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Adaption Of Books To Movies

2.0 Introduction

Literature review is very important for people to find out the vital point to support their topic. Literature review will not mention about original things because it is a derivative source. Literature review is also includes relevant journal, articles and theories which can offer some useful idea to conduct certain topic.

2.1 History of Horror Film

In 1764, the word “horror” was being created. This word was come from one of the Horace Walpole’s book which is known as “The Castle of Otranto”. It was full of the supernatural without any editing. The “Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe beat the rest in this genre. For the today’s great horror films, some are adapting from the “Dracula” and “Frankenstein”. These two stories produced in the 1800’s. Horror films were frequently had the same feature which is paranormal inside during the beginning of the horror movie history. Short silent movies were where horror films began in the late 1890’s. The first short silent movie is “Le Manior Du Diable” by Frenchman Georges Melies. Japanese also tried to make this variety with Bake Jizo and Shinin no Sosei about this time.

The adaptation of movie “Hunchback of Notre-Dame” was the first born horror movie. Mostly are the German filmmakers who produce such first horror movies as the early 1900’s was the time of the German expressionist movies. Hollywood began to experiment the horror genre with Lon Chaney Sr. who is the first American horror star during the 1920’s. Hollywood was the first country that made the horror movie become famous in the 1930’s. There were many movies produced with a mix of Gothic horror and paranormal. Along with the original classics of the well known films "Frankenstein" and "The Wolf Man" that was created by Universal studios in 1941, although this wasn't the first were wolf film created.

There has been a lot of new technology used to shoot movies in the 1950's. The horror movies were divided into two categories which is Armageddon and demonic movies during that time. During that time the ideas and emotions were put into the films but not really a straight forward development during that time. Later on the years new films such as iconic films came in 1960's. The first American Armageddon movies like "The Bird" that was made by Hitchcock was against the modern setting. The movie "Night of the Living Dead" most likely was the most powerful movie of the time. Then by this zombies were brought into the industry by the film "Night of the Living Dead". From then many different kinds of experience and studies from Gothic horror films leads to what is known today as horror movies.

2.2 Review of Book

2.21 Genre as Repetition and Difference

Genre refers to a French word means “type” and film genres have existed since the early days of cinema. There are many categories of film genres such as crime, comedy, romance, fantasy or actuality. The description given to the specific types of movie have often changed along with the discovery of new genres. For example, Edwin Porter’s “The Great Train Robbery” (1903) was referred to as a crime or chase film at first but now is regarded as a western. Similarly, Melies’ “Journey to the Moon” (1901) was described as fantasy whereas it would be classified as science fiction recently.

The classification of movies into genres aided the film industry to manage production and marketing in terms of making utilize of available and appropriate props, settings or locations, actors and production staff, as well as promoting movies as being of a specific type. Viewers in turn used the marketing descriptions of movies as a guide to what to expect and imagine.

The existence of commons elements across a range of productions makes a genre possible. In other words, it is the identification of repetition across a series of productions that results in them being described as being of a specific kind. A significant term in genre analysis is “convention” which refers to the way in which something is usually done. Due to particular movies tend to do things in certain ways, people identify similarities between them and thus depict them as belonging to a certain genre.

If the repetition is a main requirement for the recognition of a certain genre, then so too is difference. When watching a movie people become aware not only how it is similar to other films but also how it differs. Genres exist not only due to there is repetition across a number of movies, but also due to there are differences across a range of movies. The differentiation of movies by genre stresses the differences between these kinds. Genres movies had to be not just “more of the same” but “something different” too. It is because they needed variation, innovation, flexibility and change, though within the general parameters of the genre.

Style frequently results in difference being created within a genre, but it can result in difference between movies of the same genre that are essentially telling the same story. The 1930s classic horror movies likes “Dracula” and “Frankenstein” are both from 1931 have been remade several times over but the styles of films were different. The originals were no suspend frightening at the time of their release and visually their influence can be seen in later versions, but the originals now appear rather slow, theatrical, tame and uncontroversial. The remakes by Hammer Films basically told the same story but the styles were so much different. “Dracula” (1958) updates the vampire tale for a new generation of cinemagoers in a new cultural context. The “X” certificate rating allows Hammer to go further in trying to shock, which they intended to do through more violence and gore and greater stress on the sexual nature of Count Dracula’s relationship with his female victims. The horror movies that produced by Hammer in effect established a sub-genre of Hammer horror through considerable continuity in style, actors, themes and directors. Other remakes of 1930s horror films such as Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” (1992) and Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” (1994), both of them are talked about more complex tales than the previous versions.

