Review On The Organisational Behavioural Study Management Essay
The organisational behavioural study has evolved over the past few decades and it has emerged that a deep theoretical insight has opened up many doors for the organisations to flourish and reap profits .The effective implication of theories and models developed through research and analysis, in organisations, to hone conflicts and problems arising within the organisation in its normal course of business in the practical nature. Normally, most of the businesses resort to form groups and teams for various tasks to be carried out. The nature of the groups or teams and the task assigned may vary from department to department and organisation to organisation. People working within groups contribute towards the performance and power of the group and in return the group as a whole influences individual behaviour of the members of the group. Thus it is imperative to say that recognising a group’s functioning, one may be able to understand the behaviour of people working in that organisation. The internal processes of groups which may include formation of group, nature and structure of group and overall decision making by that group as a whole, influences the organisation, the ineffectiveness of group and their interrelationship also contribute towards negative change in overall performance of an organisation. On the other hand, the “Leadership” aspect of behaviour in an organisation has been dealt with respect to groups and teams. There are various leadership styles adopted on the bases of appropriateness in the respective organisation. The way leadership is exercised varies from cultural norms of an organisation. The leader drives his group towards its goals by directing and coordinating the group members or it may be that a group member having innate attribute of influencing and leading toward a common goal through effective cohesiveness and increasing productivity of the group. However, the “Democratic” aspect of leadership will be emphasized in the second part.
The case has been studied on an advanced technology telecommunication company which is explicitly committed to employing and training a diverse workforce. The organization is well known and has been touted on the media several times for its efficiency and strategy in human resource. However, a small number of person developments have been focused at, where mostly workers are Asian and males as compared to any other areas of the organisation and the relevant issues discussed in this topic have been paid attention and turned out to be a matter of discussion in the company. In order to abide by the privacy policies of the company I have chosen the pseudonym, ULSM Co, for the company where I held my job. Also, the original names have been given pseudonyms e.g. Mr A, Mr AA etc as well so as to avoid any conflicts. The company believes in extending people’s reach through developing innovative networks thus enabling development, learning and growing among people. The company values its customers, suppliers and employees through sociable, friendly and caring way whilst dealing in a direct, clear, honest and fair approach. The company aims to innovating new technologies, services and markets to create better prospects for people along side its own goals.
PART – I
The first part has been taken from work groups and teams with sub-part “Relations between Groups” with special emphasis on “inter-group conflict”.
LITERATURE REVIEW “1”:
The first part draws attention towards inter-group conflict; the articles will enlighten the analysis of lay-theory on inter group relationship and inter-group conflict resolution. According to Cargile, et al. (2006) the action of people may be influenced by lay beliefs. Whenever a conflict arises, the people may find their manners changing as well as there would be an influence on their desires and plans would be sought out for the resolution. Further Cargile, et al. (2006, p.47) (cited in Hong, Levy and Chiu. 2001, p. 102) state that “Lay theories play a pivotal role in guiding group perceptions and actions”. If in people’s perceptions the main possible cause of conflict within groups is miscommunication then there is a need that they know what they say and how they say it, but only if the dispute hasn’t risen from other factors which may involve economic, social, innate attributes etc. To take a better grasp of understanding inter group conflict in empirical sense, we take daily understanding of how these groups come into conflict also the reasons why how and when people working in groups start competing with each other. Moreover, Cargile, et al (2006) state that it is hard to predict the attributes which may be noticed but for the comparability between scientific theories and lay theory and it tends to increase when the event is psychological or social in nature. However it can be observed that the lay attributions are not fundamentally different from formal theories and it is enlightening to go over extant conflict theories. The theories of conflict can further be divided into two major categories as macro or micro depending upon their orientation (Cargile, et al., 2006, p.48). Wherein, macro conflicts are mainly concerned with obvious factors in the conscious and pragmatic interaction between groups. The behaviourist factors can be classified into micro theories based on unconscious and idealistic motivation of individuals e.g. depression or frustration. Further Cargile, et al. (2006) say that the macro theory directs towards the theory concerned with inter group conflict known as conflict theory. Although there exists variations in conflict theory like realistic group conflict theory or social dominance theory mainly subject on inter group conflicts as active in nature the causes of which may be the differences between goals and interests relating distribution and as in most cases, the social order is manipulated by dominating groups.
However, situations may arise when organisations may find it harder to settle a dispute over any disagreements in values and beliefs (Cargile, A.C. et al (2006) cited in Hall, 1995; Johnson, 1966). Individuals are largely identified according to their membership and they seek optimistic social identity. In order to maintain this positive approach towards positive social identity the group members should make constructive comparisons with out-groups.
