Health and Safety in Sohar Aluminum
Occupational health and safety is a cross disciplinary area worried with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people occupied in wok or employment. The objective of all occupational health and safety programs is to foster a safe work environment. The second effect it may also protect co-workers family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities and other members of the public who are impacted by the work place environment. It may initial interactions between several subject areas, including occupational medicine, public health, safety engineering, health physics, environment health and occupational health technology. 
Reasons for health and safety:
There are several reasons for establishing good occupational health and safety standards and these are:
Moral and it is mean an employee should not have to risks damage or death at work nor should others connected with the work environment. Second is economic and it is mean several governments understand that poor occupational health and safety performance result in cost of the state for instance, through social security payments to the incapacitated, costs for medical treatment and the loss of the employability of the worker. Employing organizations also maintain costs in the event of an incident at work such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, lost production and lost goodwill from the workforce from customers and from the wider community. The last one is legal and it is mean occupational requirements may be reinforced in civil law and criminal law it is accepted that without the additional encouragement of possible regulatory action or litigation, several organizations would not act upon their implied moral obligations. 
The occupational safety and health act:
The passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) dramatically changed the role that HRM must play in resulting that the physical working con dictions meet sufficient. What the Civil Rights act did to alter the organization obligation to assenting action. The OSH Act has done to change the organization health and safety programs. OSH Act legislation established complete and specific health standards, authorized examination ensure the standards are met empowered the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to police organization compliance, and employers to keep of records of sickness and injuries, and to calculate accident ratios. The Act applies to almost every U.S business occupied in throughway ratios. Those organizations not meeting the throughway business criteria of OSH Act are generally covered by state occupational safety and health laws. The safety and health standards the OSH Act established are fairly complex. Standards live for such varied condition as noise levels, air impurities, physical protection equipment, the height of toilet partitions, and the correct size of ladders. Moreover, OSHA researches repetitive stress injuries, problems associated with the strain that accompanies video display fatal use and problem of needle sticks in health care activities, and develops training and education programs for businesses. Decenzo and Robbins, (2002).
The key legislation moving the values of the OSH framework is the work place safety and health act (WSHA). By requiring stakeholder to take rationally feasible events that ensure the safety and health of all individual pretentious in the course of work, the WSHA emphasizes the importance of managing workplace safety and health. There are several key reforms under the WSHA comprise:
To cover all workplace, allowing for gradual increase in scope.
Assigning responsibilities to a variety of stakeholders at the workplace along line of control.
Focusing more on WSH system and outcomes.
Providing for more effectual enforcement during the issuance of corrective orders.
Providing for higher penalties for non acquiescent and risk taking behavior to stop accidents at the basis. 
Literature review for health and safety issues:
According to Thomason and Pozzebon, “Determinants of firm workplace health and safety and claims management practices”. In 1995 the authors inspect workplace health and safety practices and workers reward claim management at some 450 Quebec firms. An analysis controlling for factors such as firm size and risk of damage finds that experience rated employers those whose workers recompense insurance premiums were joined to their own injury rates were more likely than non experience rated employers to implement measures to stop workplace injury and illness. They also were more likely to engage in violent claims management that is practices for reducing damages costs by means other than illness and injury avoidance such as hurrying the injured worker's demanding claims. These double efforts emerge to have resulted in a reduction in injury claims. There is also proof of a systematic relationship between salary and recompense cost reduction strategy with high wage firms more likely than low wage firms to highlight improvement of health and safety over claims management.
According to Lyndon, 2007 “ Secrecy and Access in an Innovation Intensive Economy: Reordering Information Privileges in Environmental, health, and safety law”. This article observes the law worried with admission to information that is commercially precious when it is reserved covert but is also necessary to environmental health, and safety (EHS) risk assessment. EHS law motivates sustainable economic activity including new technologies and thus complements scholar belongings law. Admission to EHS information is necessary to risk management but current revelation obligations are unclear as the law is a patchwork of familiar but ill fitting notions and entitlements. The article discusses the current law that affects revelation taking into account recent changes in the technological and economic scenery. It also describes the contrasting uses of EHS information in risk management and in profitable rivalry. When the nervousness between profitable uses of information and EHS risk management are viewed in context the necessary functions and the value of EHS revelation become obvious. The article draws the outlines of a realignment of the relationship between the two interests in the information. It concludes that rather that balance the two competing interests, the law should make clear that EHS revelation is the general rule and should allow only very limited nondisclosure human rights to protect emerging innovations.
According to Philo, 2007. “Health and safety rights and transnational liability for harm”. Safety and health is essential human need and when not met correct costs that stop societies from realizing development goals. Damage is increasing as a leading cause of death and disability. As the result of advances in public health knowledge and safety engineering technology accidents and other damage proceedings are often avoidable. Injuries result from identifiable determinants and conditions that generate revelation to identifiable hazards. By controlling hazards, the tax of damage can be reduced. International trade and investment can create conditions that increase or reduce the global damage weight. International organization and national governments face the question of how to protect safety and health rights and reduce the damage weight in a world of increasingly global business activity. International institutions do not yet provide complete regulation for exported harms. In common law nations, liability through formal law plays an important role in regulating conditions that can guide to damage. In such nations, private law can play an important role in satisfying segments of the regulatory hole relating to exported harms.
