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Dissertation On Organization Citizenship In An Organization Management Essay

Introduction

The world is looking forward to high performance organizations, which would provide high job satisfaction to their employees and would also cherish excellence and effectiveness. This could be achieved if we could develop organizational citizenship.

The people working in an organization are an integral part of the management process. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization requires recognizing that the human element and the organization are synonymous. A well-managed organization usually sees an average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains. Such organizations do not look to capital investment, but to employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals. An effective organization makes sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment within the sphere of its influence.

1.1Back ground

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) are the unconditional behaviors engaged by individual personnel beyond the organization’s official requested responsibility, and such behaviors are not directly or specifically recognized by the organization’s official awarding system although they can foster the organization’s efficiency (Organ, 1988). As indicated by related studies, organizations with OCBs would outperform those without OCBs. In other words, OCBs are able to foster organization efficiency (Posdakoff & Mackenzie, 1994; Posdakoff, Ahearne & Mackenzie, 1997; Koys, 2001). Job motivation is a crucial element for an employee willing to act OCBs (Bateman & Organ, 1983; Smith, Organ & Near, 1983; Williams & Anderson, 1991; Bolon, 1997).

1.2Statement of the Problem

Research of organizational citizenship behaviors has been extensive since its introduction around twenty years ago. It is strongly required to determine that what really affects organizational citizenship behavior of individuals. The organizational citizenship behaviors are salient behaviors for organizational enterprises. However, the antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors are not well established. Therefore, this research focuses on clearly defining the relationship between motivation and OCB. This research is focused to find out the way to increase the organizational citizenship among employees by increasing the motivation level..

1.3 Objective of the study

Identify the level of organization citizenship in an organization

How motivation can help to improve the organization citizenship.

To what extend the identified variables contribute in the organization citizenship and what kind of relationship among these variables will be found at the end of the study

1.4 Significance of the study

The organizational citizenship is important in organizations. Successful organizations need employees who will do more than their usual job duties and provide performance that is beyond expectations. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) describe such actions in which employees are willing to go above and beyond their prescribed role requirements. Organizational citizenship can be extremely valuable to organizations and can contribute to performance and competitive advantage. This research is important for any businesses which want to create competence and organizational effectiveness through enhancing the citizenship behavior of their employees. Improving OCB is low cost and best way for businesses to reach organizational effectiveness.

Chapter: 2

Literature Review:

According to Organ (1988), OCB is defined as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization". Although this kind of behavior makes organizational successful and effective but such behavior is not much rewarded and recognized by the top management (Organ, 1988). Shore, Barkdale & Shore (1995) and Chen, Hui & Sego (1998) described about that employees who show full willingness to be involved in the goals of the organization reflects true citizenship behavior. If employees perform their work unwillingly then it reflects negative attitude and the employees are considered to be less interested in their job.

Motivation has positive effects on organizational citizenship behaviors. Pinder (1998) provided a definition that nicely accommodates the different theoretical perspectives that have been brought to bear in the explanation of work motivation:

Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originates both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work-related behavior, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration.

There are two noteworthy features of this definition. First, motivation is identified as an energizing force—it is what induces action in employees. Second, this force has implications for the form, direction, intensity, and duration of behavior. That is, it explains what employees are motivated to accomplish, how they will attempt to accomplish it, how hard they will work to do so, and when they will stop.

According to self-determination theory, motivation reflects an intention to act. This intention can be self-initiated or result from external inducements. Intrinsically motivated behavior is undertaken purely for its own sake (i.e., the activity itself is enjoyable) and reflects “the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise one’s capacities, to explore, and to learn” (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Extrinsically motivated behavior refers to “the performance of an activity in order to attain some separable outcome” (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

Managers and management researchers have long believe that organizational goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of members of the organizations. Motivation is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a person's degree of commitment. It includes the factors that cause, channel, and sustain human behavior in a particular committed direction. Motivation is a basic psychological process. Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important element of behavior. Nevertheless, motivation is not the only explanation of behavior. It interacts with and acts in conjunction with other cognitive processes. (Luthans, 1998).

