development?

What is the relationship between career development?

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

To conduct any research a scientific method must be followed. The universe of study is very large in which it is difficult to collect information from all the employees. So, the sampling method has been followed for the study. The analysis is based on primary as well as secondary data.

Research Area : Telenor Islamabad

Sample size : 35

Data collection

Primary data : The data was collected using an appropriate questionnaire

and observing employees at Telenor office.

Secondary data : Internet, books

Method of analysis : Pie chart, graphs.

Research design

Theoretical framework

Career development

Training

FREQUENCIES

VARIABLES=Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11

/ORDER= ANALYSIS .

Frequencies

[DataSet0] C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\questionnaire result.sav

Frequency Table

SAVE OUTFILE='C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\questionnaire resu

lt.sav'

/COMPRESSED.

FREQUENCIES

VARIABLES=Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11

/STATISTICS=VARIANCE MEAN

/BARCHART FREQ

/ORDER= ANALYSIS .

Frequencies

[DataSet0] C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\questionnaire result.sav

Frequency Table

Bar Chart

GET

FILE='C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\brm projects.sav'.

DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT.

FREQUENCIES

VARIABLES=Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8

/STATISTICS=STDDEV VARIANCE MEAN MEDIAN

/BARCHART FREQ

/ORDER= ANALYSIS .

Frequencies

[DataSet1] C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\brm projects.sav

Frequency Table

Bar Chart

Correlations

training

C.D

training

Pearson Correlation

1

.432(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.008

N

36

36

C.D

Pearson Correlation

.432(**)

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.008

N

36

36

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

REGRESSION

/DESCRIPTIVES MEAN STDDEV CORR SIG N

/MISSING LISTWISE

/STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA COLLIN TOL CHANGE

/CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10)

/NOORIGIN

/DEPENDENT C.D

/METHOD=ENTER training .

Regression

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

C.D

16.2778

6.01242

36

training

18.9444

3.10708

36

Correlations

C.D

training

Pearson Correlation

C.D

1.000

.432

training

.432

1.000

Sig. (1-tailed)

C.D

.

.004

training

.004

.

N

C.D

36

36

training

36

36

Variables Entered/Removed(b)

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

1

training(a)

.

Enter

a All requested variables entered.

b Dependent Variable: C.D

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

1

.432(a)

.187

.163

5.50117

.187

7.808

1

34

.008

a Predictors: (Constant), training

ANOVA(b)

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

236.284

1

236.284

7.808

.008(a)

Residual

1028.939

34

30.263

Total

1265.222

35

a Predictors: (Constant), training

b Dependent Variable: C.D

Coefficients(a)

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

Collinearity Statistics

B

Std. Error

Beta

Tolerance

VIF

B

Std. Error

1

(Constant)

.436

5.743

.076

.940

training

.836

.299

.432

2.794

.008

1.000

1.000

a Dependent Variable: C.D

Collinearity Diagnostics(a)

Model

Dimension

Eigenvalue

Condition Index

Variance Proportions

(Constant)

training

(Constant)

training

1

1

1.987

1.000

.01

.01

2

.013

12.448

.99

.99

a Dependent Variable: C.D

Regression

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

C.D

8.1111

1.40972

36

T

23.9444

4.26242

36

Correlations

C.D

T

Pearson Correlation

C.D

1.000

.557

T

.557

1.000

Sig. (1-tailed)

C.D

.

.000

T

.000

.

N

C.D

36

36

T

36

36

Variables Entered/Removed(b)

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

1

T(a)

.

Enter

a All requested variables entered.

b Dependent Variable: C.D

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

1

.557(a)

.311

.290

1.18751

.311

15.324

1

34

.000

a Predictors: (Constant), T

ANOVA(b)

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

21.609

1

21.609

15.324

.000(a)

Residual

47.946

34

1.410

Total

69.556

35

a Predictors: (Constant), T

b Dependent Variable: C.D

Coefficients(a)

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

Correlations

Collinearity Statistics

B

Std. Error

Beta

Zero-order

Partial

Part

Tolerance

VIF

B

Std. Error

1

(Constant)

3.697

1.145

3.229

.003

T

.184

.047

.557

3.915

.000

.557

.557

.557

1.000

1.000

a Dependent Variable: C.D

Collinearity Diagnostics(a)

Model

Dimension

Eigenvalue

Condition Index

Variance Proportions

(Constant)

T

(Constant)

T

1

1

1.985

1.000

.01

.01

2

.015

11.482

.99

.99

a Dependent Variable: C.D

CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

This organization is doing great job in order to develop the 'soft' skills of their staff. Training is being delivered to the employees which is not only beneficent for the company but for employees as well. This organization has evolved a way of working with their Trainers which produces truly effective training programs that take into account different and changing needs all the way from the briefing process right through to the delivery of the training itself, and beyond. There are three stages that go into the creation and delivery of effective training: it has to be specific to the objective, the group of people to whom the training is available and most importantly the group to whom the training is delivered. In Pakistan, it has cultivated a good image not only in its employees but towards the customers as well. On the whole the policies of the companies are employees friendly, that why people love to work here, beside this life at This organization is very dynamic that’s why people love to work there, one of the important character of this organization is to provide its employees the complete growth opportunities which motivate and encourage the employees to be the part of this prestigious organization. As far as our study is concerned we found its training system much effective, but as the room for improvement is always there so, we have recommended some of the important recommendations which will definitely helpful for the this organization training system.

