Proposed Knowledge And Experience Contribtion To Research
The need to conduct research on this topic came up following my resolution as a technocrat to impact positively on the economic growth of Nigeria by tackling our greatest challenge corruption. And also to follow the pacers of my role models Prof. Dora Akunyili former director National Agency for Food Drug and Control (NAFDAC) who demolished fake drugs worth billions of Dollars and his counterpart in the anti-graft agency Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) Mallam Ribadu who prosecuted the un-touchable for financial related corruptions.
Also, my background in banking and finance with three years working experience in one of the bank that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) took over last year to prevent it from imminent collapse, apparently because of corruption and lack of corporate governance. All these encouraged me the more to embark on this research. In addition, my Masters thesis that concentrates on how organizations satisfy employee’s needs and its consequences when they fail which often result to employees’ misbehavior. Corruption is one of the misbehaviors I talked about in the thesis. Thus, Satisfaction of employees in organization somehow touched the area of corruption because employees are the people perpetuate corruptions in organization.
When this research is completed and all key elements are researched, it will be used as a dossier by the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices and other related offences Commission (ICPC) to effectively gauge organizations in their business practices in order to checkmate corruptions of any form, promote corporate governance and promulgate necessary laws that will tighten the regulations of organizations excesses.
The information gathered in the research will satisfy all of its objectives and work as a guide that could potentially influence or inspire the lawmakers to amend the Company and Allied Matters Act (CAMA), and establish laws that will be unfavorable to organizations that indulge in corrupt activities like what is prevailing in Europe and America, and when implemented successfully, will encourage investors to come and invest in the economy which will in turn generate employment and revenue.
Finally, This research can also serve as dossier for the organizations market research plan in fighting corruption because it will embed solid, substantiated information regarding opinions of existing CEOs of organizations, Anti Graft agencies, Police, NGO (Transparency International), World Bank and Heads of relevant authorities that is pursuing the same course with the research.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Corruptions according to the British Audit commission (1993:12) are defined as “ offering, giving, soliciting or acceptance of an inducement or reward which may influence the action of any person. In a broader perspective, corruption is the abuse of public office for private gain. It encompasses unilateral abuses by government officials such as nepotism and embezzlement, as well as abuses linking public and private sectors like bribery, extortion, influence peddling, and fraud.
Obviously, corruption emanates in both political and bureaucratic offices and can be petty or grand, organized or unorganized. Though corruption often facilitates criminal activities such as drug trafficking, money laundering and prostitution, however for the course of this proposal, crime will be analyzed distinctively from corruption.
Organizational corruption is define as the pursuit of individual interests by one or more organizational actors through the intentional misdirection of organizational resources or perversion of organizational routines, that is commonly misunderstood to be highly undesirable for any parties holding a stake in the organization’s performance (Lange 2008). Even when the actors ostensibly direct the corrupt behavior on behalf of the organization rather than against the organization, the behavior may ultimately impede the organization’s ability to accomplish its legitimate purpose and may threaten its survival like what happened to seven banks CEO the Central Bank Of Nigeria (CBN) Governor sacked due to corruption and lack of corporate governance (www.thisdayonline.com).
These corruptions constitute a large body of violations that are not normally associated with such ordinary crimes as burglary, larceny, robbery, assault etc; they differ in the nature of the offense and the situations in which they occur, and the penalties imposed are far more likely to be administrative and civil rather than criminal in nature, even where a criminal penalty is available (Clinard 1983). Therefore, a broader legal coverage of organizational corruption is very necessary, for without it, many violations will occur (as for example the illegal act committed by Medical Doctors like the case that led to Michael Jackson’s death and lately the death of a young lad in United kingdom which NHS later revealed that the GP could hardly understand English, is an aspect of organizational corruption because it aids mediocre to be in a position meant for professionals.
From the foregoing, one would argue with me constructively that organizations have dirty side. Not only in Nigeria which is a developing economy, but worldwide. According to Punch (1996), he opined that their will be occasion when the veil of corporate respectability and probity is lifted, and the world where managers lie, cheat, manipulate, dissemble and deceive will be brought to limelight like the case of Bernard Maddoff the erstwhile chairman of the Nasdaq Stock Market who was also the founder of Bernard L. Maddoff Investment Securities LLC was arrested for alleged $50 billion fraud.
Conversely, most organizations however are been compelled into corruption due to unseen force. According to Punch (1992), he argue that there are some reputable firms who because of their exposure in controlling their market environments (and for a vast spectrum of other motives), will consciously and forcefully employ almost any means-devious, foul, or down right illegal- to achieve their selfish ends. And Most often, most of the managers get away with this misbehaviors because the institutions are not legally strengthened to cub the menace of these corrupt managers the way the law go against armed robbers, burglars etc. No matter the angle it is been viewed from, it is an illegal act and the organizations that perpetuate such act need face the full wrath of the law.
