Literature Review Examples

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Index of Literature Reviews (Page 4)

Determinants Of Dividend Payout Ratio In Cement Sector

The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of different variables on the Dividend Payout Ratio. In this paper we study the impact of set of specific variables on the dividend payout policy of Cement Sector of the Pakistan in the period of 2003-2008, extending the existing research on dividend payout policy. The paper studies a sample of about 14 Cement companies of Pakistan; data is collected from SBP & KSE, performing the regression test to verify the validity of the results. We analyze the impact of different variables such as annual sales, earning before income and taxes...

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Determinants Of Dividend Policy Evidence From Bahraini Firms

A percentage of corporate earnings that is paid as dividends to shareholders.  decision is a critical decision area and its one of the most important financial policies decision, not only from the viewpoint of the company, but also from that of the shareholders and others such as the employees and regulatory bodies. As the dividend literature suggests, if these decisions are handled efficiently, this is expected to be reflected in value of firms. More importantly, analysis of dividend policy is useful in enabling policymakers to identify the success or failure of policy initiatives or, alternatively, highlight different strategies undertaken...

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Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In India

In this thesis the author has selected the topic as “Role of Foreign Direct investment in India”. The author would find out the various factors which FDI plays in India. Also the author would find out the various determinant of FDI for a country. The research problem or question is to find out the role which FDI plays in a developing country. Many of the countries are not able to attract the amount of FDI needed and this research will help them to understand the requirement and role which FDI plays....

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Determinants Of Gold Price

In Chapter One—Introduction, we have introduced about gold, international monetary system, and the influences of gold prices in the world. We have defined research questions, research objectives, significance of study, and scope of study....

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Determinants Of Non Performing Loans Case Study Guyana Finance

The study attempts to ascertain the determinants of non-performing loans in the Guyanese banking sector using a panel dataset and a fixed effect model similar to Jimenez and Saurina (2005). Consistent with international evidence we find that the real effective exchange rate has a significant positive impact on non-performing loans. This indicates that whenever there is an appreciation in the local currency the non-performing loan portfolios of commercial banks are likely to be higher. Our empirical results show that GDP growth is inversely related to non-performing loans, suggesting that an improvement in the real economy translates into lower non-performing...

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Determinants Of The Choice Of Convertible Debt Design

Increasingly Liberal capital controls by the Indian Central Bank coupled with a growing appetite for emerging market investments among international investors has enabled Indian companies to raise capital in international capital markets. Smaller Indian companies until recently were unable to access bond markets, while bigger firms weren’t able to make large issuances due to less liquid and underdeveloped bond markets. As Indian firms make their operations global, borrowing internationally provides them with a natural hedge since receivables and borrowing occur in the foreign currency....

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Determination Of Cost For Local Loops

This research project is focussed on establishing how best to determine cost for local loops in the telecommunications industry. As consumer and business demands continue to increase it has become progressively more apparent that a most cost effective method of costing last mile or local loops must be established. For every incorrect cost determination profit margin is eroded and when this scenario is multiplied out over innumerable operations the cost of error becomes considerable. Therefore this project aims to address the stated overall aim of research a determination of cost for local loops by means of creation...

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Determining The Profitability Of Financial Institutions

Rapid changes in financial service industries make it important to determine the profitability of financial institution. Banks plays an important role in financial market of a country and for this it is very important to evaluate that bank operates in efficient manner and also what are the factors which affect the profitability of banks....

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Develop And Identify Appropriate Leadership Styles

The workforce is generally (should be) regarded as one of the keys - if not the key - to an organization’s success. An effective HR policy is one of the keystones of corporate...

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Developed Nations Currency Rate Fluctuations On Us Dollar

Many illusions are associated with exchange rate exsists. They are: Many people think that if the exchange rate of the domestic currency of a nation is strong, then the nation is economically prospering. It is an absolute illusion!...

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Development Of Beijing Randd Service Industry

Along with the development of knowledge-based economy and the specialization of the division of labor, enterprises increasingly engage in R&D activities by integrating the external R&D resources. The trend of R&D externalization have been quite clear, and firms using external resources to conduct R&D, consequently, leads to the development of the R&D service industry, namely those who provides R&D services to the clients....

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Development Of The Government Bond Market In Nigeria

Finance plays an increasingly important role in economic growth and development of nations around the world. These roles are in many different forms, they include but not limited to channelling savings towards investment. The level of sophistication of a financial system is important and to a large extent determines the level of overall growth and development of that economy. The financial system contributes to economic growth performance through several mechanisms and channels – mobilising savings, allocating funds to their most productive uses or investments, monitoring and appraising productive uses or investments, transferring and sharing risk (see World Bank...

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Development Process Of Capital Account Liberalization In China

Capital account liberalization refers to relieves the circulation of capital control under the capital account, which can be divided into two layers: one is to cancel the control of the cross-border capital transactions of itself, two is to cancel the foreign exchange associated with capital transactions including funds transfer of cross-border and the control of foreign currency exchange (Yi Xian Ron, 2001)....

