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The Attrition Rate For The Bpo Industry Management Essay

This project is based on one of the major issues faced by the HR managers in the BPO industry. In this project we had done a detailed study on “Attrition rate” in the BPO industry in Sri Lanka. I have taken this opportunity to the best extent and we are attempting to analyze various concepts and provide reviews to the existing situation on attrition rate.

This research project critically evaluates dimensions such as Motivation, Salary and other benefits, Organizational Culture, Career development, Access to immediate supervisors working environment, rewards and recognition, training and development, influence in key decision making, proper job descriptions, performance management, workload and pressure shift timings, Fair and Equal Treatment through primary and secondary sources in order to identify roots and major industry worries towards employee attrition. I have taken the BPO industry which suffered in attrition rate in the past to explain why HR managers need to focus on this issue in future.

1.1 Research Background

In today’s Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) arena one of the frequently spoken subject has became the increasing “Employee Attrition” and many expensive reference materials can be commonly seen in bookstores, libraries and via online sources. This research report has been prepared in order to investigate and examine the “attrition rate for the BPO industry”

After considering depth of the research topic report has been divided in to two segments. The initial segment of this research report defines the term and the concept “Employee Attrition” as per different authors’ perceptive thoughts. At this point, major industry worries towards attrition and the associated costs of attrition to an organisation have also been explored in order to bring a clear understanding about vitality of “Employee Attrition”. Finally the latter section of this individual research report extensively analyzes the findings from the Research Questionnaire which are completed by fifteen employees of three prominent BPO organisations in Sri Lanka, which includes five executives, five assistant managers and five managers of each BPO, where the total sample size would be forty five employees. It is to be noted that based on these findings recommendations have being provided.

I would like to bring in to the kind attention of the reader that, this individual research report covering a broader topic of the “attrition rate for the BPO industry” has been successfully completed after gaining a substantial understanding from the various reliable sources where the information have been gathered.

1.2 Research Problem, Questions and Objectives

Research problem refers to the situation that needs a solution for further improvement, or an alteration of, or in contradiction with the way things are and how they should be. This proposed research study on attrition rate for the BPO industry will be investigating the following problems associated with employee attrition:

Why people leave the organisation in the BPO industry?

What are the major industry worries towards attrition in the BPO industry?

What is the cost of attrition to an organisation in the BPO industry?

Meanwhile, in the fast paced business process outsourcing industry with this changing environment, organisations must adapt to remain competitive in the business process outsourcing industry. This research has been prepared in order to investigate and examine the attrition rate for the BPO industry along with the following critical objectives:

An identification of causes as to why people leave the organisation

Determining the major industry worries towards employee attrition

Identification of what are the costs of attrition to an organisation

1.2 Significance of the study

The major motivation for this study is the rate of increase in attrition in the BPO industry. There has been an increase in the attrition rate in the recent past which has called for an immediate attention by the company. Human resources management has played a very important role in stopping attrition rate and to improve the corporate culture in the BPO industry. Hence there is a major requirement to know the role of human resource management in the BPO industry.

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Definitions of attrition

Attrition rate is one of the most critical problems in the BPO all around the globe including Sri Lanka. The main drawback of having a high rate of attrition in the BPO industry is for this reason that most organisations do not have time to read the minds of employees. Thus, each organisation has their mind on this question "Why our attrition rate is higher than any other company". In order to answer this, every BPO organisation MUST know what exactly “Attrition” is?

Attrition is a situation which employer face when employee left the organisation due to job dissatisfaction, new opportunity in the market, retirement & natural cause (death/illness). Now days this is one of the most important question which is asked by higher authority to HR people…."Why our attrition rate is higher than other company" (Black, 2009).

According to Halvey and Melby (2007) the term attrition refers to the shrinkage in the quantity or gradual reduction of employees as a result of retirement, resignation, relocation, sickness or death. It has been proved that attrition is normal and uncontrolled decline of the workforce due to above mentioned forces. It can be considered as a way to reduce the size of the work force without management guidance. Employee retention is critical to the long-term health and success of any association.