According to Kim (2006), in an organization science, there has been an increasing interest in the topics of perceived fairness, intrinsic motivation and organizational citizenship behavior. In his model, he analyzed the correlations between these three constructs simultaneously. This helps to clarify the role of intrinsic motivation and fairness in fostering social behavior.

Motivation is a tool with which managers can use in organizations. If managers know what drives the people working for them, they can tailor job assignments and rewards to what makes these people “tick.” Apart from that, motivation on workers part can encourage them to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs. To Olajide (2000), “it is goal- directed, and therefore cannot be outside the goals of any organization whether public, private, or nonprofit.

All motivated behaviors are goal-oriented, whether the goals are self-generated or assigned by others. Naturally occurring goals derive from the activation of basic human needs, personal values, personality traits, and self-efficacy perceptions shaped through experience and socialization. Individuals also set, or accept, goals in response to external incentives. The goals individuals choose can vary in difficulty and specificity, and these attributes, in combination with perceptions of self-efficacy, help determine the direction of behavior, the amount of effort exerted, the degree of persistence, and the likelihood that individuals will develop strategies to facilitate goal attainment. The latter serve as the mechanisms by which goal choices and efficacy beliefs influence behavior (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002).

The Relationship between Motivation and OCBs

OCBs are a crucial evaluation element for executives to evaluate their subordinates’ performance. It means it is a very important indicator in performance measure (MacKenzie, Podsakoff & Fetter, 1993; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994). As it is, when personnel perceive OCBs as the crucial element of performance evaluation, they will deliberately conduct such behaviors. At the time, the citizenship behaviors conducted by personnel are probably only a motivation for better performance in front of their superiors, so as to get better grade from performance evaluation. We presume motivation will influence an individual’s decision on his or her engagement in OCBs.

H0: There is no association between s motivation and organizational citizenship

H1: There is positive association between motivation and organizational citizenship

The literature on organization citizenship shows the relationship between organization citizenship and motivation, it help us to find out the direction and degree of association between identified variables and tells us how motivation is contributing to organization citizenship. We have taken the major determinant to find impact of motivation upon on organization citizenship.

Chapter: 3

3. Theoretical frame work

The variance in the dependent variable, organization citizenship can be explained by its independent variable: motivation level. We have to determine the positive or negative relationship between dependent and independent variable as well the degree of association between these two variables. From our study we wanted to know when job is enriched with motivational aspects such as, promotional opportunities, nature of the work, feed back, participation and support an employee will be more satisfied and this will promotes the organization citizen ship behavior of the employee in the organization. And we have assumed positive relation ship and as well high degree of association level between them.

The purpose of this study is to explain how to improve organizational citizenship behavior and how to develop a plan to obtain continual OCB through formal system and informal environmental setting in work place. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) describe actions in which employees are willing to go above and beyond their prescribed role requirements. . It seems logical to assume that organizational motivational level should be major determinant of an employee’s organizational citizenship behavior because motivated employees would seem more likely to work more devotedly for the organization, help others and go beyond the normal expectations in their job. This study focuses on clearly defining the relationship between organizational citizenship and motivation. This study will also discuss the implications of the OCB and try to find out how to improve OCB.

Motivation

Independent variable

Organization citizenship behavior

Dependent vaiableDiagram 1.Theoretical frame work which shows the relationship between two variables

3.1 Operationalization and dimension

3.1.1 Dependent variable

The dependent variable in our study is organization citizen ship which show variance and will determine by its independent variable.

3.1.2 Conceptual definition of organization citizenship

Organizational citizenship behavior defined as “individual behavior that is optional, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization”

3.1.3 Operational definition

Organizational citizenship are extra-role behaviors performed by individual, groups and / or an organization. These are helping behaviors not formally prescribed by the organization and for which there are no direct rewards or punishments. These behaviors are the matter of personal choice & tend to support social and psychological environment.

