To Develop And Identify Appropriate Leadership Styles Management Essay
The workforce is generally (should be) regarded as one of the keys - if not the key - to an organization’s success. An effective HR policy is one of the keystones of corporate
strategy, and some even regard it as the cornerstone. Instruments such as lecruitmeni,
selection, job grading, remuneration system and training combine to form a personnel
policy that ensures a workforce with the right levels of skills and motivation. The more
effectively these instruments are implemented and combined, the better they serve the
aims of tbe organization (Boselie and Paauwe, 2()04; Purcell. 2004).
There have has been major changes of internal Leadership within the company under owner ship of Kingspan, the Kingspan acquisition took place in 1997, with the introduction of site based Kingspan directors the Management structure was broadly the same, over the years as the Company has grown rapidly with senior Directors moving into other newer companies within the group.
Prior to the buy out by Kingspan in 1997, the site was a direct competitor of Kingspan Initially the Ward name was retained at Sherburn site and was ran as a separate division. Over the years the since 2004 the site has moved under the umbrella of the Kingspan Panels Division, at the end of 2009 all remaining operations are now part of the panels division.
During this time the main focus of attention has been the 2 main Composite Production Lines, although the site has always produced a large variety of Products compared to other production site in the division, undoubtedly Composite panels is Kingspan core business expertise both in Manufacturing and Sales. There is emphasis on internal results comparing KPI, Overheads, Profit, from each site.
The aim of this Leadership Assignment is to reflect on the current of Leadership styles focusing on the 2 Composite Panels Production Lines at the Sherburn facility. A typical shift consists of 12 operatives inclusive of the Team Leader. During the last 18 months there has been a reduction from 6 shifts to 3 to reflect the output required during the economic downturn. A Production Manager and Team Leader from this area were successful in gaining internal promotion to Operations Manager and Production Manager in the Company’s recent Florida acquisition in the USA. The Operations Manager with the Company for the last 10 years has also taken a post of Operations Director in Australia. Another of the most experienced Team Leaders has been on secondment to plants in Australia and Belgium during the recent economic slow down Although no Team Leaders were made redundant in this production area, these 2 production lines are the most significant areas of the site. The core number of permanent employees on the panels lines now stands at 36, this is equivalent to 3 full time shifts, The lines are currently running 4 shifts the extra people been made up by agency employees.. There are now signs of economic improvement the opportunity for growth seems a realistic, however the company should consider the options and plans for moving forward particularly with losing key people due to redundancy and internal promotion. Due to our Operations Managers move to Australia, the site now has an Operations Director with overall responsibility for the whole site and 2 others sites in the Midlands.
The turbulence over the last 12 months does not seem to have an adverse effect on Team Leader moral, although there are frustrations due to working with lower numbers per shift; the Shifts have become more flexible to move personnel between the 2 lines to maintain labour variances targets and kpi. How ever we have relied on promotion from within to fill the Team Leader role the concern is we have simply run out of good people to promote, in summary time to review our current Leadership styles what can we improve, why do we need to change, what do we require for the future, what have we learnt over from our current Team Leaders. The company has had the foresight to invest and grow over the years but with no policy for Team Leader recruitment outside the business this policy has given the people the opportunity to advance themselves within the company, and has been successful, but the time for change is evident to the senior management team, as there is a concern at the perceived lack of suitable people to move up the ladder. Again partly due to the somewhat short term view of a almost a complete embargo on staff recruitment over the last few years in the production arena, relying heavily on Agency staff.
The effectiveness of leadership depends on the combination of the following:
The leader follower relationship
Task structure and certainty
The leader's formal position and power
‘Where the leader follower relations are good, the task is well defined and highly structured, and the leader has a high level of formal power, the leadership situation will be most favourable’ - Fielder (1984
No 2 Literature Review 1100 words:
Following a brief introduction paragraph to the literature section, outlining the structure you'll use,
use a table to group all the theories you consider worth mentioning.
In the table you can outline, briefly, the focus of each of the theories,
do ensure you reference each fully and formally.
Have only one or two sentences per theory.
Tables are especially useful for this as they are not included in the word count.
Following the table (ensure you put a 'number' and 'title' underneath it) you can go into more detail about the theory(s) you want to discuss further.