2.2 Reasons for attrition

Managing of attrition is not only a "right thing" in Sri Lankan BPO’s. It is the way for ensuring each BPO organisation's survival. NASSCOM-Hewitt (NASSCOM News-Byte, 2003), revealed that the average attrition levels in the Information Technology Enable Services (ITES) and BPO organisation ranges from 15% - 60% per annum. Attrition through a call centre based on the voice is 40%. Therefore it is very much evident that such attrition rates raises the sole responsibility to find the appropriate candidate; and providing them the appropriate work environment, that will benefit both the organisation and the candidate.

Human resources are always left open when an employee leaves an organisation, after obtaining all relevant information and benefits within the learning period. In my opinion, problem lies equally on both the parties. An employee leaves the organisation, if he/she is not satisfied with the respective organisation, usually such employees’ people crib about the money and the facilities provided by those organisations.

Similarly the problem on the organisation is that they do not provide a good working culture to the employees and provide them with the adequate motivation for the job what they are doing. Prior to checking the attrition rates a manager of human resources must know how to create a corporate culture and working environment. This can be done through leadership and excellence in management and human resource strategies, the fair and equitable treatment for all, clearly defined policies, training and personal development including training and job rotations, professional development, organisational communication, teamwork, reward programs, objective assessments, adequate pay, benefits and company activities (Sharma, n.d).

2.3 Cost of attrition

It is becoming increasingly difficult for companies worldwide to attract and retain key talent, the attrition rate is always motivating the increase and where the war for talent is becoming more intense every year. It is increasingly important for businesses to make sure they have the right people in place to guide its future. The problem of employee attrition must be addressed proactively. Employees may be attracted and retained by offering career opportunities, variety of jobs, responsibility and education and gives them a sense of belonging.

It has to be clearly understood that there is no standard formula to calculate the attrition rate of an organisation. This is due to the fact the, many BPO organisations can not include the attrition of the freshers to leave the BPO organisations because of higher education or within their probation period. Also in some cases, attrition of poor performers will not be treated as attrition. Therefore considering these facts we can come with following formula in order to calculate the attrition rate.

Attrition Rate % = Total no. of resignation per month

X 100

Total no. of employees in the begin of the month +

Total no. of new joins - Total no. of resignation

An online survey conducted by NASSCOM-Hewitt (NASSCOM News-Byte, 2003), has revealed that in the BPO industry, about 70% of the population of working age is neither happy nor satisfied working in BPO organisations, which resulted in a very high attrition rate. It is common that in any BPO organisation, especially an employee see only the future growth prospects, working conditions, the current state and future stability of the respective BPO organisation.

According to the NASSCOM-Hewitt survey (NASSCOM News-Byte 2003), the cost of attrition is 1.5 times of the annual salary. If an employee leaves the company after gaining the training, cost the organisation is around Rs 60,000. For a call centre with 300 seats against the normal 30% attrition, this translates Rs. 60 lakhs every year. Many experts believe that these challenges can prove to be a real drag on growth towards the BPO industry, since the cost of attrition is so high they may outweigh the benefits of lower labour costs.

While salaries in the call centres in Sri Lanka are less than one-eighth of those in Northern Europe, it was reported that NASSCOM-Hewitt survey (NASSCOM News-Byte 2003) have found that the cost per query processed has doubled due to the inability staff to deal effectively with user queries because of language barriers and lack of experience. Thus, attrition is a two-fold issue, one that the costs and, secondly, retaining much needed and often experienced talent. The central issue is not with the quality or staff training and even less with technology investments. In simple terms people are not long enough to be taught or learn the job. Employees may be cheaper, but if they can not do the job, what's the point of retaining them?

2.4 Industry worries towards attrition

Attrition cannot be blindly classified as negative in tone. A healthy attrition rate in the BPO industry is a necessity for new ideas and innovations for the flow and facilitates the overall growth of the sector to share information. According to Heathfield (n.d) when a low performer leaves a company it is termed as a sign of good attrition. Attrition is not always bad if it happens in a controlled manner.

Some attrition is always desirable and necessary for growth and organisational development. The only concern is how to differentiate organisations “good attrition” from “bad attrition”. The term “good attrition” indicates the importance of employee productivity, less voluntarily leave the organisation. This means that if those who left in the under-performance of attrition considered healthy (Heathfield, n.d). According to Halvey & Melby (2007) healthy attrition rates are considered to be beneficial in the following ways for a BPO organisation.