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Devised Theories Regarding Determinants Of Dividend Policy

Corporate dividend policy was one of the most debated topics in corporate finance. Many researchers had devised theories and provided empirical evidence regarding the determinants of a firm’s dividend policy. The dividend policy issued, however, remain still unresolved as due to the fact that there were so many variables depending upon the type of company, its financial conditions, its industry etc that no single formula could be applicable. Clear guidelines for an ‘optimal payout policy’ had not yet emerged despite the voluminous literature. Still there was an acceptable explanation for dividend behavior of companies....

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Diagnostic Accuracy In Appendicitis

Background: Appendicitis remains the most common indication for surgical intervention in acute abdomen. The negative appendicectomy rate is 25% at KNH according to a recent study. This study seeks to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a protocol based on modified Alvarado score and ultrasonography in equivocal cases in appendicitis at KNH....

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Differences Between Common Risk Measurement

Nowadays, investors are no longer focuses in investing in one type of investment only but rather on several type of investments all together such as in property, unit trust, shares, bonds and others. Investing in several type investments are called portfolio investment. Investing in portfolio investment could spread  the  risk of possible loss due to below expectations performance of one or a few of them. For investors to ensure gaining good returns and profits from their investment, they need to be able to measure the risk of all of their portfolio investments. "Risk is an asymmetric, relative, heteroskedastic, multidimensional concept that has to take into account asymptotic...

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Digital Forensic Investigation In Organisations

In today’s technical world there is an increasing need for evidence in organizations. Good digital evidence is becoming a business enabler. Very few organizations have the structures in area to enable them to conduct cost effective, low-impact and efficient digital investigations. When a digital incident occurs there are generally three courses of actions that are taken, generally dependant on the type of organisation within which the incident occurs, or which is responding the event. Digital Investigation is a medium to organizations which are use to provide good and trustworthy evidence and processes. Traditional investigative models follow the general process of:...

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Dissertation On A Windows Based Scrabble Game

A windows-based scrabble game is developed and implemented, which has having advanced features for the game. The game can be played between human against computer. Human can check the word before placing a word on to the board. There is a functionality to check the words in dictionary. The tools required for the game design are explained below. The game designed must be a good looking, user must understand clearly about the game of scrabble....

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Dissertation On The Risk Management Concept

Risks are everywhere and in any activity. Many pharmaceutical companies are currently looking to better understand, anticipate, and be able to mitigate business risk in order to deliver the rewards of risk taking, and to minimize the frequency and impact of risk on the downside. Some of them use Enterprise Risk Management concept (ERM, developed by COSO) to establish an effective corporate management system. In the present paper, we analyze the integrated approach that is used by the company as the foundation of risk management within a company....

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Dividend Announcement Institutional Holdings In China

Dividend has been considered a signal of information which influences stock price positively. However, since Fama and French (2001) found a dividend disappearing phenomenon, many other studies also show a decline ratio in dividend payout and yield. Evidence shows that firms are reluctant to use dividend as signal because the content of information delivered by dividend is decreasing. In the study of the declining information content of dividend announcements and the effects of institutional holdings, Yakov and kefei (2006) confirmed dividend disappearing phenomenon again and propose an explanation by studying the institutional holdings effects based on the data on...

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Dividend Declaration And Abnormal Returns In Stock

An event study measures the impact of a specific event on the value of a firm. The importance of the study comes from the fact that, given the rationality of the market, the effect of a particular event will be immediately on the security price. Event studies started as tests of the semi‐strong form of market efficiency, which says that all publicly‐available information gets impounded instantaneously into the stock price....

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Dividend Payout And Effects Of Firm Characteristics

One of the most fascinating topics in Finance literature both in theoretical and empirical dimensions is the dividend policy of the firm. Extensive research has been done in many facets of this topic. First the dividend irrelevance proponents challenged the norm that dividend payouts impact the value of the firm, contending that there is no relationship between the dividend policy of the firm and the value of its shares. Miller and Modigliani (1961) were first to propound this theory under the assumptions of perfect capital markets. Thereafter most literature on dividend payouts have taken root from the...

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Dividend Policy

Dividend policy has been the subject of investigation and debate for almost 50 years, most of it conducted in the United Kingdom. Before regression analysis was applied by John Lintner in 1956 to the behaviour of a small group of industrial companies, dividends were good and should be maximised by firms wherever possible. Lintner, who showed that firms adopted and tended to adhere to optimal long-term dividend pay-out ratios which were relatively stable, suggested that managers would only raise a firm’s dividend if they were confident that the firm’s future earnings could be maintained at a consistently higher level in...

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Does Islamic Bank Strategy Mimic Interest Rate

Many scholars mentioned that Islamic banks which use profit and loss sharing principle seem to imitate the volatility of interest rate on delivering return to depositor instead of financial performance which affected by economic growth. Thereby, this research attempts to examine empirically the existence of Islamic bank's mimicking strategy in Indonesia using artificial neural networks (ANN) model....