Moreover, according to Stephan, (2008) in today’s globalizing world, domestic as well international immigration is contributing towards multi ethnic and multicultural workforce as well as cross cultural tourism and excursions has made inter group conflict as an event of daily occurrence for most of the people over the history of centuries. However, according to Stephans, (2008) the difference of intensity of these conflicts may vary from disputes among different study groups at school or college level to a large scale war and it is imperative to say that resolving such disputed will ease the lives of many people who come under these conflicts and for the very reason. Stephan, W.G. (2008) has tried to illuminate resolutions through psychological and communication processes but the focusing on conflicts of various social identity groups between their individual members, especially those who have been nurturing conflicts since ages. The inter group conflict and the resulting climate can be improved through psychological and communication processes (Stephan, 2008).
DATA AND METHODS “1”:
In order to provide a better analysis of the theories I chose to take active individuals and the groups which had taken themselves away from the normal defined course to a different one for decision making and efforts towards collective goals. An effort has been made to unveil the changes made which were not actually enunciated by the senior management itself.
A search was done in order to spot the activists; especially the HR department of the company was requested to supply the list of individuals who were active participants of the risen conflicts. An informal sample telephonic interview was made to find out how and why some individuals got involved in the inter group conflict. By adopting and analysing this sample I was able to explore even in the grass root activities and analysis of any groups that have formed not formally at senior managements plan. Also there were individuals who wished that senior management should be interviewed as well so as to discover more the reasons of how and what leads groups in into inter conflict.
Now we have to see that these theories and processes are useful in the empirical analysis or they are just a pile of useless literature giving people enough of junk to keep them busy reading. In my view and as far as my observation and analysing such information is concerned, the causes of inter group conflict in the organisation where I worked was fundamentally based on someone’s silliness or some natural temperament lack and revolves around the differences that different groups had or the sense of superiority over others in the company. I can recall the state of mind and changed behaviour of Mr A, who was in a group working closely with the General Manager of finance department, Mr A was emotional as when ever the boss called for him, he always expected that he would be scolded though on his part he performed best which was both exciting and funny for the people witnessing those moments. On that another group member Mr B took advantage of Mr A’s Shaken emotions in spite he had performed his best. Mr B tried to convince the General Manager that he himself was more confident and enthusiastic as to performance and bringing fruitful results to his group and ultimately to the boss for his department. On the same path he was rational about winning appreciation in moral and monetary terms as well. This rising difference and dominant behaviour and lowering Mr A rose into a conflict between those two groups and they formed a jealousy in the disguise of competition and Mr A’s fear and weakness and Mr B’s superiority and confidence lead to inter group conflict. On the other hand in the Marketing department it became quite evident that there were two teams for a specific area who were given target for sales, the group X and it’s leader were vigilant and sharp who resorted to local vendors for their sales promotion based on commissions on their own without letting their Sales manager know, which ultimately brought into dispute when the Group-Z became aware of that and Group X was taken to explain the reasons for not abiding by company’s policies. On the other side, they fell in dispute for the sake of competing and taking lead over the other. In my view there was psychological reason of inter dependence as to their competition which took Group X to break company’s policy and to look good in the sight of company by acquiring a winning stance over Group Z. These observations give a very complex behavioural impression of various groups falling in disputes. The past research depicts that the lay theories in some way or the other correspond to human behaviour observations or studies based on scientific theories and are more precise and logical. Also this can be observed that these factors including greed for power and appraisals and dominance are notable causes of inter group conflict.
Now we bring our attention on how to formulate inter group conflict resolution which can serve as a “fire extinguisher” between the disputed parties which were turning their aim of gold into coal from this ignition. We can see it from the psychological point of view that inter group conflict might have risen from discontent, distrust and feeling of prejudice etc. As well as miscommunication can be observed in the inter group interactions due to differences in values, norms, beliefs etc as Group-X violated the company’s policy. Also, this is a common observation of most of the people that there exists a historic hatred between groups, sometimes the reasons of that may not be known to the groups under conflict. This leads back to organisations which have been in operation since long, but the company where I worked did not have a corporate history, moreover it is quite vague to address any of the groups which have been in conflict due to there ancestral reasons in company with short corporate history. However, this was quite interesting to know that how different company’s resolve inter group disputes through psychological processes without actually employing psychologists for the very reason. In the first case this is my observation that the conflicts were solved through creation of emotional understanding among the disputed, as we say “diamond cuts diamond”, so is the case with this observation as conflicts risen due to emotional reason (case of Mr A stated earlier) the emotional empathy may cure it. This actually involves making other members feel the same as suffering one as well as empathy for the distraught and agony experienced by group members and it helped resolving disputes. In the same way cognitive as well as behavioural processes were also adopted for settling conflicts among groups, wherein an employee had to take the position of the affected and view the matter from his perspective and also when it comes to common goals there were various positive approaches which were adopted and thus increased mutual cooperation and helped resolving the conflict.