For instance, Nigerian Oil and Gas sector is a very good example of the above point mentioned. Often, foreign companies that invested in the country has genuine interest to develop the country but get corrupted as soon as they enter the shore of Nigeria to do business hugely because they want to have competitive advantage over the indigenous firm and also control the Oil and gas industry in other to be a top player. They bribe government officials, bribe indigenous king makers and involve heavily in series of Oil bunkering and gas flaring. This resulted to the death of King Sarowiwa in 1995 (www.guardian.co.uk). To worsen the scenario, Nigeria been the 7th oil producing country in the world could not boost of an operational oil refinery in the country. Rather we export crude oil and import-refined oil because the companies in the industry are benefitting hugely from export of crude oil in crude state (Ayodele 2008). ’ These are the reasons why the present unrest in the Niger-delta axis of Nigeria subsist for decades.
Over and above, corruption in Nigeria transcends beyond all spheres of our economy. The health sector is poorly maintained which is the reason why most of the Government officials travel abroad for medical treatments. The education industry is in comatose because the money meant for them are diverted. Other institutional bodies are been enmeshed in corruption. We cannot provide power (electricity) because some organizations bribed authorities working in the Power Holden Company of Nigeria (PHCN) in other to allow their generator market to thrive. The recent publication of Transparency international 2009 global report rated Nigeria as the 121st out of 180th most corrupt countries in the world. Lately, USA also blacklisted Nigeria as a nation of interest in the area of terrorism because of a failed bomb attack in Detroit bound airline on Christmas day last year.
Therefore, this proposed study would delve into organizational corruption in all the private sectors in Nigeria. These sectors are Oil and Gas, Financial, Media, Health, Constructions, Education and telecommunication because of vast and recalling corrupt activities going on in these sectors.
2.1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
2.1.1 Aim of proposed Study
The aim of the study is to rectify the imbalance in the Political, criminological and socio-legal literature that is overly slanted to accommodate the above and so far, lacked the temerity to research and expose organizational corruption the way Political, crime related offence has been exposed through research in Nigeria.
The research tends to examine how organizational corruption has contributed negatively to the economic growth of Nigeria and approaches to implement that will curtail its degenerating further.
To identify key principals and assess their knowledge, interest, positions, alliances, and importance in the policy formulation and institutionalization of organizational corruption in Nigeria.
To solicit ideas, opinions and recommendations of the different stakeholders on the various factors that can hinder or promote the practice of organizational corruption in Nigeria.
2.1.3 Research Question:
Why do organizations get involve in corruption?
Why is organizational corruption rampant in Nigeria?
How is organizational corruption situated in anti corruption programs and strategy in Nigeria?
What policies and strategies need to be put in place by relevant authorities to eradicate/curtail corruption in organizations?
What cultural, social, political, legal and economic factors determine the extent and manner by which organizational corruption is practiced in different countries?
What are the factors/tools to be adopted that will help checkmate organizations from indulging in corrupt practices.
This research proposal become imperative because of the deleterious consequences of corporate corruption perpetuated by some companies, have killed, maimed, poisoned and blown up people like Pfizer 1996 clinical study of antibiotics Trovan that disabled and killed dozens of children in Nigeria (www.washintonpost.com), while others have robbed us like Stallion groups which through their owners popularly called Vaswani brothers evaded payment of tax worth N2.5billion (£10 million) (www.punchng.com).
The above happen and continue to happen largely because the subjects of organization corruption have been neglected highly by criminologists in favor of other areas such as street crime, armed robbery, kidnapping, rape etc thereby taking the crime in the suits perpetuated by those who are suppose to have sound moral and good integrity for granted (Timmer and Eitzen 1989). Box (1983) supported it by asserting that people in positions of power and privileges commit the most serious offences in organizations and it is them who cause the bulk of avoidable deaths, injury and deprivation.
Therefore, our gaze needs to be cast in this area which now took us to the main essence of this research which is to investigate the corruption in organizations by analyzing the roots, why organizations indulge in such corruption, implications and remedies.
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This PhD research proposal is explorative in nature because it tends to investigate the root, implications and remedies of organizational corruption. It centers on organizational (mis) behavior which involves around decision making, operational process etc. Therefore, making interpretation and conclusion from source material and transcript of interviews need to be considered for this study, which chief objective is to eventually reproduce the meanings of the realities as seen by interviewees. Thus, the epistemology of this study belongs to interpretivism. This is because Interpretivism enables researchers provide interpretations for support research views based on the behavior of people (Baker 2003). This can be adjudged as qualitative method.