3.1.4 Organization citizenship is divided into five dimensions:

Conscientiousness

Participation

Protecting the organization

Courtesy

Self development

3.1.5 Elements of dimensions

1. Conscientiousness

Obeying rules and regulations.

Are you the one who religiously obey all rules and regulation?

Do you suggest others to obey rules and regulations?

Loyalty

Are you faithfully adhered to this organization and its work?

Do you get involved in politics?

Do you use work time for personal matters?

2. Participation

Attending functions

Do you attend functions that are not required, but help the company image?

Do you voluntarily play your part to organize such functions?

Making suggestions for change. 

Have you ever express your opinions in the formation of the company policy’s that what kind of strategy the organization ought to follow??

Do you share new ideas with others in the organization?

Do you help others to accept changes in the organization?

3. Protecting the organization

Reporting suspicious or dangerous activities

Are you careful while using sensitive digital information?

Do you report unethical activities to authorities?

Safeguarding organizational resources 

Do you play your part to safeguard organizational resources?

Do you utilize organizational resources for personal uses?

Monitoring its environment for threats and opportunities.

Do you keep up your self with changes in the industry that might affect your organization?

Do you try to defend organization’s policies and practices when they are challenged by an outside source?

4. Courtesy

Helping others without any personal interest

Do you help other people at work regularly without your personal interest?

Do you play your part to encourage your colleagues when they feel demoralized?

Do you resolve intergroup conflicts?

Are you polite and considerate to your colleagues?

Spreading goodwill

Do you spread positive word of mouth about your organization?

5. Self-development

Voluntary behaviors employees engage in to improve their knowledge, skills, and abilities.

Do you adapt yourself to changes?

Are you interested to improve your skills and knowledge?

Do you take part in advanced training courses?

3.2.1 Independent variable (Motivation)

Our independent variable in the study is motivation. We wanted to know the relationship between the two variables and in which direction the independent variable affects the dependent variable.

3.2.2 Conceptual Definition

Motivation is the driving force which help causes us to achieve goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion.

3.2.3 Operational Definition

Motivation’s operationalization includes Driven by Work, Unable to relax, Impatience with ineffectiveness, Seeks moderate challenge and Seeks feedback.

3.2.4 Dimensions of Motivation:

Driven by Work

Unable to relax

Impatience with ineffectiveness

Seeks moderate challenge

Seeks feedback

3.2.5 Elements of Each Dimension

Driven by Work

Constantly working

Do you work all the time?

Very reluctant to take time off for anything

Do you reluctant to take time off from work?

Unable to relax

Thinks of work even at home

How often do you think about work while you are away from the workplace?

Does not have any hobbies

What are your hobbies?

How do you spend your time when you are away from the workplace?

Impatience with ineffectiveness

Swears under one’s breath when even small mistakes occur

How annoyed do you get when you make mistakes?

Does not like to work with slow or inefficient people

To what extent would you prefer to work with friendly but incompetent colleagues, rather than a difficult but competent one?

Seeks moderate challenge

Opts to do a challenging rather than a routine job

Do you prefer a challenging job or a routine work?

Opts to take moderate rather than overwhelming challenges

To what extent would you prefer to take an extremely difficult assignment rather than moderately challenging job ones?

Seeks feedback

Asks for feedback on how the job has been done

To what extent would it frustrate you if people did not give you feedback on how you are progressing?

Is impatient for immediate feedback

How often you tried to obtain feedback on your performance from your co-workers?

Chapter :5

Hypothesis formulation

Ho: There is positive relation ship between motivation and organization citizen ship behavior.

H1: There is no positive relation ship between motivation and organization citizen ship behavior.

Chapter: 6

Research design

6.1Purpose of research design

The purpose of research design is to address the methods used in this study. Items that will be addressed include the population and sample, instrumentation, reliability and validity of the instrumentation, scoring techniques, data-gathering procedures, and the method of statistical analysis to test our hypothesis whether the i relationship between motivation and organization citizenship among employees does exist or not.