While remakes are quite common and usually an important period of time elapses before a movie is reinterpreted, as with the above example. However, “Nikita” (1990) which was produced by the French director Luc Besson is an exception. It is telling the story of a drug addict who shoots a policeman and sentenced to death, but is forgiven when she agrees to become a government assassin. The “Assasin” (1993) which was the Hollywood remake of the “Nikita” told nearly the same story, to the point where repetition becomes perceptible, while the styles of both films are totally different. “Nikita” is broadly considered as the “better” of two, perhaps it is not only telling the appealing story but includes impressive of camera, lighting, music and the acting. On the other hand, The “Assasin” more towards on telling the story and therefore loses some of the subtlety of the original while not being as visually memorable.

Hollywood combines the repetition and differences successfully which was at least to the point where viewers frequently returned to analysis genre films. Besides that, an advance way in which Hollywood had classified films is through the use of artists as a means of identifying and targeting films and viewers. A movie would be referred to as a John Wayne movie rather than as western, a Marilyn Monroe film rather than a comedy or romance.

Classification has regularly come to include reference to the director in the contemporary Hollywood. People prefer a Scorsese movie than a gangster film or a George Lucas film than a science fiction film. Nevertheless, the main difficulty with classifying films by reference to individuals is that people are limited to a certain era of movies. People cannot draw changes over an extended period of time in way they can with genre categorization with such a categorization.

2.3 Review of Journals

2.31 Adaptations of novel to film

(1) Cinematographic Adaptations of Two Novels by Camilo Jose Cela (Thomas Deveny, 1988)

In current years, Spanish cinema has turned more and more to modern literary typical as the source for movies. Two novels that wrote by Camilo Hose, one of the Spain’s leading novelists of this century were transformed into movie adaptations in 1957 and 1982. Ten years ago, both novels were originally emerged. Cela’s first novel “The Family of Pascual Duarte” published in 1942 while another novel “The Hive” published in 1952. Director Ricardo Franco was won award with his adaptation of “Pascula Duarte”, as did Marion Camus’s version of “The Hive”. Franco eliminates the Cervantine structuring of the novelistic narrative, which is focusing on the main incidents of the story and enlarging some significant minor incidents at the same moment. In lieu of the novelistic structure whereby an adapter finds the journals of the executed “Pasucual” in 1939, while in 1937 Franco subordinates the narrative order to the main character’s arrest for murder. The narrative between the past was being exchanged by a series of flashbacks. One of Pascual is acted as a youth with the rest as a young man in the 1920’s and 30-s and the present of his imprisonment and the end is execution.

There is something that is not included in the novel which is the first flashback commences with little narrative. One of the basic themes of the movie is the notion of land. The enlargement of the character of Don Jesus, who is the rich landowner, is the most significant change of this theme. This character didn’t really emerge in the novel. Don Jesus takes much more significance in the movie. Don Jesus was being murdered by Pascual with shotgun in the movie. While in the novel, Pascual uses his hands and knife to murder the last two in scenes of such great violence that critics coined the term termendismo to depict the novel.

The result of the conflict was being concerned in Camus’s “The Hive”. The “La Delicia” café in 1943 and amidst the assembly of intellectuals who regular the establishment was centers on the action of film, it represents the meanness and misery of the era. Cela’s description of what he names an “a slide of life” of the city environment of the capital is the metaphor of the title. The novel has almost 300 characters and 48 can be regard as principal roles, it is practically lacks of the main characters. While the film writer decreased to around 23 main roles. The cast with celebrities of the Spanish cinema and even comprised a cameo appearance by the novelist was filled by Cameo. Two main themes of “The Hive” are money and sex. The dynamics of a society racked by a victor mentality also conveyed in the movie. A good deal of humor included in both the movel and the movie. Besides that, in the different aspects of the two narratives, humor was frequently happened. The spirit was being maintained even though the movie narrative does not remain to the letter of the original. Besides that, it is an instance of the creativity that Bazin regards as necessary for a successful evolution from text to cinema.