According to Nkowani, (2008) “Injury Unto Death, Occupational Health and safety Regulation: The case of Malawi”. One way of achieving this is through social regulation of the market of which OHS regulation is a species. Any business that wants to preserve a competitive recommend in the labor market needs to encourage and improve its OHS practice. In this discussion we look at this issue in the context of Malawi and suggest a method ahead for Malawi that balances social and economic policy and delivers worth and social progress. The pursuit for labor for something to be done in terms of working and living conditions is gathering impetus and the framework through which is achieved is that of Occupational health and safety (OHS). They require for corporate social responsibility is premised on the idea that economic endeavor and sustainable development need protecting the welfare, health and safety of the workforce and the environment. 
Sohar Aluminum Company profile:
Sohar Aluminum Company is important in the Middle East and has a lot of partners in different countries. Sohar aluminum is a primary aluminum to produces Ingots-27.3 kg; sows-700kg and hot metal to local downstream partners reduce energy. and use the powder and mix with other chemical compounds to produce aluminum liquid then put in big templates in ovens in more 660 degrees C (1220 degrees F) to make ingots. 
The health and safety issues in Sohar Aluminum Company:
The main purpose of Health and Safety is very simple – to protect people from harm. These people might be ministers, pastors, leaders, employees, volunteers, visitors, friends groups, congregation members or contractors. People could suffer an injury, suffer from ill-health because of the work they do or be affected by an emergency such as a fire in a building.
As we all knew in any workplaces there are a lot of and different types of hazards such as:
There are two type of effect on the human body include:
Non-Audio effects include:
The difficulty of the conversation.
Lack of ability to focus and mental performance of the business.
Lack of ability to focus and business performance muscle.
Hit a balancing damage.
Audio effects include:
Partial loss of hearing.
Deaf vocational any progressive decrease in the efficiency of the audio of the individual show consistently higher than the noise intensity the universally recognized (85 db).
Heat high temperature: The normal temperature of basic organ human is (37C- 98.4 F) and the other organ depending on the activity in the workplace, also it’s able for example skin and muscles to work in low and high level of temperature (37C ).The effects of high temperature on the body Increase the rate of loss of body salts and affect the overall activity and the inability to concentrate at work and cold, leading to illness and having to wear heavy clothes that hinder movement and efficiency.
Effects on employees:
Aluminum dust is an eye and respiratory tract irritant in humans. Soluble aluminum salts are irritants when inhaled as aerosols. Although inhalation of aluminum powder of particle size 1.2 um, given over 10- or 20-minute periods several times weekly resulted in no adverse health effects among thousands of workers over several years, several other studies report X-ray evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. Some patients on long-term hemodialysis develop speech disorders, dementia, or convulsions. This syndrome is associated with increased concentration of aluminum in serum, brain, muscle, and bone. There is some evidence that Alzheimer's disease may be linked to aluminum content in the body. Analysis of the aluminum content in the brains of persons dying from Alzheimer's have shown increased levels, although brain aluminum levels vary greatly. A second correlating factor is that neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been identified in both aluminum encephalopathy and in Alzheimer's disease .However; it has been shown that the NFTs produced by the two conditions are structurally and chemically different and that NFTs are present in several other neurological disorders. It appears that the aluminum content of the brain is less an issue relating to exposure to aluminum than an issue of a blood-brain barrier defect or compromise of some kind
Signs and symptoms of exposure:
1. Acute exposure:
Acute exposure to aluminum dust has resulted in eye irritation.
2. Chronic exposure:
The signs and symptoms of chronic exposure to aluminum metal dust include shortness of breath, weakness, and cough.
The Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected, used, and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with aluminum. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., gloves, sleeves, encapsulating suits).
To evaluate the use of PPE materials with aluminum, users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations.
Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve aluminum.
Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long, minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent, caustic, or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes.
Workers should wear work uniforms, coveralls, or similar full-body coverings that are laundered in each day. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk.
Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness.
Should reduce time limit and give extra break for employees to take more rest until to try produce more and more.
Should give the workers or employees a lot of salt intake or drink salt water or some salt in the form of tablets to compensation the human body from salts and water which the human body loses them by the heat.
In conclusion the key legislation moving the values of the OSH framework is the work place safety and health act (WSHA). By requiring stakeholder to take rationally feasible events that ensure the safety and health of all individual pretentious in the course of work, the WSHA emphasizes the importance of managing workplace safety and health. Add to that, Sohar Aluminum Company is one of great company in Oman. It respect for environment .And it has many hazards and risk so should any company has HSE officer that help the company and the people who works there to be in safety and try to prevent any hazards can be occur in the company ,also available clean environmental places. And make a checklist to know any problems and try to fixed and put solution for them.
The reference page:
Bernardin, H and Russell, B, (1998), Human Resource Management, Second edition, US.
Channing.J & Ridley.J, 2008, Safety at work 7th edition, PH is imprint of Elsevier publisher.
Decenzo,D and Robbins, S. (2002), Human resource management, seventh edition, USA.
Dessler,G, ( 2003), Human Resource Management, Ninth edition, New Jersy, USA.
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