Theory X and Theory Y
Almost 40 years ago Douglas McGregor work to explain his theory behaviour based on a persons attitudes regarding human nature, this work is remains influential today summarised in his still famous book “ The Human Side of Enterprise” the book was reprinted in 1985. 25th Anniversary Printing. McGregor was able to identify two contrasting sets of assumptions people make about human nature, these sets were named Theory X and Theory Y.
McGregor theory was based on two basic approaches to people and an be applied to all levels of the workforce, research suggests many Managers are perceived as theory x, this style of Manager can possess as a more pessimistic view of others, This style makes assumptions that people are not fully motivated to work, leading to therefore a more transactional style of management (need quote) . This style is summarised as Authoritarian
Theory Y managers are summarised as assumptions “that individuals are not inherently lazy, (2) capable of self direction and self control (3) Capable of providing ideas/suggestions that will improve organizational effectiveness”. number 23.
It seems many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. More enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.
Need diagram for XY
Action Centred Leadership
Perhaps one of the most influential Leadership writers John Adair is most recognised for his famous “ Action Centred Leadership” (ACL). In his classic book “Effective Leadership” John Adairs theory are best represented using three interlocking circles best describing the balance required between the main three elements of
Achieving the Task.
Building and Maintaining the Team.
Developing the individual ( Quote needed)
Leaders to distribute their time equally between these three areas (refer to course notes)
The Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum is a basic model which clearly shows the relationship between the level of freedom that a manager chooses to give to a team, and the level of authority used by the manager. This model clearly shows as the Leader allows the team's freedom to be increased, the role and aurthortiy of the Leader within the team becomes less therefore allows development of both the Leader and Team to develop. This is a positive way for both teams and managers to develop. Particular for the Leader as one of the key responsibilities is the development of the Team, during this process the model uses a scale to show the delegated level of freedom the Leader is introducing to the Team, this allowing the team to make. (need a quote)
Within this model --- suggests that a leader could concentrate on one or two people to work on these could be sucsessors for the team leader.
While the Tannenbaum and Schmidt model concerns delegated freedom to a group, the principle of being able to apply different levels of delegated freedom closely relates to the 'HYPERLINK "http://www.businessballs.com/delegation.htm#Seven Levels"levels of delegationHYPERLINK "http://www.businessballs.com/delegation.htm#Seven Levels"' on the delegation page. As a manager, one of your responsibilities is to develop your team. You should delegate and ask a team to make its own decisions to varying degrees according to their abilities. There is a rising scale of levels of delegated freedom that you can use when working with your team. The Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum is often shown as a simple graph:
French and Raven Five bases of Power proposed the idea that there are two main groups, these are described as personal (expert and referent) and position (legitimate, reward and coercive) The greater the number of these power sources available to the manager the greater the influence of the Leader. (need quote from somewhere) The French - Raven model.
Provide a further, brief, outline (with a diagram if possible) and don't put too much in - you can assume some pre-knowledge on the part of the reader (me!)
but you do need to show YOU understand it too.
This is often best done by demonstrating application through explicit examples.
Again, reference these fully.
Have a look at the 'literature' section for some of the papers I've mentioned / referenced.
keep it focused on the ‘leadership’ aspects, always come back to that.
Use ‘academic’ journals, only.
A good way of keeping focused on journal searches is to use a specific journal title as the search criteria.
Also, going to the journal publishers website, then actually searching the specific journal to find the articles
Key Points How have you performed your research
your findings, your discussion:
conclusions & recommendations
No 3 Findings 1100 words:
what did you find out
The X Y questionnaire result was not was based on 2 part questionnaire Question 1 “To indicate weather the situation and Management style is X or Y. Question 2 o indicate whether the person prefers being managed by X Y style. The question was score statements range of results were from 0 to 75, refer to graph 1 Team Leaders indicated their view was the Management style was viewed as “ Generally prefers theory X” . A seris of one to one interviews were carried out with the production team leaders
The results of question 2 focused on individual preference, this showed the a trend towards a theory Y preference. Te level of responsibility of the Team Leader cannot be underestimated.