In addition, the choice of method adopted has been centered on the research objective to be achieved through the research question. At this point, the working title “Organizational Corruption: Roots, Implications and Remedies” is not in form of question. The questions outlined earlier do, however recognize what is being investigated and provide enough information to identify an applicable strategy, which was why the above method was adopted.
3.1 RESEARCH APPROACH
Generally, many scholars have diverse views of research approaches. Baker (2003) citing the work of Blaikie (2000) propounded four approaches: Inductive, deductive, retroductive, and abductive; while Saunders et al. (2006) in the other hand limited theirs to two types, inductive and deductive which will be the way this proposal would adopt. The inductive approach deals with developing of theory based on the analysis of the data, which is normally attributed to interpretivism if speaking philosophically, which main focus is to explore the reality of study from emotion, action and intention (Arbnor 1997). The deductive in the other hand uses data to develop theory based on hypothesis testing (Hesse-Biber 2004) and philosophically, it is referred as positivism.
According to Creswell (1994), he opined that inductive method is appropriate for emerging research issues. Since there is an indication of a gap between literature that talked about political corruption with organizational corruption and also the later been a new trend that is causing havoc to the economy of Nigeria and also erosion of public trust and confidence on the integrity of corporate entity, the need for the present study to adopt inductive approach became paramount.
3.2 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
Variety of sources makes up case study data. According to Stake (1995), he identified six sources from which qualitative data are collected for case studies. First is the nature of the case, second is how the case originated, third, its physical setting, fourth, other contexts like economic, political, legal, and aesthetic; fifth, other cases that prompted the case; and sixth, those informants through whom the case can be known. In this study to be conducted, the methods of extracting data from these sources will made up of in-depth interviews, focus groups and observation. Because the social environment being investigated is organizations, it is considered that there is enough evidence to assume the study will be sufficiently bounded, as envisaged.
3.3 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
Qualitative analysis follows three steps once the data is collected according to Miles and Huberman, (1994). There is data reduction, which has to do with (Selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, transforming), data display which deals with (organized, compressed), and conclusion drawing/verification which is purely (noting irregularities, patterns, explanations, possible configurations, propositions).
Hindle (2004:594) identifies data analysis techniques as “ methods for analyzing data irrespective of either the methodical cluster within which the technique is applied or the methods used to collect the data”. Bearing this in mind, data will follow a process of transcription, coding, analysis and presentation of results.
The process will include collecting data (observation and interviews, etc), which will be coded (reduced) and then presented as an integrative diagram (organized), drawing out themes and concepts (patterns). The relationship between the themes will be identified and collated into a thematic conceptual matrix (Miles and Huberman 1994:131-132). Each data collection method can benefit from content analysis, and computer assisted codification (for instance NVivo).
4.0 PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT
12 months (coinciding with methodology)
Conclusion and implications
Amendment and revisions
Total (excl. Proposal)
36 months (3years)
5.0 ETHICAL ISSUES
Interviews are aware of the data collection process. However, there are some challenges, which is researcher bias and inaccuracies due to poor recall. Interviews and focus groups have a similar process of consent, although there is a different dynamic when the process is facilitated. The consent will be formalized through a written agreement identifying the boundaries and extent of the permission to interview people. I would also seek consent for audio and / or video recording of participants.
The research into organizational corruption will be carried out based on four guidelines namely: first, informed consent from subjects who must voluntarily agree to participate based on full and open information; second, a basic moral principle is that deception and misrepresentation are no longer credible means to extract information from participants; third, privacy and confidentiality needs to be respected, however, privacy protection can be meaningless if “ there is no consensus or unanimity on what is public and private”, Punch (1994) cited by Christian (2005). Lastly, need to be sure that data is accurate without fabrications, fraudulent materials and omissions.
These four guideline can fit in anywhere in other to ensure the existence of ethical issue because it is applicable to observation techniques and the collection of data via documentation and archival evidence. For example, prison/custody observation tends to be more interpretive with no script, and relies on data captured by way of regular daily notes from information gathered. This is where accuracy can be an issue especially as real time because one will not allow the inmates to know they are been observed. The ability to recall all observed is a challenge, which might be surpassed through the use of recorder. Therefore, all the ethical requirement including consent forms, participant information sheets, and schedule of questions will be addressed in the ethics proposal.
6.0 HEALTHS AND SAFETY
The investigation will not pose significant health risk to the subjects because the interview will not require rigorous task from the respondent and the safety risk is also eroded because most of the interviews will take place in subjects offices, private home, or any place identified by the subject. For the focus group, the venue and each of the participants will be insured for the period the interview will occur.
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