Attrition rate holds good when the performers contribute negatively to the company.

It is also beneficial when those employees who demoralize the work culture and team spirit tend to leave the company.

If all employees retain at the same organisation for a long period of time, most of them will be on their high scale pays, which is expected to result in excessive manpower costs.

When some employees leave, whose continuation of service would have negatively impacted productivity and profitability, the company will be benefited.

New employees bring new ideas, approaches, skills and attitudes that can sustain the organisation to become stagnant.

There are also some people in the organisation with a culture negative and demoralizing work and team spirit. This long-term, detrimental to the health of the organisation.


There are people who are unable to balance their performance as per organisational expectations, lack of opportunities for the future, or in the need for disciplinary action. In addition, awards are limited, commercial pressures do not allow management to more than the reward of the artist, but when employees leave the business side, employees get the good part they deserve.

According to Raman (2006) attrition causes a huge loss for an organisation in terms of work force as well as financial losses. Attrition is a universal phenomenon, and the no organisation can refuse it, but the degree varies depending on the field and at various levels. The main reason for people leaving the BPO industry is due to the cause that the industry is viewed as a gap filler occupation. There seems to be an error in the way the BPO industry has been structured. The industry has been mainly dependent on youngsters who are taking out time to work, while making money in the process and thinking of career alternatives. Therefore, it is very clear for this group of youngsters; BPO is never a long term career but only as a part time income opportunity.

Also the unfriendliness in working conditions, late night shifts, and high pressurized and tensed jobs acts as a deterrent for people to stick to this industry for long time. In addition, the BPO job opportunities are taken less positively by the high end Sri Lankan business communities. Research indicates that nearly 50 percent of those who stop out of business. In addition to above Raman (2006) has identified several other reasons for high attrition in the BPO industry, which are divided into two broader categories. The first can be coined as “Drive Attrition” which is due by reason of the employer; the other can be defined as “Drag Attrition” which caused due to the employee.

The reasons for Drive Attrition are due to employer’s policy / policies of terminating the employee at the end of the contract period for employment. Also the quality policy of the BPO companies guides them to retain only the most productive employee and hence makes them to terminate employee at regular intervals.

On the other hand Drag Attrition is caused due to the host of insecurities and vulnerabilities associated with the taking up a career with a BPO company. The job of a call centre agent can be compared to a telemarketing or a telephone operator. Hence the scope to take up any other job or change of field is ruled out, as the experience gained in a call centre will not be a scrap of importance (Raman, 2006).

The parallel lines of the organisation also recognize the need for people to establish positive vibes with the new environment. This impression is reinforced and encouraged by the feedback mechanisms on the effective management and monitoring of the line, the alignment of objectives, internal communications, training duration and range of other human resources functions. Employee development and growth, learning opportunities have become critical factors in the induction of retention.

A dynamic and transparent cross-section function of the company is the main factor in retaining employees by instilling employee confidence in the company. Therefore it is very much evident that in order to reduce attrition in the BPO organisations, the respective human resources managers needs to ensure that the candidate has the potential of coaching, mentoring, has the right amount of warmth, effective relationship management and well done with enthusiasm.

3.0 Research Methodology

The research strategy is that the study which utilizes a descriptive method, since it intends to present a factual nature and status of the situation as it is, the time of the study and to describe the present conditions, events or systems based on impressions or reactions of respondents in the research (Creswell, 1994). Researchers have chosen this type of research takes into account the willingness of researchers to obtain first hand information about the defendants to make a reasonable and sound conclusions and recommendations of the study.

3.1 Research design

Research design refers to the cross sectional study where you collect the data only once, where unit of analysis is an individual. This research is carried out with non contracting setting with minimum interference of normal work flow. In this study, primary and secondary research will be established at a time. The reason for this is to be able to give due consideration in order to help the readers better understand the problem and the different variables involve with it. The primary data of the study is represented by the survey questionnaires which are represented in Appendix - A and Appendix - B. On the other hand, the secondary sources of are approached and extracted from articles published in books, journals, research papers and an array of internet sources.

3.2 Methodological choice

Methodological choice refers to the research strategy where a personally admired survey questionnaire will be prepared and given to employees. Also it has to be clearly understood that structured interviews will be conducted with respective HR managers in order to evaluate the cost and the major industry worries towards attrition.