CHAPTER 6

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Besides the success of my research work, there are certain limitations which I faced during the tenure of my work. These are: -

Training requirements can change so rapidly.

The employees were not interested in filling questionnaire because of their busy schedule.

Moreover the whole procedure of data collection was too much time consuming

Data collected during a research, can become obsolete quite rapidly.

Dependent Variable: Career Development

Independent Variable: Training

LITERATURE REVIEW:

To cope with the speedy rate of change or alternations, organizations are more and more challenged with developing significant training programs for its members as a way to compete and succeed in today’s unpredictable environment. Pfeiffer (2000) argues that training can be a source of competitive advantage in several industries for firms with the knowledge to use it.

Katz (1998) highlights that although large corporations spend over $50 billion on training expenditure, effective employee learning is diminished. Another author Prahalad (2000) also wires employee learning by stating that training should be considered a part of career development for managers that include both the methodical and empirical side of management.

Training is defined as the organized acquisition of skills, rules, ideas, or mind-sets that result in improved performance (Goldstein, 1993); now part of organizational learning and change, employee evaluation, and career development is training (White and Mackenzie-Davey, 2003).

At another place training is defined by (Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler, & Weick, 1970) as a planned learning practices designed to bring about unending change in an individual's information, attitudes, or abilities.

Employee training has turn into more rampant today than 15 years ago, many companies conduct training simply for appearance sake (Hughey and Mussnug, 1997), instead of focusing on adult learning and growth (Wills, 1994; Hollenback and Ingols, 1990; Humphrey, 1990); Kolb’s (1984) experimental learning (Whetten and Clark, 1996); and cognitive aptitude (Carter, 2002).

Training and organization development activities are receiving increased consideration in the industrial and academic communities at present. According to Huber, organizations spend upwards of $30 billion dollars yearly for training plans involving 15 billion work hours (Huber, 1985).

The German apprenticeship system has turn into the focus of much recent writing, studying the financing of such training (Soskice 1994; Oulton and Steedman 1994; Harhoff and Kane 1997; Acemoglu and Pischke 1998). This literature concludes, contrary to the forecasts of Becker (1964), that firms pay a share of the training expenditure of apprentices, even though the qualifications of apprentices are largely broad skills.

The "bottom line" for most training plans is effectiveness; less concentration has been allocated to studying why training programs are effective for some individuals and fruitless for others. Training effectiveness typically is determined by evaluating some combination of the criteria presented in Kirkpatrick's (1967) hierarchical model of training outcomes. This hierarchy is made up of four levels of training outcomes:

(a) Trainees' reactions to the program content and training procedure (reaction);

(b) Knowledge or skill attainment (learning);

(c) Behavior change (behavior); and

(d) Development in tangible individual or organizational outcomes such as turn-over, accidents, or productivity (results).

Each stage of the hierarchy is exaggerated by each training result. Trainees' satisfaction with the program is believed to have an main impact on learning, the content of the training program must be mastered to some degree for enhancements in on-the-job behavior, and behavior change is important for constructive changes in results such as quality or quantity of production.

The overall economy is affected by the organization’s choice whether or not to train its workers, even if the firm does not factor the economy into its choice. If all firms within an industry not succeed to train their workers, the whole economy suffers. Hence, training workers is a type of public good, a category that encompasses a broad range of social dilemmas. Employees face a similar dilemma in their choice of how much to contribute to the overall productivity of the organization. If employees receive a share of the profits regardless of their contribution, some may decide to free ride on the efforts of their fellow workers. If all employees decide to do so, the company will fail.

The two dilemmas on the employee and organizational levels are closely interconnected. On one side, the benefits of training accumulate only to the extent that employees contribute to the organization. Thus, a firm should take into relation how it expects a training program to affect employee effort as well as employee turnover. On the other side, trained workers produce at higher rates, which in turn may affect how much they contribute and how often they migrate to other firms in comparison with untrained workers.

Another way of training your employees in the organization is the mentorship like apprenticeship on which literature suggests that mentoring enhances work effectiveness (Kram, 1985) and job success (Roche, 1979; Stumpf and London, 1981; Hunt and Michael, 1983; Fagenson, 1989). It has also been suggested that training have an important influence on promotion decisions (Stumpf and London, 1981; Hunt and Michael, 1983).

Kram (1985) presented an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms through which mentoring affects careers and identified two dimensions of these developmental relationships: Vocational (career coaching) and psycho-social (social support).