The Results for Questionaire 1
what did you research in your organisation?
needs to be organised clearly:
Start with a brief introduction to the section, what are you going to present
Provide some brief background to the organisation
The Kingspan Group is an Ireland based company that was founded in the late 1960’s as a small engineering business. The Group was initially involved in the manufacture of steel frame buildings, but has expanded over the years and now operates through four business sectors including insulated panels and boards, off-site and structural, environmental and renewables, and access floors. The company primarily operates in Europe and the US, and currently employs approximately 6,700 people, and states that its ambition is “to be a global leader in sustainable business and establish a leading position in providing ethical renewable and affordable best practice solutions for the construction sector”.
The Group’s Annual Report 2009 states that they had a difficult year, with turnover dropping 33% to €1.125 billion, and operating profit falling 60% to €62.7 million, however the management team feel they have continued to achieve a number of successes, and feel confident about the future.
This assignment however will focus specifically on the Sherburn site. This plant dates back to 1947, and was bought out by the Kingspan Group in 1998. The plant is located in a rural area of North Yorkshire, and is approximately 30 miles away to the nearest major urban area and motorway network.
The Division operates across 14 sites / locations comprising a mixture of 5 manufacturing sites and 9 sales offices. In 2009 divisional turnover was €449M. The Sherburn contribution was €79M, some 18% some 18% of the Division with sales predominantly through the UK and Benelux markets. Product offering at Sherburn comprised three main businesses with turnover split between the respective as follows Panel 65% Structural 25% and Fabrications 10%.
Key commercial issues facing the Division include general economy, availability of credit (customers and main contractors), price erosion as well as increasing raw material costs leading to a squeeze on both volume and margins.
Significant KPI,s are Plant Utilization, Rejects, Line Speeds, and Material Variance.
Explain HOW you gathered your evidence:
In order to achieve a view of the motivation of the Team Leaders a questionnaire used not only to the Production Team Leaders, Maintenance & Quality Coordinator. The advise given was purposefully sparse most people were not aware of the Theory behind the questions, my opinion this gave an accurate account of the general feeling on the Team Leaders.
If you interviewed people then how many?;
The same questionnaire was also used on the Managers in the production area, to enable a comparison of Management v Team Leaders. In total eight Team Leaders and four Managers were questioned including myself. Rather than a formal Interview the XY questionnaire was used from Businessballs need to cite this,
what type of participant observation did you carry out;
All observations in this report are based on the actual workplace, I have known most Team Leaders for a number of years, in my role as quality Manager I am in almost daily contact with the Team Leaders to some extent, there was no formal introduction needed for the Assignment.
how did you collect the 'grey' literature (company documents);
Information was requested via Personnel dept on the regarding the organisational structure to Identify total number of Team Leaders on the Sherburn site. The key point is the ratio of agency to permanent staff. There was no up to date Job Role Description available for Team Leaders in this area.
Present your findings:
how you do this will depend upon what you researched
most of you will have used a combination of the research methods mentioned above.
A simple way to group your findings together is to look for 'themes' (thematic coding) –
look for things that fit together (like resistance to change, etc).
You need to provide enough detail here to give something to talk about in your discussion section.
Finish this section with a one paragraph summary statement. This provides a focus for the reader and leads them into the next section, the discussion.
No 4 Discussion 11:00 words
No 5 Conclusion & Recommendations 800 words:
The plant operates a multi 12 hour shift pattern 24 hours a day over 5.5 days, A total of 156 production hours, in reality the Team Leader is the most senior person on site for up to 60% of the total shift hours. The Leadership required for this role can require many aspects of unforeseen issues; the followers are dependent on their Leader. A common observation has been the title “Team Leader” there is of course a clear definition between Managers & Leaders (Zquote needed) the Team Leader is the level directly below the Production Manager, as discussed as the Plant only has Management on site approx 40% of the hours available, the Team Leaders are in fact the most senior management for the majority of the hours available.
What is clear from the survey is the Team Leaders see the Management of the Plant as Theory X, (not sure check this)
This may better 01/05 The survey shows the Team Leaders view themselves as managed by an authoritarian style, however the majority opinion of their preferred way to manage others is a preference to the democratic (quote) Transactional style of Management. Although this may be the preferred style due to the current percentage of agency staff the Transactional style of management would not be recommended without a more longer term review of the important role of Team Leader.