3.3 Population and sampling

It has to be clearly understood that the sampling method which is used in the research is “Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling” and the overall population of the three BPO's is 1,750, where as the total population of the middle management is 1,595. Furthermore the following tables represent the sampling technique along with its respective calculations with regard to the division of samples among the chosen BPO organisations.

Population Table


Total Middle Management


Assistant Managers

















Total Population


(Source: Survey Data)

Sample Size for the Survey


Sample Size for Each Company


Assistant Managers





















(Source: Survey Data)

3.4 Operationalisation

Operationalisation is a process to define narrowly the parameters of measurable factors. This process also defines the unclear concepts and to enable them to measure empirically and quantitatively. The following table summarises key dimensions as to what the answers from survey questionnaire reflects.

Operational Table



Question No.

Employee Attrition



Salary and other benefits

2, 7

Organizational Culture


Career development


Access to immediate supervisors


Working Environment


Rewards and recognition


Training &Development


Influence in key decision making


Proper job descriptions


Performance Management


Workload and Pressure


Shift Timings


Fair and Equal Treatment


3.5 Method of measurement

The data obtained from the survey questionnaire are processed using Microsoft Excel 2007 where the results are obtained in the form of percentages and graphs. It is to be noted that the confidentiality and strict privacy will be adhered on all information either written or verbal provided by the participants during the process of completing the research questionnaire.

4.0 Findings and Analysis


Motivation is a factor that drives people to do what they want to do. Motivation usually results in an unconscious self-destructive behaviour. Studies have shown that employee motivation is usually money and employee behaviour. There are various definitions for motivation given by different authors. According to Kreitner (1995), motivation is a psychological process that enables in a behavioural purpose and direction while from the view of Buford, Bedeian & Linder (1995), motivation is predilection which enables in a purposive manner to achieve specific needs. Motivation is defined as an internal drive which helps to achieve unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994 & Bedeian, 1993).

(Source: Survey Data)

According to the above illustration, it is very much evident that 60% of the survey respondents have felt that motivation is one way that can reduce attrition rate to a great extent. However nearly ¼ of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor disagreed and they have felt that motivation alone was not enough to control the attrition rate. Hence it has to be assumed that the 30% of the de-motivated employees may tend to leave their job.

Salary and other benefits

(Source: Survey Data)

Considering Salary and other benefits, according to the above illustration, it is clearly evident that 70% of the survey respondents have agreed that increasing the salary and recognition of the employees along with other pays such as the reimbursements and other bouquet of benefits will retain them at the organisation. But a mere 25% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand 15% of the survey respondents have felt that many BPO organisations make promises when they take in the people. But they do not keep up their words. Thus the annoyed employees tend to quit the job anytime. This has proved that the respondents feel that compensation structure is not convincing them at their respective work places.

Organisational Culture

Organisational culture describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and both personal and cultural values within an organisation. It has been defined as the specific collection of values and norms shared by people and groups in an organisation and that control how they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organisation.

(Source: Survey Data)

Every employee enters an organisation with a lot of dreams for their future career. Dreams can come true only when the corporate culture is designed well, so that workers feel at ease. But now-a-days are much less attention to corporate culture. Considering Organisational culture, the above illustration reflects that 60% of the survey respondents were satisfied with their prevailing organizational culture. But a mere 25% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this. On the other hand 15% of the survey respondents are not satisfied about corporate culture within the organization.

Career development

Considering dimension of career development, it has become the primary responsibility of individuals in organisations. According to the survey respondents there is a growing need for people to support the development of their own learning and career for a variety of reasons.

(Source: Survey Data)

According to above illustration 70% of the survey respondents have agreed that career and personal development programs are provided by their respective BPO organisations. Also deserving people get promoted in their organisation. A mere 15% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand 15% of the survey respondents are not satisfied about career development services provided by their organisation. Overall this signifies that such personal and career development services provided at the organisations are up to the satisfactory level.