In this part I have chosen “Leadership” for analysis, where the emphasis has been made on the “Style Theory” and in that I have selected “Democratic & Democratic leadership leading to Transformation” in conjunction with the Part-I of this case study.
LITERATURE REVIEW ‘2’:
Rob, et al. (2000) is of the view that the leader of a group plays a crucial role in bringing about a change in a group and getting things done. The leader drives its group members to achieve their common goals through efforts and effective supervision. However, the group member satisfaction can not be overlooked as it contributes towards the overall performance of the group. In some cases as Rob, et al. (2000) (cited in Kushell & Newton, 1986) have stated that most of the group members are more content in democratic leadership than in autocratic leadership. On the other hand, there are reasons to realize that the group members are more satisfied when they have a strong leader (Autocratic Leadership) who can direct the group. This has been quoted by William Paley as:
“One very common error misleads the opinion of mankind, that
authority is pleasant and submission is painful. In the general course
of human affairs the very reverse of this is nearer to the truth: Command
is anxiety, obedience is ease”
This has been evident in the literature related to leadership for psychology students that democratic leadership is supported consistently and clearly. There may be several matters in association with the study of group dynamics which play their role in group member satisfaction varying in different leadership styles. In order to find out whether the group members find themselves in greater satisfaction with autocratic leadership or democratic leadership this would be important to have a careful look at the interactions between group characteristics (Rob, et al., 2000). These characteristics are mainly group reality, size of the group, gender division in the group and the effectiveness of style of leadership. The group reality is actually the study of a group in an environment which could be real (in daily life) or it could be artificial environment e.g. laboratories. The group size is to some extent relevant to group cohesiveness as the larger the group size the less cohesive its members and less satisfied within their group. The gender differences may also affect the level of satisfaction among group members in a particular style of leadership e.g. women find it harder to work under autocratic leadership Rob, et al. (2000) (cited in Kushell & Newton 1986). The potency of the style of leadership effect on group satisfaction can be detailed as the operationalization [sic] of democratic and autocratic behaviour. On the other hand, Janet and Kelly, (2006) observed that the transformational leadership and democratic leadership are interdependent to some extent. The ways and means adopted by leaders to bring about a change in the organisation, and the use of transformation models have been gaining emphasis in the recent literatures. The transformational leaders are looked at as futurists and channels to enforce a change; they would sell their ideas and lucratively redesign and reinvent their organizations. Rob, et al. (2000) (cited in Van Wart, 2003) that leaders are considered to be successful in transformation when they lead their organizations in new directions and attain evidently good outcomes. The business based model for transformation in the organisation does not suffice the foundations for a transformation in the public sector and thus limits its scope according to Rob, et al. (2000). However, the effective transformational leadership in the public sector is based on democratic values, citizenship and service in the public interest. Whereas, the leaders in business organisations may intend to understand ethical and trustworthy behaviour and for a transformation, the mechanics and strategies involved in bringing about that transformation the best way should be considered as well. The values-based assessments must not be overlooked in the process of transformation. Various writers have emphasized on moral as well as ethical values that need to be considered for bringing about a transformation in the company. Also according to Rob, et al. (2000, p. 564) “Burns” said “End values’ (such as liberty, equality, justice and community) lie at the heart of transforming leadership, which seeks fundamental changes in society, such as the enhancement of individual liberty and the expansion of justice and of equality of opportunity” (p. x).
DATA AND METHODS ‘2’:
To provide the empirical analysis of the literature that has been subjected above I have chosen the individuals who were or had the leadership qualities. Who had different attributes as to that of ordinary employees of ULSM Co. The people who made their own way rather then following the same style prevailed in the company. The emphasis has been made on these leaders as to the sort of behaviour that they would adopt, being democratic and transforming instrument driven towards achieving common goals of the group and ultimately of the Co.
A general research has been conducted, based on my own memory as well as a few personals or people who have worked closely with these personals were contacted for better deep empirical insight of the leadership brought through democracy and when this democratic leadership leads to a transformational leadership. To take a better understanding of theories when put to test in the practical business situations, informal telephonic interviews were conducted. And the gathered information was summed up for analysis and critical review.