This would need a review of the Roles and Responsibilities for a Team Leader currently this role spends much of the time reacting rather than planning, during the review the critical role of the sop floor operator should be reviewed, during my assignment I was surprised discover one of the agency employees who carried out an Main Line Operator function is still employed through the agency for three years, this is this example is typical why a more transactional team based style of Management, would not be achievable in the short term, also highlights the need for a longer term view of the components needed to enable a core group of followers the Team Leader can develop.
(Maslows Heirarchy of needs)
This suggestion will be a departure from what has understandably difficult time due to the economic slow down, however the signs of recovery are positive, although this situation should be closely monitored, a more strategic plan can be discussed, and prepared, when the economic situation changes, our experience has been the order requirement rapidly changes, the Commercial Team inroads into the French, Scandinavian markets has also helped recent more positive view of growth.
Followers are fundamental to the Leaders ability and requirement to perform the task, it is recognised in Leadership Literature reviews there is full credibility paid to the role of followers play in the leadership process, (page 31 16,17,18,19,20). Perhaps the driving factor for the leader follower situation is the constant requirement in all areas of the business to function with minimum resources. This policy limits the role of the follower, there are Exemplary Followers in the work place, the Team Leaders rely on this core group to operate this key areas of the line, there are exceptions one agency worker has been employed by the company for three years as a main line operator. There is no short term policy to grant this employee a permanent contract.
Situation: The current optimism regarding the economic climate has perhaps,
The current situation in the workplace is of guarded optimism on the economic climate, this production facility is perhaps the most flexible within the division, as there are eight products produced on two production lines, the need increased product changes with shorter production cycles has challenged the Leadership to be more focused, this remains one of the challenges the Team Leader faces, having to respond to the challenge of a changing production programme, with a possible high percentage of inexperienced agency staff. This creates the opportunity for the Team Leader to maximise the efficiency of the core members of the Team Members.
Why do we always place leadership and followership into positional categories? Shouldn't we be foucusing on the art? It is easy to address the role of the supervisor as a mentor for his/her subordinates. There should always be an ongoing development of a successor. But it is my thinking that we should be applying these thoughts to teamwork and alignment as it applies to peers in an organization i.e. Department Heads aligning their resources to accomplish an orgainzational goal. Only one can be the leader, or in the context of a self-managed team, the role of the leader can change according to the phase of the project and who has the subject matter expertise to lead the part of the effort.
In either of these scenerios, the other leaders must subordinate their efforts to provide the necessary support. Though communication tends to go up and down the organizational hierarchy, most processes operate horizontally across departments and between departments. Chester Barnard (1939) in his seminal work, "The Functions of the Executive", talks about cooperation of individuals and coordination of efforts directed toward a common purpose. I believe this area has not been given as much consideration and is ripe for further research.
George Washington University
Followership has to be addressed by the respective leader. As followers are of different types, the leader has to look into their roles in a team to strengthen the team effort. Any kind of teaching on how to be a good follower may not help since it will depend on the style and type of leader to whom the followers are tagged. The essential factor for followers adaptability is the leadership style. Followers must observe the style and behavior of their leader apart from the needs and priorities of their leader in accomplishing the team targets. Any course on followership aiming at how to manage the leader does certainly lead to manipulations and encourage dishonesty while working.
With this background, followers must always learn to be a good team players understanding their leader's priorities. In case of conflicting interests, followers have to be assertive with out getting the ire of their leader and they also must know the behavior of leaders in different situations as the leader is responsible ultimately to deliver results through the efforts of his/her team. Enough is written based on research how a leader should be effective. However, the important factor of leadership is to create trust in the followers and the leader has to employ all his/her people management skills and demonstrate commitment to meet the tasks.
Amabile et al.'s findings were published in the February issue of The Leadership Quarterly as "Leader Behaviors and the Work Environment for Creativity: Perceived Leader Support." Amabile, an influential scholar on creativity, conducted the research with Elizabeth A. Schatzel, Giovanni B. Moneta, and Steven J. Kramer. She recently discussed their findings with HBS Working Knowledge.
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