Access to immediate supervisors

(Source: Survey Data)

Considering dimension of access to immediate supervisors, according to the above illustration, it is clearly evident that 65% of the survey respondents have said that they do not have easy access to their immediate superiors where there is also favoritism or biases are shown against the majority of employees by the immediate superiors. But a mere 20% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand 15% of the survey respondents have felt they do have easy access to their immediate superiors where there is no favoritism or biases are shown by the immediate superiors. Overall this signifies that there is a lack regular and clear communication towards the employees by the immediate superiors and vice versa.

Working Environment

An effective work environment is essential element to the success of any organisations. When problems are still unresolved and the rules are never implemented, the result may be a personal and unproductive work environment. People who work with a common goal wish to perform tasks more easily and have higher expectations of themselves and their work. This reflects that a positive working environment is essential, no matter how many employees an organisation has. It is the management that promotes the work environment to be responsible for keeping things in a way that contributes to the morale of the people.

(Source: Survey Data)

According to above illustration 40% of the survey respondents have agreed that their organisations do provide working environments with proper working conditions. However a mere 20% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand another 40% of the survey respondents are not satisfied about the working environment along with its working conditions provided by their respective organisations.

Rewards and recognition

Recognition is one factor that boosts the employees to keep achieving their target. The employees tend to learn more when their skills and great work gets recognised amongst the group or the team. The HR managers must take efforts to identify such employees and promote them giving more opportunities. This in turn would encourage them to stay in the organisation. The rewards and recognitions can also help to create proper team management environment.

(Source: Survey Data)

Considering the dimension of rewards and recognitions, according to above illustration it is very much evident that 60% of the survey respondents have agreed that the HR managers within the BPO organisations does not recognize the talents and rewards their employees. However a mere 25% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand another 15% of the survey respondents are satisfied about the rewards and recognitions provided by their respective organisations.

Influence in key decision making

(Source: Survey Data)

Considering dimension of influence in key decision making, according to the above illustration, it is clearly evident that 60% of the survey respondents have said that they do not have any influence whatsoever in key decision making. A mere 25% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand 15% of the survey respondents have felt that they do have a little influence in key decision making process. It has be clearly understood that employees should be involved in critical decision-making process with senior management. Their suggestions and ideas should be encouraged. This would give them some control of the organisation and makes them comfortable enough to work within the same environment. Many of the organisations is not involved in their employees, the key decision-making. This in turn increases the attrition rate of the organisation.

Proper job descriptions

A job description refers to a list that a person can use for duties and responsibilities of a position. It is often that the position reports, specifications such as qualifications or skills of the person in employment or salary. Job descriptions are generally narrative, but rather some may consist of a simple list of skills, for example, the strategic Human Resources planning techniques used to develop an architecture skills an organization whose job descriptions are constructed as a list of skills.

(Source: Survey Data)

Considering the dimension of proper job descriptions, it is very much evident that as shown in the illustration above according to 45% of the survey respondents have agreed that during the selection process, proper and accurate job descriptions were given to them. Yet mere 25% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand 30% of the survey respondents have felt that they have not been given proper and accurate job descriptions during the selection process

Performance Management

Performance Management includes activities to ensure objectives are always achieved efficiently and effectively. Performance management can focus on running an organization, department, employee, or even the process of building a product or service, as well as many other areas.

(Source: Survey Data)

Considering dimension of performance management, according to the above illustration, it is clearly evident that 40% of the survey respondents have said that performance management process at their respective organizations encourages managers to spend more time on employees. On the other 40% of the survey respondents have felt that the performance management process does not encourages managers to spend more time on them. But a mere 20% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. Overall the survey respondents agreed that a variety of performance management standards are being adopted in their respective organisations.

Workload and Pressure

(Source: Survey Data)

Workload and pressure are increasingly in the workplace for employees, while the morale, motivation and endurance were reduced. Considering the dimension of workload and pressure, it is very much evident that as shown in the illustration above according to 40% of the survey respondents believe that the workload is hurting their health and thus they often especially feel under pressure at work. Yet mere 20% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand 40% of the survey respondents do feel that the workload does not hurt their health and thus they rarely feel under pressure at work.

Shift Timings

Shift work is an employment practice that is designed to utilise the 24 hour clock instead of a normal workday. The term shift work includes both night shifts and long working hours within which employees change or rotate the changes.

