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International Human Resource And Management Policies Commerce Essay

This dissertation tries to find the different factors considered by an employee for his career growth, reliability and job satisfaction as an expatriate. It also inputs the research on how the employers have made the necessary improvement in International Human Resource Management strategies for facilitating their expatriate workforce. In the present world of Globalization various organizations are in much need of a good team of expatriates for proper functioning and maximizing their profits for their International business performance. The performance of any International organization is highly dependent on their workforce. Experienced workforce play a key role in development and reliability of an International organization.

For providing better opportunities in career growth and reliability for their workforce International Organizations have enhanced their traditional approaches of International Human Resource Management.

I have chosen this area of research to find innovative approaches in International Human Resource Management policies for various organizations that bridge the gaps between management and employees.

Organization Background:

There is no specific organization or business which will provide the perfect scenario about the expatriate culture completely. Considering various international businesses such as international airline business, International hotel management, International tourism organizations and various other International businesses can provide the different factors influencing the expatriate life cycle. The different International Human Resource Management policies followed by International Business Organizations can provide the crucial and important factors on which the expatriate life cycle depends and concludes the elements effecting both workforce and organization in their growth, reliability and profit efficiency.

Elucidate for chosen topic:

In the present business organizations are highly tending towards globalization this research will provide the various factors influencing for the growth, improvement and maintenance for International workforce which is one of the major assets for the organization in their growth and reliability. How present International Human Resource Management policies can be improved if possible to increase career growth and job reliability of an expatriate like selection, recruitment and training.

Statement of the problem:

To find improved International Human Resource Management policies to decrease the present factors influencing expatriate life cycle for growth and reliability in different organization.

Research Design:

Following are the tasks or components to be considered for research designing:

Finding various factors needed for research (information gathering).

Research on influence of factors (information binding).

Selection of method of data collection through primary and secondary source.

Selection of appropriate sampling process and sampling size.

Planned Analysis for the data collected.

Research Questions:

How many times have you been selected for abroad assignments?

Are you happy with your selection? Why?

How many years have you been working abroad?

Does your job affect your family life?

How do you grade your organization's training method provided before sending you for an abroad assignment on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 being the least?

How much the training helped you and your family?

Are you satisfied with the training provided?

Does cultural diversity affect your expatriate life?

Have you been given proper compensation for your repatriation?

Research Objectives:

The main idea behind research is to find different factors affecting the expatriate in their job satisfaction and what are the different International Human Resource Management policies followed to overcome these factors and their influences. Can any changes or improvements needed in International human resource management policies for increasing satisfaction level for expatriates.

Literature Review:

Development of globalization has increased in the present business environment increasing large number of deficit in International workforce. An international organization in the present world has to maintain a high level of International Human resource management policies to develop and maintain their workforce which can be referred as "expatriates". As the new global economy has had experienced a slight change to the way the international operations are undertaken and the way they are structured and the change also has had an impact on their available labour market and the need for skilled labour force for staffing solutions. Looking back, nearly two decades ago Laurent (1986) significantly has had an observation that "if the stream of human resource management is still in a nascent stage, then international human resource management will still be regarded at an early stage of infancy wherein there needs to more transitional changes for the development of the international human resource management". This also exhibits the tendency of contributing to the existing theories by having a more developed and a contemporary perspective which would more precisely reflect the vision and guide to the international human resource management and the need for the change to bring in some international policies and procedures in place, which would have some more suggestions for the development towards to the management of global and international employees and provide and contemporary approach towards solving the complex situations which arise in the human resource management practice, more specifically in the expatriation areas of development. This international human resource management has forged from human resource management due to current required international workforce in the rapidly growing globalization business environment. In 1997 the studies on International workforce by Frazee .V. (1997) estimated 20% of expatriates abandon their organization within a timescale of one year and increases nearly half of the expatriates leave their organization in three years timescale. The survey in 2006 done by Vogel, A J for University of Pretoria explained the decline or failure of expatriate assignments respondent due to family adjustments are 65%, 45% due to their spouse's career and 53% due to spousal resistance where 37000 MNC' were in business worldwide controlling 200,000 foreign affiliates with 73 million workforce. For retrieving their experienced workforce the organizations has to implement more effective International human resource management policies which not only give their employees high level of skills but also provide high level of job satisfaction good career growth, family adjustments opportunities and job reliability. The organizations have to find out the different factors influencing expatriate life cycle. The earlier theories have also generally concurred that all the expatriates were normally home country staff and employees where most of them were part of management team or technically trained staff who were assigned different tasks of operations by their multinational companies to offshore client work places usually foreign most of them overseas and were located in a different cultural and geographical locations for longer periods of time due to non-availability of staffing solutions to recall the employees back due to either shortage of staff or due to shortage of skilled labour. Further down, some studies have revealed the process of expatriation as proportionately involving considerable amount of hardship for the expatriates and also the people who have joined as families when the expatriates are on their overseas trips.most importantly, the hardship as described for international relocation would also have the demand for quite considerable amount of financial compensation or remuneration to help facilitate the more number of Western expatriates to accept these assignments which could be either short-term or long-term. Most expatriation also resembles and assumes that relocating to either overseas or onshore geographical locations is always proportionately problematic which never can be compared based on the grounds on similar cultural or socioeconomic circumstances to either the home country or the relocation atmosphere. It also undermines the socioeconomic gap in terms of culture, alienation and hardship and therefore is more likely to receive similar package compensation for relocation to a completely different geographical areas and supporting a strong nexus to the contemporary realities of business and the international assignments, financial compensation and the hardships.

