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Review Of Hiv Life Quality

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

It refers to the activities involved in searching for information on a topic and developing a comprehensive picture of the state of knowledge on that topic. A scrutiny of previous work also acquaints the researcher with what has been done in a field, thereby minimizing the possibility of unintentional duplication and increasing the possibility that a new study will make a distinctive contribution to knowledge. The written review literature provides readers with a background for understanding what has already been learned on a topic

Review of literature has been discussed under the following headings with studies and literature related to:

health related quality of life of HIV positive women

health quality of life of HIV positive pregnant women

health quality of life of HIV negative women

health quality of life of HIV negative pregnant women

comparison of health quality of life of HIV positive women and negative pregnant women

STUDIES AND LITERATURE RELATED TO HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF HIV POSITIVE WOMEN:-

Smith, Feldman, Kelly, Dettovitz, Chirgwin, and Minokoff (1997) conducted a study to assess the health related quality of life of HIV positive women at New York. They revealed that health related quality of life of asymptomatic women higher than the symptomatic women.

Gielen, McDonnell, Wu, O'Campo And Faden (2001) conducted a study to assess the relationship between psychological factors and health related quality of life among HIV positive women at california. The survey demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (0.6-0.89) and variability. Women who practiced more self-care behaviors (healthy diet and vitamins, adequate sleep and exercise, and stress management) reported better physical and mental health and overall quality of life. Women with large social support net work have better mental health and quality of life.

Patel, etal (2009) conducted a study on impact of ART on health related quality of life of HIV positive women in Zimbabwe. They found that women on ART (<p0.001) reported higher health related quality than women are not on ART (<p0.01). They concluded that ART delivery in resource- poor communities can enhance overall quality of life as well as psychosocial functioning, which has wide range public health implications.

STUDIES RELATED TO HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF HIV POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN:-

Fawzi, etal (2006) conducted a study to assess impact of depression on quality of life along with multivitamin therapy among HIV positive pregnant women at United States of America. They revealed that multivitamin supplementation (B-complex, C and E) resulted in a reduction in risk of elevated depressive symptoms comparable to major depressive disorder and improvement in quality of life in HIV-positive pregnant women

Yadav (2010) conducted a cross sectional study to assess perceived social support hope and quality of life among HIV positive pregnant women at Nepal. They found that non family support net work was greater than family support network and also Overall satisfaction from social support and hope was significantly correlated with quality of life. The result of the study has implications for providing care, treatment, and psychosocial support to maintain or enhance quality of life of HIV positive pregnant women.

STUDIES RELATED TO HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF HIV NEGATIVE WOMEN:-

Bardwell, Major, Rock, Newman, Thomson, Chilton, Dimsdale and, Pierce (2004) conducted a study to assess the health related quality of life women who are treated for early breast cancer USA. It is found that, better physical HRQOL was associated with fewer psychological symptoms, lower body mass index, better sleep quality, and more physical activity. Better mental HRQOL was associated with better sleep quality, fewer life events, less pain, and fewer gastrointestinal symptoms. They suggested that interventions targeting psychosocial symptoms, weight reduction, physical activity, sleep hygiene, and pain could result in improved HRQOL in these women.

Lau &Lei Yin (2009) conducted a study to assess association between perceived stress and health-related quality of life among pregnant women in Macao, China. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that pregnant women who were younger (β=0.085, p=0.002), single, divorced, separated or cohabiting (β=0.067, p<0.009), had a lower level of education (β=0.079, p=0.003), worked long hours (β=0.102, p<0.001) or who had an unplanned pregnancy (β=0.063, p=0.014) with late initiation of antenatal care (β=0.066, p=0.008) or poor physical (β=−0.501, p<0.001) or mental (β=−0.115, p<0.001) health-related quality of life had higher levels of perceived stress.

STUDIES RELATED TO HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF HIV NEGATIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

Olsson & Wikmar (2004) conducted a study to assess the influence of back pain and physical ability on health related quality of life in late pregnancy. The 69 (51%) women with back pain rated significantly ( p < 0.05) higher on the sub scales sleep, energy, pain, physical functioning and total score; and, aspects occupation, ability to perform jobs around the house, social life and hobbies compared with women without back pain. It found that irrespective of back pain the pregnant women have lower quality of life with healthy women.

Hueston and Kasik-Miller (2005) used the SF-36 ("a standard quality-of-life measure") in a longitudinal study of 125 pregnant women in the USA, referring to "serial assessments of health-related functional status".Of the eight subscales of the SF-36, three of the four associated with physical health status changed significantly with gestational age. Physical functioning (P [is less than] .001), role limitation due to physical problems (P [is less than] .001), and pain scales (P [is less than] .001) all decreased as pregnancy progressed It found that only the scores relating to physical measures of health changed significantly during pregnancy, a finding of uncertain significance in terms of quality of life for a population who are essentially healthy.

Elsenbruch, et al conducted a study to assess the effects of social support during pregnancy on maternal depressive symptoms, quality of life and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women. It revealed that, in smokers, pregnancy complications occurred more frequently when given low support {34 versus 10.3% with high support, c2 = 5.49, P = 0.019; relative risk (RR) = 3.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.1–10.2]}, and the proportion of preterm deliveries was greater given low support (10.0 versus 0% with high support, c2 = 3.84, P = 0.05, odds ratio = 8.1). Lack of social support constitutes an important risk factor for quality of life during pregnancy and has adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes.