Career success of managers has generally been defined in terms of performance and the popular symbols of success: Money and position (Hall, 1976; Feldman, 1989).

Exploratory Behavior. Hall (1976) defined a career as the "individual's perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with work-related experiences and activities over the span of the person's life" Super and his associates' theory of adult career development defines four work-relevant life stages: exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline (Super, 1957; Super, Crites, Hummel, Moser, Overstreet, & Warnath, 1957).

Jordaan (1963) emphasized exploratory behavior as a key determinant of occupational success and satisfaction. Exploratory behavior refers to mental or physical activities undertaken with the purpose of eliciting information about oneself or one's environment, or forming decisions regarding occupational adjustment, progression, or choice. Exploratory behavior includes self-assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of skills, career values, interests, goals, or plans, as well as the search for job-related information from family, friends, counselors, and other career information outlets (Mihal, Sorce, & Compte, 1984; Stumpf, Colarelli, & Hartman, 1983).

Additionally, the extent to which individuals engage in career planning, a type of exploratory behavior, is related to the likelihood of participation in self-development activities, salary level, and advancement (Gould, 1979; Super & Hall, 1978). Gould's (1979)

Career planning scale assesses the extent to which career plans exist, how frequently career plans are changed, how clear career plans are, and whether or not a strategy exists for achieving career goals.

The relationship between exploratory behavior and training effectiveness is unknown. One possible hypothesis is that trainees who frequently engage in cognitive or environmental search activities are likely to have a better under-standing of their strengths, weaknesses, and interests. This results in a high level of motivation to learn in training programs which are congruent with their career goals. These individuals are likely highly motivated to learn because of the self-realization of skill weaknesses resulting from their investments and interests in career growth and progression as evidenced by the frequency and intensity of exploratory type be-saviors.

Career workshops provided by the organization may provide employees with a clearer picture regarding career paths and the prerequisite-site skills for horizontal and vertical movement throughout the organization. So training is the significant part for the career development in any organization.

RECOMMENDATIONS

We have described the this organization’s training program with best of our knowledge, but due to lack of availability of information we found certain problems in this organization which may not be in actual so we are recommended here generally about the effective training program which should be adopted.

The trainer makes a difference. The Trainer must be well trained and must have required skills and knowledge which he infer to convey to the Trainees.

Present training as part of a reliable message from the organization. Training must be a incessant process, and results of the training must be evaluated, so that the employees remain solemn with the training.

Ask each individual’s manager, and the manager’s manager, to attend the training session with their staff. When three management levels of an organization attend training together, participants may be more enthusiastic to try out the ideas learned in training. This is especially effectual if participants see their manager trying out new skills as well.

Provide training in “chunks” that are programmed over a period of time. People learn more in training sessions that provide chunks, small amounts of content, based on a couple of definite objectives. Participants attend these sessions, perhaps a couple of hours per week, until the subject is learned. This allows the participants to practice the concepts in between the training sessions. Both the content of the training and the application of the concepts are toughened at each subsequent session. This also allows people to discuss their successes and difficulties in applying the training in their actual work session. The instructor can help participants practice the training content by giving assignments that are debriefed at the next meeting.

Train people in skills and information that are immediately applicable on the job. “Use it or lose it,” is a common refrain about training. This is a true statement. Even with strategic skills such as listening, providing performance feedback, and team building, set up situations in which practice is immediate and frequent, to help participants retain the training.

During the training session, practice active learning principles; honor a variety of learning styles.Recognize that a range of activities and information applications will appeal to participants’ varied learning styles. Use real life examples, analogies, case studies, small group discussion, presentation, and experiential exercises. Provide visual support materials such as films and transparencies for people who learn visually. Activities will appeal to your hands-on crowd. Ask participants to provide examples of the concept you are training from their experience.

Make use of session pre-work during the actual training session. Asking people if they “read the article” or “thought about” the concept is not enough. Be preparing the trainee’s before going for the training

Increase trainee investment in the session by engaging them in tasks requiring action. Provide easy ways for participants to take notes; periodically ask participants to jot down application ideas. Ask them to share these ideas in a small group. Ask people to underline the most important concept on a page; circle the ideas that most apply to their circumstances.

Provide reference materials and job aids for review after the session. Include participant input into the materials, making participants more likely to use the documents.

During the session, discuss how to address real life scenarios, and barriers participants believe they will encounter when they apply the training. Too often, training professionals don't prepare participants for the real world in which they will attempt to use what they learned in class. Trainers should work on performance barriers in the domain they can control, their classrooms. They can share data from the needs assessment on unearthing barriers and offer ways to overcome them. Trainers can also discuss with participants their managers' or co-workers' possible objections. The participants can practice their responses. In other words, trainers can inoculate participants against the thoughts, words, and deeds of resistance. They can share suggestions from participants who were able to transfer what they learned in training and who came up with successful approaches to get more computer resources, supervisory support, and so forth."

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