Literature Review On Job Satisfaction And Stress
In Chapter 2, it is consists of literature review, relevant theoretical models, conceptual framework and hypotheses development. Literature review also consists of discuss and evaluate of research studies which related to research topic. The purpose of the literature review is identifying secondary data from journal and articles which related to this research topic. By this, it can evaluate the factors that affect job satisfaction in education industry.
2.1 Review of the Literature
The research topic is evaluating the factors that affect job satisfaction in education industry. The dependent variable for this research is job satisfaction while the independent variable for this research is pay and benefit, stress, relationship, training and moderating variable is demographic.
2.1.1 Job Satisfaction
According to A. Solucis Santhapparaj and Syed Shah Alam, 2005, there are few variables to determine job satisfaction key factors such as age, gender, education status, hours of work and earnings figure. Those variables that significant influence on job satisfaction likes age, marital status, number of children, education level and experience.
Job satisfaction is describes how content an individual is with his or her job. People are happy with their job are those who more satisfying their job. People are always measure job satisfaction because if lack of job satisfaction, the employer will lose good skill employees, Mohsin Nadeem, 2010.
According to Chan, M. J., Pan, Z. D., and Lee, L. F. F., 2004, job satisfaction define as individual’s values, ideals and beliefs which can influence employee’s overall assessment of his or her job and job related experiences.
Other author John O. Okpara, 2006 define job satisfaction as a person’s constructive poignant response to certain job and a person compare actual outcomes with those that are desired, anticipated or deserved lead to affective reaction to a job.
Based on In-Sook Lee, n.d., job satisfaction is describes as quality of job by objective condition and subjective attitude of job. In addition, it is vital to identify factors that affect job satisfaction and differences of job satisfaction in order to understand the major factor that affects job satisfaction.
Badreya Al Jenaibi, 2010, job satisfaction can affect employees’ initiative and enthusiasm. When lack of job satisfaction, it will cause absenteeism and turnover in a workplace.
In addition, factors that influence job satisfaction in work environment relate with 7 dimensions such as work itself, supervision, organization and management, promotion, pay and benefits, coworkers and working condition, Green, W. H., 2002.
Badreya Al Jenaibi, 2010 also mention that in order to increase job satisfaction must take few steps which are increase creativity, responsibility, safe work environment, feedback and support from manager, update technology and competitive salary and promotion opportunity.
2.1.2 Pay and benefit
Saif-ud-Din, Khair-uz-Zaman and Allah Nawaz, 2010, found that pay is first and primary factor for job satisfaction. Based on Naval, B. and Srivastava, D., 2004, fair pay system is connected with job satisfaction.
According to A. Solucis Santhapparaj and Syed Shah Alam, 2005, it state that fringe benefits have negative effect on job satisfaction because for those private self finance school, the management more focus on student’s satisfaction but not on job satisfaction.
John O. Okpara, 2006 found that female receive low pay will lead to low satisfaction with their pay than male and it follow by decrease in job satisfaction. Beside, author also found that female low satisfy with the opportunity for promotion. Therefore, promotion policy should based on objective evaluation of performance and performance evaluation should fair and unbiased. By this, it can encourage employee’s performance and lead to high level of job satisfaction and high level of productivity.
Luis Diaz-Serrano and Jose A. Cabral Vieira, 2005 mention that job can divide into good job and bad job. A good job is having good condition and high wages and it can lead to high job satisfaction. While a bad job is having bad condition and low wages which can cause low job satisfaction.
According to Sarfraz Ahmad, Imran Ali, Kashif ur Rehman, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Waseemullah, 2010, fair pay should give based on employees work description and without discrimination in pay system in order to increase job satisfaction.
On the other hand, Leontaridi, R., and Sloane, P., 2001 found out those low pay employees with high level of job satisfaction compare with high pay employees. Hence, low pay employees will get compensation in different form like non pecuniary benefits.
Based on Mount, M., Ilies, R., and Johnson, E., 2006, in order to increase job satisfaction, employers should provide wages that similar to other position in the industry and same as benefits that they provide such as insurances, retirement contributions and attractive time-off packages.