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Does Nifty Future Trading Apply To Indian Stocks

India's financial market began its transformation path in the early 1990s. The banking sector witnessed sweeping changes, including the elimination of interest rate controls, reductions in reserve and liquidity requirements and an overhaul in priority sector lending. Persistent efforts by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to put in place effective supervision and prudential norms since then have lifted the country closer to global standards (Ranganatham, 2004, p.20)...

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Dose Saving Help A Country To Grow Faster

Dose saving help a country to grow faster? Theoretically, for a country to grow faster and consistently in long-run, the country must have invested more in their capital stock. Whereby, in economics term, capital stock is defines as factors of production such as factories, machinery, equipment that produce more goods and services (John Eatwell, 1987). For a country to achieve such high level of investment in replacing their old capital stock for greater nation productivity, the country should have save enough capital resources for their investment. Thus, saving play a crucial rule in a country��s development and growth. This is...

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Earnings Management To Meet Or Beat Earnings Thresholds Finance

Purpose - The purpose of the study is to examine whether Egyptian listed firms engage in earnings management to meet or beat earnings thresholds, particularly, earnings level (avoiding losses) threshold and earnings change (avoiding earnings decreases) threshold....

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Econometric Modeling Forecasting Companys Fcf Components

Modeling of corporate financial activity is an essential part of financial analysis, budgeting and company valuation. A model, consisting of selected items from financial statements usually is constructed and used for forecasts without any specific techniques – simply predicting potential growth of a company’s income according to historical trends (adjusted by overall economic situation or intentions of management) and calculating other items, such as profit or working capital, using historical or desired ratios. Choosing assumptions for modeling and forecasting includes a high amount of subjectivity, caused by human factor. It could be reduced by using econometric techniques....

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Econometric Modelling And Forecasting Companys Fcf Components

Modeling of corporate activity is an essential part of financial analysis, budgeting and company valuation. A model, consisting of selected items from financial statements usually is constructed and used for forecasts without any specific techniques – simply predicting potential growth of a company’s income according to historical trends (adjusted by overall economic situation or intentions of management) and calculating other items, such as profit or working capital, using historical or desired ratios. Choosing assumptions for modeling and forecasting includes a high amount of subjectivity, caused by human factor. It could be reduced using econometric techniques....

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Economic Growth And Stock Market Advancement

Macroeconomic indicators comprise a range of variables which include rates of inflation and interest, exchange rate, foreign direct investment, money supply, investment expenditure, consumption expenditure and output. Output is also known as gross domestic product (GDP), which is the worth of the combine production of goods and services in a country during a year. The aggregate value consist of various sectors and sub-sectors in an economy that varies country to country....

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Effect Of Economic Factors On Stock Prices

It’s believed that an economic atmosphere is a major factor in determining the primary trend of a stock market. L H Beng (1998)The stock market, on the other hand, is often regarded as an effective and a reliable barometer of a country’s economy, and the stock prices are deemed as a reflection of future expectations concerning the economic well being of a country. Invariably, Stock, by its very nature, cannot be seen off as an independent entity from economic realities and performance. Consequently, it is of great interest to find out or examine the relationship between some economic variables...

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Effect Of Fiscal Deficit On Inflation

The budget deficit is nothing more than the difference between the expenditures of the government and the tax revenues that government receives (Galbraith and Darity, 1995), similarly fiscal deficit too is termed as the difference between government’s spending and earnings, the difference between budget deficit and fiscal deficit is that in fiscal deficit the earnings from borrowings and liabilities is not counted (see appendix). For comparative purposes it is expressed as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a nation....

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Effect Of Nintendo Wii Console On Rehabilitation Health

The prevalence of serious neurological cases is increasing year after another. A prospective community-based study done in United Kingdome (UK) showed that the incidence of underlined neurological cases like Cerebral Palsy (CP), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Cerebro-vascular Accident (CVA) is about 0.6% of UK population in six years while 0.6% of the affected cases had recovered from the neurological case (Macdonald et. al 2000). Not only the neurological incidence has its remarkable effect on the patients and societies, but also the phase after it that is more challenging and time and money consuming. It has been revealed that up...

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Effect Of Targets Listing Status On Acquirers Returns

The term “listing effect” was firstly brought up by Faccio, McConnell, and Stolin (2006). They use this phrase to describe the previous research results which states that when acquiring publicly held targets, bidders achieve zero or negative average cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) in the announcement period, while when acquiring privately held targets, bidders achieve positive CARs. The privately held targets include both stand-alone companies and subsidiaries of other firms (Chang (1998), Fuller et al. (2002), Hansen and Lott (1996), and Moller et al. (2004)). The relevant issues have been examined by a large amount of literature in the finance area....

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Effective Site Waste Management Plan

To fulfill the object of the topic for Site Waste Management Plan (hereinafter referred to as SWMP), the first part in this chapter 2 literature review is defined what is construction waste and follow by the types of materials waste contribute on construction site. . Hereafter, the next part will be continuous by the factors cause of site waste in the construction industry. For the last part will carry out on what is SWMP and the benefits of site waste management plan applying in construction industry and also for the guide to formulating a site waste management plans....

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