6.2 Unit of analysis

Our problem of statement focused on the relationship between motivational level and organizational citizen ship behavior among employees of an organization and try to find out in which direction motivation among employees will affect their organizational citizen ship behavior. We were interested in individual employees in the organization and have to find how organization citizen ship behavior of employees will be affected by motivating the employees. Here our unit of analysis is the individual employee. We will gather data from each individual and will treat each employees response as an individual data source

6.3 Time dimension

As time dimension is important factor for planning the strategy of data collection so keeping time in mind as a important component our study was cross-sectional study and this study was carry out once at a time and collected data about the employees organizational citizenship behavior and their motivation level.

6.4Type of research

Our study was experimental study because we discovered that motivation affects the organizational citizen ship behavior of employee.

Our experimental study was non- contrived because research was conducted in natural environment where work was proceeding. This was correlation field study done in organization which shows the cause and effect relationship between motivation and organization citizenship behavior using the natural environment of an organization and give powerful support to our hypothesis.

6.5 Observation tools.

In this cross sectional correlation field study data collected on motivation and organization citizenship behavior from the employees of multi national organization called Nestle through self administered questionnaire. Questionnaire is divided in to three main section first introduction about the employees, second part measures the motivational aspect among employees and third part measures the organization citizenship behavior of an employee.

6.6 Population and sample.

Our sampling frame consists of employees, middle management and lower management of any organization. The population of the study comprised employees of an multi national organization .We have taken the probability sampling procedure to select our sample which was not homogenous but was and heterogeneous. As it was not possible to reach all employees and workers that participated in the study because of the large population, it was decided to use the stratified random sampling type of probability sampling because our population was heterogeneous and there are no appropriate statistical techniques for measuring sampling error in case of a non-probability sample, but in case of probability sampling we can calculate the relationship between the sample and the population that is the size of sampling error. Only full time or permanent employees of nestle were asked to complete the questionnaire. And these were our planned sample. The sample size is 5000 who were administer through questionnaire to collect the data.

Sampling frame

(Employees, middle, and lower management)

Population

(Multinational organization employees) employees) employees

Planned sample

(Permanent employee of NESTLE)

Actual sample

(respondents of nestle)

Target population

(Nestlé employees)

6.6 Data collection Technique

For data collection, personally administered questionnaires (quantitative) were employed from large number of employees of an organization. Population of our study was employees of multi national organization. Target population for our study is employees and management people in nestle. A questionnaire has been distributed for the data collection purpose to all the employees of organization

6.6.1 QUESTIONNAIRS:

Name: …………………………………………..

Age (in years)…………………………………….

Gender:

1. Male

2. Female

1. Nature of your job:

1. Contractual

2. Permanent

2. Total work experience (in years) in the organization……………………………………….

3. My organization strongly considers my goals and values

Yes

No

4. Lack of targets demotivates me

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I like to be strongly energized by a challenge and by being professionally stretched

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Goal-setting is likely to be very energizing for me

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I do not compromise on my personal ethical standards

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I become motivated by responsibility and control

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I like to find opportunities for managing people or situations energizing

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Doing better than others makes me feel happy

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Job security is important for motivation

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I like to work in pleasant environment

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I feel Security about retirement allowance

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I am satisfied with my salary

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I am satisfied with the allowances given to employees

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

I think that fear of failure of work does effect my work negatively

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

I appraise a blame-free culture in organization

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Working for extra hours does not frustrate me

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You are the one who religiously obey all rules and regulation of an organization

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You suggest others to obey rules and regulations

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You faithfully adhered to this organization and its work

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You use work time for personal matters

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You attend functions that are not required, but help the company image

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You voluntarily play your part to organize such functions

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You share new ideas with others in the organization

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Agree

Disagree

You help others to accept changes in the organization

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Are you careful while using sensitive digital information

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You report unethical activities to authorities

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You play your part to safeguard organizational resources

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You utilize organizational resources for personal uses

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You try to defend organization’s policies and practices when they are challenged by an outside source

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You help other people at work regularly without your personal interest

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You resolve inter group conflicts

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You are polite and considerate to your colleagues

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You spread positive word of mouth about your organization

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

You are interested to improve your skills and knowledge for an organization.

