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Literature Review On Reproductive Health


“When you take stuff from one writer it’s a plagiarism

But when you take it from many writers it’s a research”

Wilson Mizner

Researchers almost nerve conduct a study in an intellectual vaccum. Literature reviews can serve a number of important functions in the research process. Researchers undertake a literature review to familiarize themselves with the knowledge base. A thorough literature review helps to pay the foundation for a study, and can inspires new research ideas. Review of literature is defined as a broad, comprehensive in depth, systemic and crucial review of scholarly publication, unpublished scholarly print materials, audio visual material and personal communication.

Review of literature is arranged under the following headings.

Review related to reproductive health.

Review related to menstrual hygiene.

Review related to sexual behavior and sex education.

Review related to sexually transmitted disease and AIDS.

Review related to usage of contraceptives.

Review related to problems of visually challenged women.

Review related to reproductive health

Neelam mann., (2010) conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of a planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding puberty among pre adolescent girls in Vijaya English school at Hassan, In that study shows percentage of knowledge in each aspect puberty such as anatomy and physiology, characteristics of puberty, menstrual hygiene and sexually transmitted dieases, before planned teaching programme. Preadolescent girls are having below average knowledge on all aspects except menstrual hygiene. Over all knowledge score shows girls are having only 33.52% of knowledge before the administration of planned teaching programme. It means they are able to answer on an average 8 questions out of 25 total questions before PTP pre adolescents girls are having more than 70% knowledge on all aspects of puberty, the overall percentage of post test knowledge on different aspects of puberty after the planned teaching program, on an average adolescent girls increased 80.71% of knowledge after the planned teaching programme regarding puberty.

Kibert.M., (2009) conducted a study to assess the reproductive health knowledge, attitude and practice among high school students in Bihar Dar, Ethopia. This study was carried out to investigate the reproductive health knowledge, attitude and practice of high school students in Bihar Dar, Ethiopia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. The study revealed that the students had high level knowledge of contraceptives and where to obtain contraceptive services; however, level of use was low. Some of the reasons given for not using contraceptives include lack of access to services, carelessness, unplanned sexual intercourse and pressure from sexual partner. The study indicates that young people engage in sexual relationships at an early age without protection or with unsafe non-conventional methods. There was no significant difference between the demographic variables and contraceptive use at first intercourse. Educational level of the respondents was the only demographic variable that had significant association with sexual experience (p < 0.05). We recommend improved access to family planning information and services and family life education programme based on the needs and experience of these young people as a potential solution to alleviate their reproductive health problems.

Jyoti vinod., (2008) conducted a study to assess the effect of planned teaching programme on knowledge, attitude and practice of adolescents in relation to the reproductive health in selected shelter homes in Mumbai, among a population of 60 adolescents in that 30 boys and 30 girls who were selected by convenient sampling technique and data were collected by self reporting technique. Findings shows that pretest knowledge score is 63% and post test score is 91% with regard to knowledge changed in the adolescence was markedly increase in boys and girls from 23% and 19% to 70% and 83% respectively. So it shows the effectiveness of the teaching programme on reproductive health.

Jeyashri.G.Itti., (2007) conducted a study that to evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on selected aspects of reproductive health among the rural adolescents girls. In the pre test 69.77% of the subjects had poor knowledge, where as post test scores showed that 96.5% of subjects had good knowledge. This result related to the post test knowledge (mean 34.35) scores showed that the adolescent girls had a significantly higher score on reproductive health than the pre test (mean 21.81). The “t” value of 31.30 was significant at 0.001 level of significance and the investigator concluded overall pre test knowledge about reproductive health was poor, there was need planned teaching programme, post test result showed significant improvement in knowledge of reproductive health.

Sharddha.A, Bharti.B.M., (2006) conducted a study about reproductive health in urban slums at Mumbai. In that 200 couples interviewed, 53% males were in the 26-30yrs age group and 34% females in the 21-25 yrs age group. At the time of marriage 41% of males were below 21yrs of age and 56% of females below 18yrs. 48% males and 40% females were educated, and 26% couples had 4 children. 94% females delivered at home with the help of traditional dai. 93% had received tetanus toxoid injection during ANC period, 32% of couples didn’t have any knowledge about contraceptives and though 21% had the knowledge they did not use any contraceptive. Now it concluded there was poor utilization of the reproductive child health services provided by the government, lack of awareness regarding child health services provided by the government, lack of awareness regarding birth spacing and very low use of contraceptives.