Nicholson, Setse, Hill-Briggs, Strobino & Powe (2006) conducted a cross sectional study on depressive symptoms and health related quality of life in Maryland among 175 pregnant women. They found that women with depressive symptoms had significantly lower health-related quality of life scores in all domains except Physical Functioning. After adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and social support factors, depressive symptoms were associated with health-related quality of life scores that were 30 points lower in Role-Physical, 19 points lower in Bodily Pain, 10 points lower in General Health, and 56 points lower in Role-Emotional. The health related quality of life can be improved by early identification and management of depressive symptoms in pregnant women

  Shaheenab,&  Lindholmb(2006) conducted a study to assess the Quality of life among pregnant women with chronic energy deficiency(CED) in rural Bangladesh . They revealed that rural women had poor quality of life. The mean score for current health status derived from the visual analogue scale was 0.49 (95% CI for mean 0.45–0.52) in a scale with scores ranging from 0 to 1.00. Rural Bangladeshi women attached very low quality of life scores to CED.The scores are comparable to scores attached to severe debilitating conditions like cancer in western countries. If considered in the global perspective, prevention of chronic energy deficiency among women in developing countries should be given high priority.

Forger, ostensen, Schumacher & Villager (2005) conducted a study to assess the impact of pregnancy on health related quality of life evaluated prospectively among pregnant women with Rheumatic heart disease in Switzerland. They found that pregnancy reduced physical functioning in healthy women and patients, but had no impact on mental and emotional health, even at the time of disease aggravation. The pregnancy experience documented in patients may be helpful when counseling patients contemplating pregnancy.

Liu, et al conducted a study to assess the racial disparities in health related quality of life among pregnant at Baltmore. It found that health related quality of life of black pregnant women had significantly lower HR-QOL than white pregnant women. The black women had lower scores that were 23 points on lower in physical functioning, 35 points lower in role limitations due to physical health,20 points lower in bodily pain, 19 points lower in vitality, 26 points lower in social functioning, 29 points lower in emotional, and 11 points lower in mental health throughout pregnancy.

Moyer et al (2009) conducted a comparative study on optimism or pessimism and health related quality of life across culture at US, China and Ghana. They found that self assessed health related quality of life cross the sample differed in each geographic area indicated four key variables that predicted approximately 20% of the variance (adjusted R square = .199) in overall LOT-R scores: country of origin (p = .015), working for money (p = .025), level of education (p = .001), and ever being treated for emotional issues with medication (p = .002)..

Grogan etal (2009) conducted a longitudinal study on depressive symptoms and health related quality of life during pregnancy and after delivery. Women who became depressed had scores in the social domains that were 10-23 points and 19-31 points lower in the second and third trimesters, respectively, compared to women with no depressive symptoms. Women who became well had scores that were 3-31 points lower, compared to women with no depressive symptoms. They revealed that the health related quality of life women with depressive symptoms have a substantial effect on functioning during pregnancy and after delivery.

Munch, Korst, Hernaadez, Romero and Goodwin (2010) conducted a comparative study to assess health related quality of life with hyperemisis gravidaram and nausea and vomiting during pregnancy in United States of America. The study found that women with hyperemesis gravidaram (N=29) were 3–6 times more likely than women with nausea and vomiting (N=48) to have low HRQOL. Both group demonstrated that perceived physical symptoms and psychosocial factors, such as depression and marital status, seemed to be equally or more important.

STUDIES RELATED TO HIV POSITIVE AND HIV NEGATIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

Karen etal (2004) conducted a study on status and health related quality of life among HIV positive and HIV negative low income women at USA. The results of the bivariate and multivariate analyses provide evidence that there are independent and adjusted detrimental associations of the experience of intimate partner violence and living with HIV with womenrsquos HRQOLThey found that Health related quality of life of HIV positive pregnant women is significantly lower than HIV negative pregnant women.

Bernatsky, Soua, and Jong (2005) conducted a study to assess the mental health status of pregnant women who are HIV positive, compared with other group of pregnant women in Netherlands. The HIV positive pregnant women had much poorer quality of life than the controls. The mean score for the HIV positive group (mean 4.25+/-1.2;95%) was more than twice that of the control group.They revealed that HIV positive pregnant women had much poorer mental health status than the controls.

Larrabae, Monga, Eriksen and Helfgott (2005) conducted a study to assess perceived quality of life and functional status of women with human immunodeficiency virus during antenatal, perinatal and postpartum period USA. Seropositive patients reported increased health distress (50.0 versus 87.5; P < .001) and worse health transition (60.0 versus 80.0; P = .01) during antenatal visits. During the perinatal period, HIV-negative patients had a decreased sense of overall health (40 versus 80; P < .001) and worse health transition (40.0 versus 60.0; P = .04). Six months postpartum, the HIV-positive women reported decreased cognitive function (41.7 versus 62.5; P < .005) and worse social function (33.3 versus 66.7; P = .02). In general, HIV-negative women reported better quality of life in the antepartum as compared with the perinatal or postpartum period. This overall trend was also seen in the HIV-positive population.They concluded that perceived quality of life differs between HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women.

Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Mayon-White, Okong, Carpenter and Jenkinson (2006) conducted a cohort study to assess the effects of pregnancy on quality of life among HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women during pregnancy and puerperium in Uganda. The study found that HIV positive pregnant women had poor scores in feelings=OR 3.2(1.9-5.3), daily activities, OR=7.2(3.6-14.7), pain: OR 2.1(1.3-3.5) overall health: OR=1.7(1.1-2.7) and QOL:OR= 7.2 (3.6-14.7). The findings concluded that HIV’s adverse impact on maternal QOL and the need for interventions to alleviate this infection’s social and emotional effects.

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