A voice-over of a quote from the novel helps to end the movie and it provides the adaptation a uniquely literary flavor. Despite, the quote comes from the end of chapter six of the novel is very vital to let people know about. Hence, the narrative information of the ending does not contained in movie adaptation. The question of what Dudley Andrew calls the fidelity of transformation is a complicated one. It is not only because essential differences in the signifying system of the novel and film, but also because of conscious aesthetic and socio-political changes on the part of filmmakers. The aim of Franco’s movie version of “The Family of Pascual Duarte” is to have a much wider political conversation than the novel. Crictic Jorge Urrutia states that this film is not an adaptation of the novel but it was just inspired by the novel due to much transformation in the film version from the novel.

(2) Now a Major Motion Picture: Film Adaptations of Literature and Drama (Lawrence Raw, 2008)

A major film provides a new agenda for adaptation studies in recent. It is refers to the source text no longer plays an important part. Instead Geraghty concerned on how the principles cinema the interplay of genres, the organization of space and time through editing and camerawork, the performance of the actors and celebrities and the practices of reviewing and publicity which in order to generate a series of layers. The entire of it should be analyzed in more detail if one is to understand how an adaptation works on cinema.

A series of case studies provides by the book in order to verify the point. For example, one chapter “Tennessee Williams on Film” talk about how “A Streetcar Named Desire” (1951) and “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof” (1958) use different techniques of spatial organization. A deliberate attempt was created by “A Streetcar Named Desire” to portray the drama as a theatrical event through cinematography and editing. On the other hand, the dramatic space of play merges with a realistic background and setting in “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof”. Edna Ferber’s Cimarron (1931, 1960) and Pearl S. Buck’s “The Good Earth” (1937) is another essay on famous adaptations which are concerned on how the producers stressed on faithfulness to the original texts in an aim to deal with “big” themes of nationality, ethnicity and social change. Nevertheless, in order to suit popular cinematic principles of the western, the woman’s movie and the maternal melodrama, these movies were being adapted too.

A typical American genre which refers to the western genre is in order to convey how “The Last of the Mohicans” (1992) and “Brokeback Mountain” (2005) place considerable significance on scenery and landscape was being concerned by Geraghty later. The interesting points were found in the chapter. A more detailed discussion of how such movies recreate the genre by concentrating in certain on the relationship between the two male central characters in “Brokeback Mountain”. How Old New York has been portrayed in adaptations like “The Heiress” (1949), “The House of Mirth” (2000) and “Gangs of New York” (2002) were being focused in Geraghty’s last chapter. They convey how crossing the boundary outside the town is an essential requirement of drama whereas the movies render the town visible in terms of locates and costumes. A virtue out of rootlessness through light, editing and movement were generated by the film “The House of Mirth”. Geraghty should have considered such thoughts in the light of nineteenth and early twentieth century American feminism especially in “The Heiress” and “The House of Mirth” so that she does not go far enough.

It is believed that the book promises more than it brought due to at least two chapters would have benefited from a more in-depth historical analysis. However, a major motion picture recently portrayed an important contribution to the ever-expanding content of work now available on adaptation studies.

(3) From Jane Austen to Hollywood to Bollywood (Laurence Raw, 2010)

Issues of continuing focus to adaptation studies was being concerned in both books. The irritated question of fidelity, the view that there is something called an “original text” and the ways in which adaptations are shaped by social, political and cinematic conditions of production were being included. Nine essays were contained in “The Cinematic Jane Austen” by the three contributors. It’s concentrating on how directors have tried to find cinematic equivalents of Austen’s unique stylistic technique although most of them are failed. Two contributions “Jane Austen: Sight and Sound” and “Jane Austen, Technology and the Heritage” by John Wiltshire suggest that while Austen is not a clearly visual novelist and her citations of the visible encourage reader involvement. Just like the cinema which has the implicit meanings and importance lie in what the reader acquired by inference from what is already revealed, the dramatic presentation or “realism” is at the forefront. Many directors were criticized by the Wiltshire’s second essay that they are failing to understand initial and continuing impulse of Austen that in an attempt to make the common anxieties of general life and to reduce “The charms of romance”. Instead they concern too much on the type of visual effects such as soft lighting and sweet music that can converts the novels into modern-day Gothic tales. Wiltshire argues this is provoked by the aspiration for “safety and community”, which he thought is feature of modern-day commercial cinema.