Zulkitli., (2000) conducted a study to assess the determinants of sexual intercourse among unmarried adolescents on sexual practices in Malaysia. Overall results shows that the propotion of unmarried adolescents who have sexual intercourse is about 13% boys, (18.8%) are more likely to be sexuality experienced than girls (7.11%) by religion, Buddhist reported last experienced (6%) followed by Muslims (12%) and others (21%) for the more, 72% of adolescent engages in sex without considering the use of contraceptives. So through this study the researcher concluded that adolescents need sex education during school period as early as possible.

  Becker.H., (1997) conducted a study about the reproductive health care experiences of women with physical disabilities and how reproductive health care experiences could be improved. A qualitative interview study was conducted. Ten women, ages 28 to 47 years, with physical disabilities, including multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and paralysis, were recruited through the investigators contacts with local disability groups. Interviewees encountered numerous barriers to quality reproductive health care services, including inaccessible equipment and facilities, limited contraceptive options, health care providers insensitivity and lack of knowledge about disabilities, and limited information tailored to their needs. Providers sometimes appeared surprised that they would be sexually active, and did not ask about contraceptive use or assess for sexually transmitted diseases. Although most interviewees had private health insurance, some had problems seeing preferred providers. Accessing reproductive health care services is so difficult that some women avoid regular gynecologic visits. Suggestions for improving services included involving women with disabilities in teaching health care providers about their special needs and self-advocacy training to help disabled women become more knowledgeable partners in their own health care. Additional research should address the gaps in knowledge about the reproductive health care needs of women with disabilities. Affiliations

Corresponding Author InformationAddress reprint requests to Heather Becker, PhD, School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Austin, 1700 Red River Street, Austin, TX 78701.

Review related to menstrual hygiene.

Punitha., (2010) conducted study to assess the practice and problem in using pad or cloth during menstruation among the blind children. Research design used for the study was comparative-correlation survey. Sample size for the study was 50 blind children who used pad during menstruation and 50 blind children who used cloth during menstruation. Structure interview questionnaire used for validate the responses. In that there was a significant negative correlation between practice and problem of using cloth during menstruation r = -0.139 (p<0.05) among blind school children. There was a high significant correlation between the practice and problem while using pad during menstruation in relation to prolonged menstrual flow r = 0.874 (p = 0.043) among blind school children. When the menstrual hygienic practice is less the problem will be more. Therefore blind children need adequate education and suitable assistance to use sanitary materials to prevent problems among blind school children.

Suja., (2008) conducted a study to assess the practice and problem in using pad or cloth during menstruation among the blind school children at salem. The sample were collected in simple random method interview schedule consist of 31 items were developed. The findings shows that the problem was more among the samples using cloth (-3.600) (p<0.05) during menstruation. The study concluded by stating the implication, limitations, recommendation and the need for education among blind adolescents.

Chaste.s., (2007) conducted a study assess the effect of planned teaching programme on menstrual hygiene of female inmates of a selected jail in Mumbai. A study design is one group pre test post test design and data were collected using self reporting technique. The study finding shows that 30%, 25%, and 31% of them had knowledge about anatomy and physiology, menstrual cycle and menstrual hygiene in pre test and 86%, 84% and 88% in post test respectively.

Review related to sexual behavior and sex education

Mueller and colleagues., (2008) conducted a study about the sexual behaviour of teenagers is linked to whether or not they have had formal school sex education, from the Division of Reproductive Health at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), based in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of sex education is to give young people information and skills to make healthy and informed decisions about sex, wrote the authors. Mueller and colleagues looked at data from a survey of teenagers to examine the link between exposure to formal sex education in school and three sexual behaviours, whether the young person had ever had sexual intercourse, how old they were when they first had sexual intercourse, and the method of birth control they used at first intercourse. The data came from the nationally representative 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and covered 2019 never-married male and female participants aged 15 to 19 years. The researchers did not differentiate between sex education that advocates abstinence and sex education that teaches about contraception. Both approaches were classed as sex education. The results showed that receiving sex education was significantly linked with not having had sexual intercourse among males. Receiving sex education was significantly linked with postponing sexual intercourse until the age of 15 among males and females. For males this figure was 71 per cent more likely to postpone and for females the figure was 59 per cent more likely to postpone sex until the age of 15. Males who had received sex education in school were 2.77 more likely to use birth control the first time they had sexual intercourse. No links were found between receiving sex education and birth control use in females. These patterns differed by socio demographic group. For example, sex education was linked to a 91 per cent reduced chance of African-American female school students having sexual intercourse before they were 15.