Globalization as a context which would emerge in the increased use of expatriates is more likely challenged both empirically and logically in view of the adaptability of having a change for the realities in international business and the staff which would be engaged in terms of globally effective organization will likely to be more acceptable on the international level of business. Globalizing trends would result in staff which would be engaged both locally and internationally thereby will have requisite knowledge and the level of skill required for an expatriate to relocate globally.

The other common factor about expatriation is that there are quite considerable amount of changes in organizational structures and the management relations with their counterparts both with overseas operations more appropriately a combination of quicker and more accessible communication and the demand for the quite different staffing solutions as described as part of the cutting-edge technology. Hailey's comments (1996:32) suggested 'expatriates are potentially counter-productive and also disruptive but also an expensive hangover from the Colonial era'.

Insignificantly, most number of multinational companies would try to retain their skilled labour force and will continue to do so as the expatriates within their international structure of operational management for control purposes, because of their skill and knowledge in less developed countries, but the International Human Resource Management theory would also need to incorporate new strategies and forms of international staff to increase or broaden its focus for more effective and efficient staffing solutions as per need of the organization structure for developing their infrastructure and trading business across the global arena.

The common factors that influence the expatriate life cycle are

Career growth.

Job satisfaction.

Adaptation in foreign country.

Family and spouse adjustments.

Working environment.

Compensation and benefits.

Job reliability.

Apart from these the personal factors for expatriate failure there are other factors which also include measuring of performance under par for international assignment. The expatriate failure can also be influenced by repatriation difficulties especially the parent company ignoring the value of skills developed by the expatriate in the international job experience. The author Bluntly suggested "expatriates are not only expensive hangover to an organization but can be counter-productive and disruptive for the organizations for their International assignments".

The four common areas for managing expatriates in various international organizations are

Selection and training of expatriates.

Compensation and career planning for an expatriate.

The family and spouse adjustment facilities.


The International organizations have to implement such International human resource management policies which lower the hardship for expatriate and their families. There is very small evidence of literature available which provides the proper improvements and implementation done in following areas by International organization.

The aim of the research work is mainly based to find innovative International Human Resource Management Policies based on the factors influencing the expatriate life cycle which can provide high level of flexibility for the expatriates for effective job performance and improve their career growth and job reliability. These policies not only improve the work performance of an employee but also improve their family and spouse adjustments in foreign environment. The International Human Resource Management has to corporate innovative ways of selection, recruitment and training for their international staffing for their long term run with effective utilization of their expatriate's experience for more benefits with their hands-on understanding of International business working in cultural diversity for long-term and short-term profitability and growth of the organization. Morris et al(1997) has mentioned the modern globalization market has changed the trend of expatriates not only includes senior managers but also increasingly gave scope to project supervisors, specialist technical staff for international exposure so the modern International Human Resource Management policies implemented by the organization must be effectively flexible to accommodate these all new era of expatriates. The organizations which are effective in proper utilization of the available 'talent pool' will be definitely be more profitable and more efficient in this globalization era and the others will be left behind. For International organizations it costs more over selection, training and development for maintaining and retaining international workforce but in the long run it also yields lot of benefits

And provide flexibility of their workforce in different environments. For reliability and proper functioning of this workforce the organization has to implement different methods of approach to increase satisfaction of its employees like performance appraisal, compensation and benefits, proper family and spouse adjustment facilities and good repatriation benefits. The organization while selecting the expatriate have to be keen on following personal characteristics of their employee like expatriate cultural sensitivity, his willingness to accept the intercultural challenges, his empathy towards other culture associates and being culturally prepared for overseas assignment which will also define the potentiality of the selective employee.

Research Methodology:

The research methodology will be consisting of a survey for designing a questionnaire. Then the questionnaire survey will be carried out by email and personnel interaction. The email responses will eradicate the respondents from their physical location as most of relevant data is dependent on various physical locations of the respondents. In the research methodology the background for the respondents company will be generated and the most effective expatriate human resource management policies and practices followed by their organization will be compared along with the data provided by the respondents from which the factors or problems that are effecting expatriates and the areas in which scope of improvement in International Human Resource management policies for different organizations can be identified. (Creswell, J., 2003). 

Data Collection Methods:

The research includes collection of both primary and secondary data which are essential for the research. Primary data will be generally collected from the respondents which will provide a proper understanding of various factors influencing the expatriates life cycle.

Secondary data is collected from journals, articles, international surveys and international organization websites will provide the understanding of present International Human Resource Management policies followed by different organizations.

Sampling Methods:

The research will include sampling size of 20-30 expatriates and on the basis of the respondent's feedbacks along with their organization background various suggestions and conclusions can be done.

Purposive sampling and authoritative sampling method can be used as we are considering specific individuals with their organization background. The information gathered from probabilistic sampling method cannot be properly utilized in our research.

Data Analysis:

After the collection of primary data and secondary data and representing the analysis using the data with various data analysis tools like pie charts, line or bar graphs would be able to identify the various factors effecting and can recommend necessary changes to be implemented for eradication for various problems faced in the present situation by the expatriates due to different International Human Resource Management policies.

Resources Required:

The secondary data collection from various literatures, articles, journals on different International Human Resource Management policies which are been followed by different International organizations. Primary data to be collected from different expatriates containing their job satisfaction and their suggestions on areas which has to be improved for their job satisfaction.

Time Scale:

The time required to carry the desired research for successful completion of the dissertation will be around 50 to 60 days. During this time scale the collection and analysis of primary data and secondary data can be done for different recommendations and suggestions that can be implemented in different areas of International Human resource management policies for improving performance and reliability of the organization's workforce.

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