Austen’s use of gestures which maintain distinct on the structural level but which on the other hand manage to show an idea, a feeling with a concision and intensity that are closer to cinematic techniques than to the theatrical ones was looked by Ariane Hudelet. Consequently, Hudelet talks about how directors remake such details by means of sound and gesture. While in each chapter, the studies and interpretations also provide sharp insights into Austen’s technique and how directors have reaction to it. Fidelity is the most significant issue in adapting a novel for the movies is the hidden assumption that maintain in there. Fidelity in adaptation is definitely persuaded by Wiltshire to enhance the appreciation of a movie, particularly for viewers explained with the Austen novel from which it obtained. “The Cinematic Jane Austen” included a bit or no references to the current theoretical work done in adaptations studies, which encourages us to look at an adaptation as a text in its own right, shaped by forces other than the desire for fidelity.

Some rather unusual judgments were created by this approach. For instance, adaptations like Robert Z. Leonard’s “Pride and Prejudice” (1940) are believed someway “inferior” due to they were based on a stage-play rather than Austen’s text. A more democratic and more American version of England which reduced the novel’s emphasizing on class distinctions portray by the movie. How Leonard’s “American version of England” was shaped by studio demands didn’t being conveyed. MGM had enjoyed a thread of hits with typical adaptations like “David Copperfield” (1935) and “Wuthering Heights” (1939) since the mid-1930s. The similar lines along with a starry cast such as Olivier and Garson and also a simplified plot were planned clearly in “Pride and Prejudice”.

(4) Three Adaptations of “The Trial” (Peter Lev, 1984)

Novel “The Trial” wrote by Kafka was present an exciting challenge to adaptation study due to its ambiguous qualities. Kafka seems inadaptable because his style is so personal and his vision is so intense that any paraphrase is imagined. “The Trial” has been adapted more than one by different directors. Three movie adaptations from novel “The Trial” are the film by Jean-Louis Barrault and Andre Gide (1947), the film by Orson Welles (1962) and an educational movie entitled “The Trials of Franz Kafka (1973). Ambiguity of meaning and an uncertain anxious tone are the two basic traits of Kafka’s novel. “The Trial” appears to be a quite simple story, but the story’s referent maintains persistently uncertain make it become a frustratingly ambiguous work. Psychological, philosophical, religious, sociological and political interpretations and opposes all of them was lead by the book.

The uncertain tone of work is the second feature of “The Trial”. It is being suggests several different readings due to line by line and passage by passage of “The Trial”. The dominant tone is anxiety. Book’s quotidian, everyday quality is the final level of “The Trial” uncertain tone. “The Trial” is nothing about fantastic. Its abstract affluence is derived in daily. The only adaptation that begin from a professed fidelity to the novel is the play that created by The Gide and Barrault. The maintenance something of Kafka’s thematic ambiguity is the enormous success of Barrault and Gide. The film suggests several interpretations of the life’s meaning and confirms none of them just like the novel. However, the interpretations have altered. Issues of responsibility and collaboration in an Existentialist idiom also have discussed in the film. For the ambiguous design of Kafka, Barrault and Gide have added their own focuses and their own cultural environment into it. There is distinct thematic material utilized in the novel and film in order to reach at the same doubter conclusion. From the script, Barrault and Gide were judged that they do not seem to have captured the multiple tones of Kafka’s style. Intense anxiety, ironic humor and daily detail do not combine in their script and it does convey a persistence of hope in bleak situation.

The mechanics of adapting a novel for a play cause main weakness for the theater. It is because Kafka’s “The Trial” has a comparatively simple narrative but it’s too long and diverse in its scenes for an easy transform to the stage. Hence, Barrault and Gide need to deeply shorten the story. They success to shorten the individual scenes but their overall concept of tightening the narrative causes unfortunate transforms. While a sense of normal and daily’s reality was required in Kafka’s novel. By creating different level of reality and magical evolution, Barrault and Gide shorten the novel. Barrault and Gide have also altered the meaning of work when they are simplifying Kafka’s narrative and adding a trial scene.

There is no claim of great respect for Kafka’s work was made by Orson Welles. He was critizes about the passive and masochistic aspects of the book during an interview with Cahiers du Cinema. The story and the ending of the story were suggested by Welles that they must be altered to evade the implication of a victim collaborating with his executioners. Wells has built the story more active by removing some of its spiritual and philosophical implications during the practice. “The Trial” created by Welles is basically talk about a man hounded and destroyed by a dehumanized totalitarian state. Welles’s movie can be seen as an fascinating adaptation of one side of Kafka’s novel.