Ogechi mary., (2008) conducted a study Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of school-going adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Study design is Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design, a randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13–19 years, Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo).main outcome was self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. A total of twenty four (24) students, drawn from a mixed sex secondary school in Ilorin Metropolis constituted the study sample. The participants completed the At-Risk Sexual Behaviour Scale (developed by the researcher) before and after the experimental programme. The instrument was formatted on a 4-point Likert type scale, consisting of two sections. The result in a significant difference existed between the scores of participants who were exposed to the treatment package and those in the control group (F=95.93; df 1/20, p<.05). Thus the treatment was found to be significant while no interaction effect was observed between treatment and gender. This implies that male and female school-going adolescents benefited from the programme. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.

Mueller., (2007) conducted a study that Sex education linked to delayed teen intercourse, new study says Sex education greatly boosts the likelihood that teens will delay having intercourse, according to a new study that is the first of its kind in years. Male teens who received sex education in school were 71 percent less likely and similarly educated female teens were 59 percent less likely to have sexual intercourse before age 15. Males who attended school, meanwhile, were 2.77 times more likely to rely upon birth control the first time they had intercourse if they had been in sex-education classes. “Sex education seems to be working,” said study lead author Trisha Mueller, an epidemiologist with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “It seems to be especially effective for populations that are usually at high risk.” The researchers found that sex education reduced by 91 percent the risk that African-American females in school would have sex before age 15. In general, however, sex education appeared to have no effect on whether female teens used birth control. According to Mueller, earlier large-scale research into the effectiveness of sex education relied on data from the 1970s to the early 1990s. Those studies suggested that sex education was not very effective at delaying sex, she said. The new study looked at a sample of 2,019 teenagers ages 15 to 19 years, who responded to a survey during a 2002 national study. The researchers analyzed the possible effects that sex education had on the sex lives of teens and adjusted the results to account for the effects of factors like the wealth of their families.

Alexandros, Joan Forrest., (2004) conducted a cross-cultural study regarding Attitudes and values in sexual behaviour and sex education among University students in Greece and Scotland describes a survey comparing university students in Greece and Scotland with regard to their attitudes to sexual development and sex education. A questionnaire was constructed in Greek and English and was completed by 436 university students in Greece and an equivalent number in Scotland. Comparative results show a tendency for students'' attitudes to converge with regard to gender identity, inter-sexual relations, appropriate forms of sexual behaviour and the factors that shape it. Differences exist regarding the aims of sex education, the concept of a sexually mature person, and the moral principles that should govern inter-sexual relations.

Cohen .p., (1994) conducted a study to assess the role of the school nurse in involving sex education. School and family planning nurses are well placed to promote high quality sex education to children and young people. Parents and teachers are often seen as authority figures where as the nurse is an independent health professional. Government guidelines encourage liaison with teachers and this article – the second in a series on sexual health gives examples of such a collaboration, as well as interviews with nurses who use innovative methods to put their message across.

Katoda.H., (1993) conducted a study to assess the Parents and teachers knowledge and attitudes to the health and sex education of young people with mental handicaps, in tokyo and stockholm. In that 41 parents and 20 teachers in stockholm and 106 parents and 111 teachers in tokyo were given a questionnaire about their knowledge and attitude towards health and sex education. Results from the study indicated that compared to parents and teachers in tokyo, parents and teachers in stockholm gave more information about health and sex to their 15-16 yrs old young people with mental handicaps. This was especially so regarding information about sex education. More parents and teachers in stockholm also had positiven attitudes towards sex and interpersonal relationaships not only for young people in general but also for young people with mental handicaps compared to parents and teachers in tokyo.

Arztl jugenkd., (1981) conducted a study to assess the problems and results of an investigation about sexual development and sexual education of blind people. The article underlines the necessity of preparing young blind people for partnership relations, married life and family life. If reports on an investigation in to the problems of psycho-sexual development and education of blind people. Unlike the psycho-sexual development, which proceeds similarly to that of people who can see, the sexual development is somewhat always delayed. The article presents the results of the investigation and analyses the questioning of blind people, their parents and teachers. It offers advice on the sexual education of young blind people.

Review related to sexually transmitted disease and AIDS

Dayalal patidar., (2010) conducted, a research is clearly needed to determine how HIV progresses in women and how HIV drugs affect womens body. However, it does seems that the HIV drugs can benefits women as much as men if women access care and treatment in a timely fashion. It is important to get tested for HIV on a regular basis. If the results are positive, it is even more important to seek ongoing medical and gynaecological care. By taking advantage of good health care and treatment, one increases chance of living a longer and healthier life.

