Organisation For Economic Co Operation And Development Countries Economics Essay
Population and migration have a close relationship because when high number of immigrant transfers to other country the number of population in the countries increases. Like OECD countries, the population of each country are not the same due to the number of immigrant go to those countries.
2.2 Population and migration: Analysis on OECD countries
The research by Michele Belot and Sjef Ederveen regarding to Cultural and institutional barriers in migration between OECD countries shows that the migration is not the way to survive in the develop countries in term of income level and the social protection. Referring on their objectives of the study, they want to test the cultural effect on OECD countries in term of migration. Besides, the analysis is made on the gross migration flows between developed countries. According to Harris and Todaro (1970), the migration decision is made by the individuals based on the income at home and destination. Besides, there is the argument by Sjaastad (1962), where cost and destination discourage individuals to make decision on migration. The migration by the individuals to the other countries will arises some barriers in term of language and the religion. This is because migration will give a very big impact to individuals.
Matthew Sanderson study on the international migration in less developed countries shows the flows of human development in the international migration. Their purpose of the study is on how the less- developed countries affects development outcomes by the international migration. According to Hatton and Williamson (2006), there is a large part produced on persistent cross-national differences in income levels in the world of the international migration. Ragin and Bradshaw (1992) and Shin (1989) from their previous study on the cross sectional, it shows there is a variety of a composite indicator to measure the employment of the human development. According to Kirk (1996), the demographic transaction shows the relationship between population and development, where it shows the shifts of the fertility and mortality with the development in the economic and the social structures. There is a high impact of migration on the developing countries where countries will face a high social change in the countries. Besides,they also facing a problem on the nationality where they enter the country without any documents. However, some of the study by Decosas and Adrien (1997) shows that immigrant may bring decease to the country that they move to.
The research from Barry Edmonston (2005) shows the study on the Germany population in term of the immigration and the population momentum. They examined that there is a high fertility on the population momentum. According to Keyfitz (1971) and the other researchers, where the fertility rates are not affects fertility population because when fertility rates were reduced to the replacement level, a high fertility population are still continue to increase.
Besides, there is an increase in life when the net of immigration is positive. From the view of the Keyfitz (1968) and Sivamurthy (1982), international migration can be included in the population modes even there is some disadvantages where there is a complicated calculation.
The population affects the number of generation s as well as reproductive the number of the population.
Jonathan D. Stringfield on the study of the populations after the disaster of the Hurricane Katrina determines the population movements that affect population characteristics. The Hurricane Katrina takes time to develop again the place that involve in that disaster. According to Tierney and Kathleen (2006), there is need some recovery on the social networks, and the material resources so that the population will increase again after the disasters. Besides, there is also effects on the environment and psychological where it need to rebuilding back all the damaged so it will benefit in the future.
Ma. Concepcion J.Cruz, Imelda Zosa-feranil and Cristela L. Goce (1988) on their study of the population pressure and migrationin the Philippine country, they focused on the migration streams. The significance in both actual number of upland dwellers in the country. There is more migrants can be attract to the places of destination at the higher literacy rates.
According to Ekrame Boubtane and Jean Christope Dumont study on the impact of immigration and economic growth in the OECD countries by using panel data. There is an increase the number of immigrant in a few decades where they can contribute to the job creations on that country. According to Chaloff and Lemaitre (2009), most of the European countries implemented programs for the immigrant to attract high skilled workers to stay and work in their countries. From the Brestchger (2001) perspective, when there is a skilled immigrant worked in the country, it will contribute to the country economics and will decrease the cost of Research and Development and can increase certain types of goods in the markets. Human capital by the migrants can bring a positive impact on economic growth.
The research by Richard H. Adams JR. And John Page on their study of the impact of international migration and remittances on the poverty in the developing world. Some problem arises on this research where there is only a few data on poverty. International migration and international remittances reduce poverty in the developing world is important because data of each of these variables are incomplete and subject to underreporting in many developing countries.
According to Giulia Bettin and Alessia Lo Turco (2008) they analyse paper of a cross country view between South – North migration and trade. They examined that labor flows are less pronounced than trade flows. From the Iranzo and Peri (2007) perspective, educated workers has allowed for the balance between cost and benefits in term of the prospect of higher rela wages and the fall in mobility costs. There in an increase the number of the migrants in the industrial countries because country needs some outside workers to work in their industry.
According to Peder F. Pederson and Mariola Pytlikova (2006), they analyse the migration differences into the OECD countries. They need to examine the driving force behind recent immigration. Borjas (1994) and Chiswick (1986; 2000), shows that there is a low social mobility for the immigrants to enter the labor market. From the source countries there is a negative impact on migration flows from unemployment.
According to Bo. Magnusson on their research of migration, demographic and economic growth concentrate on the growth aspects of population aging. Some implications will arise from the population development for economic growth. immigrants are sometimes have a difficulties t be accepted by many Western Europeans.
2.1.3 Method and analysis used by researcher in the past.
Method and the way analysis which has been used by the previous researcher are the vita l in this research and therefore it will bring great advantages in htis research especially in chapter 3 which will be discussed later.
Michele Belot and Sjef Ederveen regarding to Cultural and institutional barriers in migration between OECD countries used an indicator to measure the degree of linguistic distance between two countries by calculating the probability. Besides,
Matthew Sanderson (2009) study on the international migration in less developed countries using human development index (HDI) (UNDP 1990) to assess the impact of the international migration on human development where it combine the element of the human life. Besides, Barry Edmonston (2005) shows population dynamics in Germany, in term of the immigration and the population momentum by using stationary population equivalent model (SPE) to analyse the consequences of the international migration and current vital rates.
Mean while, Jonathan D. Stringfield study of the populations after the disaster of the Hurricane Katrina using hypothesis testing to guide the analysis. However, Ma. Concepcion J.Cruz, Imelda Zosa-feranil and Cristela L. Goce (1988) on their study of the population pressure and migrationin the Philippine country using econometric models to estimate the movement of the population.
Ekrame Boubtane and Jean Christope Dumont study on the impact of immigration and economic growth in the OECD countries by using Cobb- Douglas function and econometric analysis to find the economic growth. Richard H. Adams JR. And John Page (2005) study of the impact of international migration and remittances on the poverty in the developing world using basic growth- poverty model where this model has been suggested by Ravallion (1997) and Ravallion and Chen (1997) to estimate the international migration.
Giulia Bettin and Alessia Lo Turco (2008) study a cross country view between South – North migration and trade using OLS, WG and pooled and random effects Tobit Maximum Likelihood estimators. Peder F. Pederson and Mariola Pytlikova (2006), study the migration differences into the OECD countries by using econometrics model and OLS to find the differences. Finally, Bo. Magnusson on their research of migration, demographic and economic growth using macroeconomic production function based on Sachs & Larrain to measure the GDP.
As every of us knew that population and migration is one of the phenomenon that always happen in our world with many reasons. In this research, the event of how the situation of population and migration in some countries in OECD countries will be used in completing this research successfully. Besides, the method and analysis used by previous researcher will give a big help in this research. And this will include how migration had a strong relationship in the development of the population in every country.
2.2 Theory and model
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