Kartinah Ayupp, Tiong, M. N., 2011 define workplace stress as when there is a conflict between job demands placed on the employees and the amount of control he or she has over meeting those demands, this can cause physical, psychological and behavioral responses.
According to Choo, S., Christine Bowley, 2007, the higher level of job satisfaction when the individual’s work environment is suitable values, personal characteristics or needs. Level of job satisfaction is related to work environment such as culture, custom and others. When there is new policy or objectives or procedures in a workplace, it will lead to work environment changes, Kartinah Ayupp, Tiong, M. N., 2011. Therefore, if the work environment change is not suitable personal needs will lead to low satisfaction while if the work environment change is suitable personal needs will lead to high satisfaction.
Saif-ud-Din, Khair-uz-Zaman and Allah Nawaz, 2010 noted that employees are more prefer job that provide them opportunity to use their ability, skill, freedom, perform variety of tasks and get feedback from employer. While job that has little challenge will create boredom and job that has over challenge will create frustration and feeling of failure. Therefore, people will experience pleasure and satisfaction under moderate challenge of job.
According to Burke, R. J., 1998 report that high level in job insecurity will lead to low level of job satisfaction and quit from job. Hence, Probst, M. T. and Brubaker, T. L., 2001 mention that high level of job insecurity will affect employee psychological behavior and health relate with accident and injury. Therefore, if high level of job insecurity such as work under dangerous condition, employee will feel unsecure with the job and cause low performance and job dissatisfaction. Beside, employer should provide employment security to employees so that they can work peacefully in order to increase job satisfaction, Sarfraz Ahmad, Imran Ali, Kashif ur Rehman, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Waseemullah, 2010.
According to Kartinah Ayupp and Kong, W., 2010, relationship such as boss, subordinate has positive relationship with stress. Hence, if boss keep on give pressure such as set unattainable goal to subordinate, it will lead to stress, low performance and follow by not satisfy with their job.
Kartinah Ayupp, Tiong, M. N., 2011 also mention that weak stress management will lead to job dissatisfaction, feeling of disengagement from the job and low job performance. In order to increase job satisfaction, the authors recommend that employers should provide clear job scope, enough social support and open communication to reduce employees stress and increase job satisfaction.
According to Saif-ud-Din, Khair-uz-Zaman and Allah Nawaz, 2010, leader should leading, coordinating and directing to their subordinate, so they can achieve goals, objectives and produce the desired outcome as well as quality of work within the desired time. Therefore, the working group that has democratic style is high level of job satisfaction than the working group that has autocratic leadership.
Saif-ud-Din, Khair-uz-Zaman and Allah Nawaz, 2010 noted that performance and job satisfaction can positively affect by good social and working relation between coworkers. Hence, Naval, B. and Srivastava, D., 2004 state that in order to increase in job satisfaction, there should increase in feeling of belongingness and coordination between employees as well as open communication. Hiroyuki, Kato and Ohashi, 2007 as cited in Saif-ud-Din, Khair-uz-Zaman and Allah Nawaz, 2010 also state that relationship with coworkers and supervisors are related to satisfaction.
According to Graen, G. B., and Uhi-Bien, M., 1995, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory can explain about quality of relationship between supervisors and subordinates. Another author Epitropaki, O., and Martin, R., 2005, shows that leader-member exchange (LMX) theory has positive relationship with job satisfaction. Those subordinates in high quality leader-member exchange with supervisors categorize by emotional support and trust and it lead to increase job performance and job related communication, preferential treatment, get reward and others. While subordinate in low quality leader-member exchange with supervisors and lead to low level of emotional support, trust, job performance, reward and others, Dienesch, R. M., and Liden, R. C., 1986. Thus, this entire are relate to job satisfaction and performance as well as turnover, Gerstner, C. R., and Day, D. V, 1997.