Hanass, Hancock., (2009) conducted a study that disability and HIV/AIDS in Africa. This systematic review focuses on empirical work on disability and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the past decade and considers all the literature currently accessible. The review presents data from different surveys and summarizes the findings. In this way, it convincingly reveals that people with disabilities are very vulnerable to contracting HIV, and lack access to information, testing and treatment. The studies used a variety of methods. Fourteen studies approached the field with a qualitative approach, while seven studies used quantitative methods. Ten studies mixed their research design, using qualitative and quantitative methods. Four studies focused predominantly on literature and policy reviews, some adding a few in-depth interviews. Studies were of various sizes and used between seven and 3358 participants. The largest sample size came from an operational research in Kenya with 3358 deaf and hearing participants. While most studies focused directly on HIV/AIDS and disability, two studies were part of a more comprehensive study on reproductive health. One study accessed sexual abuse and its links to HIV and one study inquired into the social construction of disability and its links to HIV. Studies revealed that people with disabilities, with some exceptions, are aware of HIV in most countries and perceive themselves as particularly vulnerable to contracting HIV. The Ugandan survey, in which 371 people with disabilities participated, revealed that 55% of people with disabilities perceived themselves as at risk of contracting HIV. Similarly, Ngazie's study in Zimbabwe, with 67 participants in an urban area, showed that 75% of participants perceived themselves to be at risk

Scand.J., (2008) conducted a study to assess the parents and teachers communication about HIV and sex in relation to the timing of sexual initiation among young adolescents in Tanzania. Virgin primary school students were followed prospectively for 6 months to assess sexual initiation. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. 2477 adolescent, 26.9% of students reported communicated with teachers. The teachers can play an effective role in discussing HIV and sex with young adolescents. Our study highlights the necessity of responsible adults discussing sexual matters with young adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. More research required to better understand the role of parental communication about sexual matters and strategies for improving the quality of parental communication.

Welner, Sandral. MD., (2005) conducted a study to assess the Women with disabilities can and do contract sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, because of access barriers, attitudinal misconceptions, and lack of awareness of their risk status, these infections may go under or undiagnosed. To address issues regarding the treatment of women with disabilities and to suggest ways in which the patient and the provider can work together for a positive outcome. The treatment of STDs in women with disabling conditions presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to clinicians, because symptoms may be confusing and may mimic manifestations of underlying disorders. Women with spinal cord injury may be at risk for the development of autonomic activation as a sign of STDs. To enhance compliance with medication regiments, the limitations of the patient should be considered. Furthermore, women with disabilities are at high risk for sexual abuse; therefore, the presence of an STD may be of special concern. Developing good communication with the patient will enable the clinician to work with her to sort out symptoms, design therapeutic regiments, and to help protect her from abuse.

Enab, Enad., (2002) conducted a cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices of persons with sensory disabilities. A total of 96 non-randomly selected respondents were interviewed through questionnaire. Using a descriptive statistics data analysis was done. The overall result demonstrates lack of comprehensive prevention knowledge (46.6 %) as well as comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission without misconception (11.5%). Sex, age, being married or unmarried did not result similar patterns of differences in comprehensive knowledge. However, similar result patterns were found with level of education and what type of disability. Poor attitudes and practices towards protection from HIV/AIDS were also documented. Despite a very high level of belief in the severity of the AIDS disease (88.5%), those who perceived themselves of being at risk of HIV/AIDS was very low (22.9%). Consistent condom use was not common and only 58.3% of the respondents knew how to use a condom correctly. Only forty-three percent (43.8%) respondents believed in the effectiveness of consistent and correct use of condoms to prevent HIV. In general, the survey result indicates the need for intervention programs to save the lives of the visually and hearing impaired from this deadly disease (HIV/AIDS).

5. Review related to usage of contraceptives

Helena andrae, Brito., (2002) conducted a study to evaluation of possible changes in sexual behaviour in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The program is inserted within the context of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices and focuses on the positive aspects of sexuality. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. A total of 4,795 questionnaires were included in this analysis. The program succeeded in more than doubling consistent condom use with casual partners and in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68% and representing a response rate of approximately 38%. The intervention had no effect on age at first intercourse or on adolescents' engagement in sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in generating positive changes in the sexual behaviour of adolescents, while not stimulating participation in sexual activities.

Fam.s., (1998) conducted a study to assess the sexual behavior and contraceptive knowledge and use among adolescents in developing countries. This article offers an overview of sexual behavior and contraceptive knowledge and use among adolescent women across a large number of developing countries. The results demonstrate that almost universally in Sub-Saharan Africa and in the majority of countries in other regions, the gap between age at first sexual intercourse have risen, but the increase in age at marriage is greater, resulting in a widening gap. In most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, current contraceptive use is higher among sexually active, unmarried teens than its among married teens, where as in Latin, America and the Caribbean, current use levels are higher among married teens. The results also show that adolescents are unlikely to use a contraceptive the first time they have sex and are more likely than older women to experience a contraceptive failure.

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