For making the Welles’s movie, mise en scene and Décor are largely responsible more than an unfortunate diminution of Kafka. “The Trial” was being set in a bleak modem world where everything is out of scale with human desires. A large and empty space was taking as the background. There is nothing natural. A cruel tone that has some relationship with Kafka’s anxiety was generated by the visual environment. Another success for the mise en scene of the movie is that it manages to be amazingly expressive while holding a link to reality. Welles’s stark wastelands, threatening buildings and antagonistic crowds are not all unfamiliar to our own everyday experience. Without change the level of realism, Welles tells the story smoothly. Therefore, Kafka’s achievement of generating a work that stretches far beyond the daily and yet maintains within it was being remake.

In 1973, there is a short educational movie called “The Trials of Franz Kafka” that was written and produced by Harold Mantell and narrated by Kurt Vonnegut. It is probably less an adaptation than an interpretation of audio and visual information of “The Trial”. Two main points made in this movie which is Kafka’s literary work reflects his life experiences and another one is “The Trial” is a predictive foretelling of Nazism and the Holocaust. Both points are far too reductive to stand as an interpretation of Kafka although they include an element of truth. Three adaptations have the most surprising feature which is their reinterpretation of Kafka after World War II. Adaptation study makes the cinema more visible in this case.

A fascinating case study of authorship was portrayed by these three adaptations of “The Trial”. The film that made by Barrault and Gide and Welles’s movie succeed in mixing some vital aspects of Kafka’s novel with the adaptors’ own focuses. Kafka is not inadaptable. All of the adaptations studied here add something to the understanding and appreciation of the novel although none of the, remake all the central traits of “The Trial”.

(5) Adaptation Studies: Its Past, Present, and Future (Laurence Raw, 2008)

Thomas Leitch treats an adapted text as something that does not simply remake or copy an “original” in book “In film Adaptation& Its Discontents”. While it should be treated as a work in its own right that shaped by specific

social, commercial, and institutional forces on the opposite side. In trying to verify his point, Leitch sets himself a motivated task. The twelve chapters of the book recognize and investigate a diversity of issues caused by the problems of transferring a book to the cinema. An argument of what types of fidelity are likely was contained in an adaptation of sacred scripture. Mel Gibson's “The Passion of the Christ” (2004) which was a critique of movies that claim to stay close to their original sources, and a consideration of

why some adapters like Hitchcock and Kubrick have obtain a reputation as

Auteurs is the instance.

Leitch initiates by considering the work of early adapters for the one-

roll classics of the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-centuries, who shoe homed

typical works like Shakespeare's plays. For example, make into ten-minute films and passing over the oral text as fast as possible. D. W. Griffith verified

extremely adapts at this and he was altered novels such as Frank Morris's “The Pit” which was also known as “A Comer in Wheat” (1909) into their thematic spirit that implied "something of the scale or status of the literary original".

In order to bring a text to the cinema, Leitch generates a grammar of

adaptation that is concentrating on the type of strategies. One of the book's main qualities lies in its readiness to connect with the idea of fidelity, which has dominated the conversation of adaptation studies until now. How the concept has been variously exploited by Hollywood directors was demonstrated by Leitch. So, movie “Gone with the Wind” (1939) and movie “The Lord of the Rings Film Trilogy” (2000-2003) was focusing by him.

A chapter to post-literary adaptations allocated by Leitch that is remove from the written text altogether. Besides that, it will select other media as their sources. Other media was such as video or computer games, comic strips or commercial brand-name products. Leitch argues that there is little to differentiate a literary from a post-literary adaptation while such adaptations might be released in academic circles as “crass” or lacking inherent importance.