Based on Thomas Sy, Susanna Tram and Linda A. O’Hara, 2006, employees’ emotional intelligent and manager’s emotional intelligent have positive relationship with job satisfaction. When employees’ emotional intelligent is high and it will lead to job satisfaction is high because they able to appraise and regulate their emotion such as identify cause of stress and ways to reduce stress. In addition, employees with high level of emotional intelligent, they can use their ability to help others manage their emotion, thus, and it can increase all employees toward high job satisfaction. When employees’ emotional intelligent is low and it will lead to job satisfaction is low because they will not clear about cause of stress and unable to identify the ways to reduce stress, so their level of stress will increase and follow by low job satisfaction. In the same way, manager’s emotional intelligent is high and it will lead to job satisfaction is high. If employees having low emotional intelligent, manager that having high emotional intelligent able to help them manage their emotions such as understand their needs and increase employees’ emotional intelligent as well as increase their job satisfaction. In addition, the author also mention that some employees are may not require as much as emotional support from their managers as others.
According to Badreya Al Jenaibi, 2010, when employees are familiar with their workgroups and managers as well as trust them to give empowerment, it only will increase their job satisfaction.
Mohsin Nadeem, 2010 state that training is a fundamental and effective instrument that helps to achieve the organization goals and objectives because training can improve employee’s skill and knowledge as well as experience, employees will know his or her job well, adapt to organization changes, up to date about new technology and others.
Besides, Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J., 1991 state that training have direct or indirect effect on employee motivation and organizational commitment. Training can also help to reduce employee’s anxiety or frustration, increase ability and bring on by work demand, Chen, T. Y., Chang, P. L., and Yeh, C. W., 2004. In addition, Tsai et al, 2010 as cited in Mohsin Nadeem, 2010, state that high level of job satisfaction with positive effect on performance for those employees committed to learning. Therefore, training is a tool use to increase job satisfaction, Rowden, R.W., and Conine, C.T. Jr. If employees do not have training, they will feel themselves left alone by organization and this will cause job dissatisfaction and turnover, Mohsin Nadeem 2010.
Based on Choo, S., Christine Bowley, 2007, training has positive influence on employee’s productivity and it lead to high level in customer and employee satisfaction. Organization must provide a trainer with high knowledge, supportive and experience as well as courses are well design, achievable and learning experience, so the employee will satisfy with the training and it lead to high level of job satisfaction as well. On the other hand, lack of training can lead to shorten employment tenure, frustration and job dissatisfaction, Industrial and Commercial Training, 2002.
According to A. Solucis Santhapparaj and Syed Shah Alam, 2005, female is high level in job satisfaction than male because female is enjoying their working condition and low expectation in term of salary or promotion.
On the other hand, Hulin, C., and Smith, P., 1964 found that female low level in job satisfaction than male. Hence, female are get low pay and low satisfaction with their pay, it lead to low job satisfaction, Lumpkin, J.R., and Tudor, K., 1990.
John O. Okpara, 2006, state that work experience has direct relationship to job satisfaction. If a person with more experience, he or she can apply their experience in that job, so it can increase their performance and lead to job satisfaction, Decker, P., and Borgen, F., 1993.
Rogers, R., 1991 found that education level has positive relationship with job satisfaction. High education employee will lead to high job satisfaction while low education employee will lead to low job satisfaction, Falcone, S., 1991, because high educated employees with more knowledge which they can apply in their job, it can increase their performance and job satisfaction. Organization should encourage employees to pursue higher level of education by offer scholarship or grants to them, so it can increase their education level and lead to job satisfaction.
Clark, A. E., 1997 report that gender differences in job satisfaction are related with the 7 affective factors such as promotion, wages, relation with supervisors, job stability, initiative, work content and working hours. Based on this author, he state that although female working condition, working status and others are worse than mane but female has high level of job satisfaction compare with male. This is because female employees face conflict in patriarchal system but their work are affect positively in sense of self-achievement and self-actualization although their working condition and pay are worse, Bang, Hanam, 2000.
Other author Sloane, P.J., and Williams, H., 1995 show that 63% of male complain their wages are low but only 48% of female complain their wages are low although female are really pay very low wages.
Lee, Suae and Jungran Kim, 1998 state that normally female low satisfaction towards job is cause by discrimination against female, low pay and low opportunity.
In-Sook Lee, n.d, state that in term of job fitness, the better fitness of education for male and the better fitness of skill for female will lead to high level of job satisfaction. Therefore, employers should provide a safe working condition for female and male employees to work and provide suitable job to male that based on their education as well as provide suitable job to female based on their skill.
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