(Source: Survey Data)

Considering the dimension of shift timings, it is very much evident that as shown in the above illustration 65% of the survey respondents strongly feel that they are given flexible shift timings, whereas a mere 15% of the survey respondents have neither agreed nor not agreed with this statement. On the other hand 20% of the survey respondents do feel that they are not given flexible shift timings.

Fair and Equal Treatment

Considering the final dimension of fair and equal treatment, based on the results derived from the survey questionnaire, as per the survey respondents responses it has been identified that the workload at the BPO organisations have negatively affected the respondents’ family, religious or cultural responsibilities in various ways. Also majority of the respondents agreed that their Management is not flexible and does not understand the importance of balancing work and personal life. The survey respondents have initiated the following policies to support a fair treatment environment:

Listen and respond when asked to modify behaviour

Assist people who are affected by breaches of the Policy

Support people who are affected by breaches of the Fair Treatment Policy and encourage them to take action

Promote mutual respect and consideration between all members of the organisation

Openly support and promote the Fair Treatment Policy

Circulate Fair Treatment Policy and make it clear that compliance is obligatory (for educators and supervisors)

Do not engage in discrimination, harassment, bullying, vilification and victimisation.

Last but not the least the responses reflected from the Questionnaire for HR managers signifies that in order to cope up with employee attrition the BPO organisations much adhere the changing perception of employees from life style to career, change the employable target audience and also in a way become socially responsible, make employees feel that the company cares this can be done through effective communication, providing clarity in expectations towards the organization's performance appraisal system and finally giving each BPO employee a choice of rewards.

5.0 Recommendation

There is a requirement to have clear, real and visible path so as to lower the attrition rate of the organization. Thus if a company wants to reduce the attrition rate they can follow the annual attrition rate check to keep the employees intact. To know this rate one needs to know how many employees are present at the start of the period and also have to know the newly employed and the total number of employees who have left the organization for that period of time. The attrition plan must deal with the various retention issues with a coherent way of framework combined with an effective measuring method. This framework will provide a reliable definition of retention. This will not only reduce the attrition rate but also provide a link with business or academic strategy and priority to a strategy for learning, development, and evaluation, and then to a learning blueprint. This will follow the elements in attrition rate

Business or academic strategy and change vision

Organisation principles, needs, resources, and priorities

Individual and team needs

Stake holder’s goals, priorities and needs

Key processes, interactions, and activities

The company must calculate the cost lost when a person leaves the job and we must conduct an exit interview so that the company or the HR will come to know why the person is leaving the job. The administrative costs of stopping the payroll and the benefits of enrolments must be calculated during the time of the leave. Till the replacement is made the cost must be calculated. The impact on departmental productivity due to the absence of the employee must also be determined. There must be prior data as to who would be the backup for the work, whose work would suffer, what departmental deadlines would not be met or delivered late must also be obtained. The cost of the lost knowledge, skills and contacts of the person who is leaving is must be made a note before he/she walks out of the firm.

6.0 Conclusion

As a conclusion, with my utmost level of confidence, I strongly feel, that is it is very much evident that attrition is one of the biggest difficulties faced by any BPO organisations. It is critical to understand attrition rate because it is the backbone for the employers and it cannot be ignored just like that. So the attrition rate can be controlled by the above discussed recommendations. BPO industry has a very high attrition rate so they need to check them accordingly.

Respecting and giving the employees a good environment to work will make the organisation to keep a check on the attrition rate. Therefore every employee has a need for self- expression and professional development, career advancement. Therefore the organisation must give reward and acknowledge and trust the employee so that they continue in the organisation itself. They must also allow the employees to share the company goals and the future plans and invite the employees to provide a feed back on what they want from the organisation. The human resources together with the organisation must learn how to place people in a role where they can use their abilities and make progress towards the realisation of personal goals. Misplacements can cause a company substantial financial loss due to turnover, accidents, lawsuits, rebates, refunds, loss of customers and sales.

I strongly believe that the information that I have provided in this research report will definitely satisfy the assessment evaluation criteria. Also I wish to mention that, at the best of my knowledge, I’ve acknowledged all the sources which I did refer to complete this research report. Last but not the least I wish to convey my heartfelt gratitude towards my lecturer, my parents, my colleagues and all other well wishers who immensely supported me throughout my studies in order to successfully complete this research report.

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