2.32 Adaptations from film to film

(1) “Re-imagining” Hegemony and Misogyny in the Contemporary Slasher Remake (Ryan Lizard, 2010)

A rash of remakes or “Re-imaginings” in the jargon of the marketing campaigns that have revived those same movies texts and characters has being attributed in more current history. Movie “Friday the 13th” and movie “The Last House on the Left”

were remade in 2009 while “A Nightmare on Elm Street” was remade in 2010. “The Texas Chainsaw Massacre” (2003), “The Amityville Horror” (2005), “The Hills Have Eyes” (2006), “Halloween” (2007), “Prom Night” (2008) and “My Bloody Valentine” (2008) are other instances for the remade. The cultural significance of starting over in the form of these horror slasher remakes have to explore. In order to comprehend their cultural effect, themes, preoccupations, and elements of film form will be studied in both sets of texts. The original movies compared with their remakes, there are similarities and differences between them. They were attached with the theoretical writings that address the original movies ideological importance, to link this important which is the distance gap. The textual elements that signify these ideological positions have to observe in order to understand the similarities and differences between the two sets of films. Key shared elements like scenes, themes and shots interpreted together with the elements that vary through the movies.

Original and remake of movie “The Last House on the Left” (1972 and 2009) and movie “The Texas Chainsaw Massacre” (1974 and 2003) being discussed due to their ideal nature and their significance to the historical development of the horror genre. Becker, a theorist who argues that the "candid carnage" and themes of "people against people," attached with finale that provide no resolution in “The Last House on the Left”

(1972) and “The Texas Chainsaw Massacre” (1974) generate a set of movies that

articulate "a deep sense of hopelessness that can also be understood as

political disengagement". Only two characters whose wounds are revealed in the bloodless nature of the original “The Texas Chainsaw Massacre” (197'4), while every character carries evidences of pain in the remake. When looking for similarities between original movie and remake movie, it is hard to make comparison between original and remake. But by looking at which elements of the original were remained and which were eliminated it can be revealed what ideological issues and stances the remakes shared with the originals, and in the treatment of what is normal is the first place to look for similarities between them.

The main character are advised against the abnormal as they are told that they do not want to go of the main road, should not pick up hitchhikers, and are not to "go messing around other folks' property." in the original movie “The Texas Chainsaw Massacre”. However, they do not listen to the advice. This element of punishment for deviations from normality is portrayed and highlighted, both by where the threat is and the behavior of the main characters that were transgressive was presented in the remake of “The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (2003).

Theme normality also present in the original film “The Last House on the Left” (1972). The early scenes of original “The Last House on the Left” are filled with references to the “bad neighborhood”. The movie was focused on the kidnap and torture of the two female main characters. This collision of two worlds that not meant to engage the same space was also pointed by the remake of “The Last House on the Left (2009). The explicit theme in this film is the classification between normal and abnormal and the penalty for offending the boundaries. The highlighting on the return to a normal, hegemonic situation in the remakes is culturally important, as it comes about at a time of tenuous U.S. relationships with outside cultures and people.

2.33 Adaptations from videogame to film

(1) Game over, curtain close (Adam Elkus, 2006)

There are plenty of films adapted from videogames in the past three years. The examples such as “Super Mario Brothers”, “Final Fantasy”, “Resident Evil”, “Tomb Raider”, “Halo”, “Max Payne” and Silent Hill Series. Videogame movie’s phenomenon is seen from these videogame movie adaptations. Filmmakers do not spend much of time in producing a faithful and quality adaptation due to the videogame have certain audiences supported. They ignored the distinctive. For instance, “Shining” is esque horror of the “Alone in the Dark” and “Resident Evil” games in favor of nonstop action and poorly clad women. “The Spirits Within” had a bit to do with the real game series, which is mainly oriented towards swords-and-sorcery action is the science-fiction storyline of “Final Fantasy”.

The Square Enix teams were exactly from the same people that produce the game “Final Fantasy” are the teams who write ,produce and direct the straight-to-DVD movie Final Fantasy VII Advent Children. However, “Advent Children” also does not match in any way to its source material. The game's emotionally charged and ambiguous ending remains in the complicated and silly plot of the film. It is in order to bring us a rote post apocalyptic world in which the characters suffer from a virus known as "Geostigma." Some of the more fantastical plots in videogames also do not make the cut in movies. The motion picture Super Mario Brothers” was resorted to a long opening monologue to notify the audience that dinosaurs had survived the disappearance in a parallel dimension and are called “koopas” in the present time. A Bronx wise guy expressed that only the fact is more off-putting than the explanation. The beginning like this is an alternate for storyline and character development and a frequent turn-off for audiences. The filmmaker resists in explaining over-the-top plotlines and circumstances that were developed through game-player experience is the general mistake in videogame films. Nevertheless, all of these problems are just symptoms of the most essential, obvious difference between the two media.

Rewrite the story for film audiences is the only option for the filmmaker. But, it will always compare negatively to the gaming experience easily because the jump in medium spoilt what it is superior about the game. Therefore, this is what makes videogame adaptations basically unusual from other types of entertainment such as comic books, novels, films, dramas and television shows.

However, part of the film market will be maintained by the videogames adaptations. Major studios hold broken down adaptations of videogames and comic books because they looking at declining ticket sales need surefire hits. The built-in viewers of hard-core fans will watch the movie regardless of any negative reviews is in their skeptical calculation.

2.4 Theoretical Frameworks

2.41 Psychoanalytical Model

Psychoanalytical film theory was stressed on a film’s portrayal of unconscious source of pleasure or anxiety. This model studies the capabilities of movie in generating deep-rooted psychological, sometimes immature and irrational, desires and anxieties. Psychoanalytical critics examine the ways how movie organizes and manipulate or control a viewer’s mind and perception in particular scene from a film. There are three elements of psychoanalytical model. Voyeurism is a type of pleasure that acquired from looking at particular characters and conditions on film screen. These pleasures can stimulate in two approaches which are cinema technique and concentration on sexy females artists. Second element fetishizing the body is emphasized on the idea where character in a certain scene is seen as “fetish” where is demonstrate the bodies of their performs in a fetishized fashion. Both female and male artists can work for this obsession. For instance, muscular body of male artist such as Daniel Craig or the sexy body of female artist such as Scarlett Johansson, as idealized sexual object conforming to an exaggerated cultural ideal of man power and potential.

The final element is taboo images. By displaying taboo or forbidden subjects and images, film can appeal to the voyeurism pleasures of the viewers. Movies provide spectacles of sex and violence can excite and stimulate viewer in ways they will deny in polite society. For the psychoanalytical critics, the cinema’s ability to motivate viewers with sex and violence scenes illustrates its powerful appeal to a viewer’s primitive, irrational and unconscious desires in extremely arousing approaches.

2.42 Cognitive Model

Cognitive model studies the ways viewers perceive and interpret the audio and visual information in movies. Cognitive film theory concentrated on two elements. First element is the viewer’s perception of audio and visual information while second element is the ways how viewers organize and classify these perceptions in order to acquire meaning from a movie. The interpretation of audio and visual information by film viewers involves two components. First, perceptual processing which refers to the sensory information that viewer’s percept. It’s involves the senses of sight and hearing which is what viewers see and what they hear. This process enlightens how our sensory process takes place in watching and listening to the visual and audio information of a movie. Second, interpretive processing which refers to the way that viewer organizes sensory information to enforce a higher-order level of meaning upon it. It can be either cognitive or active interpretational reaction to sensory information. This process explains how our brain works in connecting the elements of sensory when we watch a particular movie. The difference between perceptual and interpretive processing stressed on the viewer’s contribution to the creation of meaning in movies. Viewers understand and interpret visual and audio information by using schemas. Schemas are the frameworks of interpretation. Schemas explain that viewer’s reaction to movie are not strictly sensory driven. However, it can be depended on the certain expectations on that given genre of movie. According to cognitive film theory, viewers can easily understand and enjoy movies can be explained by two types of correspondences involved when they watching films.

For the perceptual correspondences, film is accessible and enjoyable to viewers because viewers can convey can connect several elements in a given movie. The elements included computer created or special effects, scenes from the smooth editing sequence in a movie, shots and cinematic techniques used and acting styles of actors. While for the social correspondences, it was concerned about the viewer’s social experiences in real life which can enable them to connect the plot and narrative elements in movies. It is because there are some association between the real and film world. Such correspondence differed from appropriate role-based behavior, for instance, very young children are likely to judge as good or bad character is based on their looks whether they are ugly or attractive.

2.5 Summary

In conclusion for this chapter, the book reviews that related with the genres as the repetition and differences make me understand more about the film genres, the repetition, the similarities and the differences of movies. Besides that, the review journals that have found are related with the movie adaptations help me know more about the movies adaptations, whether the source of the adaptations from novels, books, videogames or other films.

By studying the review of books and journals about movie adaptations, psychoanalytical film theory and cognitive film theory, its help me much in conducting this research study and also help me to have more clarify idea in achieving the objective in this research study.

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