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

How did you feel about completing this questionnaire?Check the face in the following and reflect your feelings?

  

6.7 Data Transformation

Index is constructed to weight each item on a similar scale. Each question is measured on Likert scale giving 1 score for “strongly disagree”, 2 for disagree, 3 for undecided, 4 for agree, and 5 for strongly disagree. The scale is reversed for reverse questions. For measurement of organization citizenship and level of motivation questions are measured on Likert scale. Questions are prepared considering the elements of each dimension created for the variables. We have 18 questions to measure level of motivation and 18 to measure organization citizenship behavior. On each question response can be measured as minimum of 1 and maximum of 5. Therefore, maximum score range of statements are 180 and minimum score range is 36. The score of level of motivation maximum range is 90 and minimum score is 18 and also the maximum score level for organization citizenship is 90 and minimum is 18.

The motivation levels divided into three catagories

Low motivation 18-42

Medium motivation 43-67

High motivation 68-90

The organization citizen ship divided into three categories

Low OCB 18-42

Medium OCB 43-67

High OCB 68-90

Chapter no:7

7.1 Data Processing and Analysis

Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and also correlation of variable was calculated. . Information from self administered questionnaire was recorded. Subsequently it was turned into transcript. Trends emerging during the review of these transcripts were reported and then analyzed.

Table no.1 level of motivation

motivation

frequency

percentage

low level of motivation

1700

34

medium level of motivation

2000

40

High level of motivation

1300

26

total

5000

100

Table :2 level of organization citizenship behavior

Organization citizenship bahavior

frequency

percentage

low level of OCB

1500

30

medium level of OCB

2000

40

High level of OCB

1500

30

total

5000

100

Table: 3 correlation between level of motivation and the organization citizenship behavior

Level of motivation

Low motivation Medium motivation High motivation Total

Level of organization

citizenship behavior F. % F. % F. % F. %

High OCB

100

5.88

400

20

1000

76.9

1500

30

Medium OCB

500

30

1250

62.5

250

19.23

2000

40

Low OCB

1100

64

350

17.5

50

3.84

1500

30

Total

1700

100

2000

100

1300

100

5000

100

Positive Linear relation ship between motivation and OCB

Y(OCB)

X(MOTIVATION)The independent and variable is categorized as low, medium and high level of motivation and dependent variable is categorized as high, medium and low level of organization citizen ship . We have taken the sample of 5000 employees out of which 76.9% of employees who are highly motivated are also have high level of organization citizenship. There are 5.8% of employees who have low motivation but have high OCB to the organization thus, there is 71%point significant difference between high and low motivation to OCB. Whereas 19.23% point of the employees who have high motivation level have medium level of organization citizenship behavior. There are 62% point of the employees who have medium level of motivation and have medium level of organization citizenship behavior thus, there is a 42.77% point significant difference between high and motivation level to the OCB. 3.84% of the employees who are highly motivated hav e low level of OCB. There are 64% of the employees who have low motivation level and have low level of OCB thus, there is a 60.16% point significant difference between low motivation and low level of OCB.

With significant percentage showing high motivation level and high OCB results in acceptance of research hypothesis that is higher the motivation, higher the OCB there is positive linear relationship between two variables.

Chapter no 8

Conclusion

Employee high motivation is like blood for high level of organization citizen ship behavior. Thus, data supported our hypothesis that employees’ motivation is positively associated to their organizational citizen ship behavior. Organizational citizenship is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Successful organizations need employees who will do more than their usual job duties and provide performance that is beyond expectations and employee OCB is high when employee will be highly motivated.

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