I have made an effort to find out how practically does democratic leadership contributes towards the group member’s satisfaction. After sketching my goals roughly, I started with much focus on some very important aspects:
1. To identify the key strengths and effects of democratic leadership
2. To see the likely control induced in the group through its reality
3. To find out moderation of democratic effect by the group size
4. To find the effect of democratic leadership by gender composition of the group
5. To discover the moderation caused by democratic effect in operationalization of leadership style.
Following to the information that I gathered, In ULSM Co. the manager marketing operations Mr AA was believed to be a leader when it needed him to be a leader and he was an ordinary employee when there was a need. He was a bossy style manager as well as a friendly cooperative democratic leader. As I have come to know now through my contacts that Mr AA has recently been awarded with most efficient and cooperative, goal oriented progressing manager. His team performance is out class under his leadership, his fruitful efforts have enabled him to get promoted as well as salary increment along with extra benefits but at the same time his responsibility has increased due to his promotion from marketing operation manager to Senior Marketing Operations Manager. The size of his group has increased as well bringing more liabilities to him, but reaping fruit from extra perks through his effective democratic leadership style. Mr AA has been told to be especially concerned with female employees, as the place where I come from, there is not much done for the female employability and the weighting of a female leadership to that of male is 2:1 according to most researches. However Mr AA, through his effective democratic approach enabled the suppressed female employees to come up with their views about any issues that they were facing or in general discussions about issues at the group level, the females have been given special attention by him. This has contributed towards Mr AA’s promotion and his sense of being democratic leader has contributed towards the organisation as a whole. On the contrary, the Autocratic leader Mr BB in another group in the same department in the company has not received as much fame and appreciation among his sub ordinates as compared to that of Mr AA. Mr BB is of the view that “A leader is not a leader if he is not autocratic” in his own words, from a source. His consistent feeling lies in getting his work done his own way being the supreme authority, which may not always work. However, In my view this may be due to demographic differences, as the people in my country are not work oriented and they tend to make their work place a comfortable place for work regardless of money that they earn, whereas in the west I have observed that people are more goal driven and motivated to achieve their targets and try survive even the autocratic leader.
Another thing which has come to my knowledge is that Mr BB, out of his contemptuous feeling looks forward to bring about a change which would turn the table around on his side and the fame and recognition gained by Mr AA would start seeming to be unjust in the company. This has been the case probably because Mr BB is in professional jealousy with Mr AA and in his view being autocratic would let him achieve his intended goals whether personal or collective. But so far, he appears to be failing to transform things according to himself since he is autocratic or non-democratic leader who personally believes that his opinion and suggestion should be followed any way. However, this may not be possible if he remains an autocratic leader. For a transformation and bringing about a positive change in his group or in the company, demands democracy as to ULSMCo is concerned. In my view there may also be other behavioural factors involved in Mr BB’s less successful career in the company but apparently this was autocratic style of leadership which did not help him the ladder snake game.
The case study has helped me applying theoretical knowledge in the practical world; the most surprising of all the things is which existed first? Was it the theory or the things on which these theories are based? And the answer that we find is the practical things that happen around us actually give birth to these theories, models or processes to become a part of the literature and thus given various names. In this study we have observed that the lay theory unfolds the underlying reasons for inter group conflict. Whereas the psychological as well as communication processes may be considered for resolution of inter group conflict and individual’s capacity to understand, coop and resolve these issues may be enhanced by adoption of these processes. The two parts of the case study have been interrelated through a special focus on democratic “Style” of leadership in satisfying the group members; however, certain limitations can’t be overlooked in theories as sometimes they may lack factual background or the extent of variance which can be found in them, e.g. there are certain male dominant societies where the gender composition aspect of democratic leadership would tend to vary. The same extent of variance becomes quite evident when we consider democratic or autocratic leadership comparison. In some cases the democratic leadership may prove to be more satisfying group members and in some cases autocratic would serve the cause. Further, this has been observed how democratic leadership can lead to transformation and if it’s possible in real world or not? This idea becomes quite obvious in the public organisations but here we have observed its impact in the corporate sector where the goals and motives may be different from that of public sector but the ethical and moral aspects of transforming leadership can’t be ignored and the transformation can be done through democratic values consideration. At the end, this would be imperative to state that the application of these theories and processes may vary to a large extent from organisation to organisation which may involve, demographic, cultural, historical etc aspects for making perceptions.
Need help with your literature review?
Our qualified researchers are here to help. Click on the button below to find out more:
In addition to the example literature review above we also have a range of free study materials to help you with your own dissertation: