Literature Review Examples

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Index of Literature Reviews (Page 11)

Links Between Oil Prices And Macroeconomic Variables

Throughout the history, Oil has played a critical role to shape countries development since effect of oil prices on a country’s economy has been and continuous to be keen interest from many people particularly economist. Given the importance of oil and the attention of oil prices receive in the financial press, a considerable economic literature has been devoted to study the impact of oil prices on macroeconomic variables such as inflation, growth rates and exchanged in one country ( e.g. Hamillton, 1983; Hooker, 1996; Eltony & Al-Wadi, 2001 and Keane & Prasad, 1996) Despite the documentation that oil price shocks...

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Links Between Unemployment And Health

Unemployment and health are recognised as being linked, though the relationship is complex. It is unclear how much continued unemployment is a result of ill health, and how much ill health is due to unemployment. The purpose of this report is to begin to explore any links between unemployment and health in Fife, to highlight those areas in Fife where problems lie and to add to the evidence and knowledge on this subject for those working within the unemployment and health sectors....

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Literature On Corporate Social Responsibility At Tesco

Tesco was established in 1919 by Jack Cohen, it has started from selling daily products and has developed itself to selling mobile phones, and other electronic items in their chain stores. It is having branches in many countries around the globe. The major reason for its success is its corporate strategy that is focus on customer, providing quality products at the cheap prices etc (Tesco, 2006). Tesco is an organization which believes in contributing for the social welfare of the people. Let us discuss how it relates itself to the CSR....

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Literature On Knowledge

The previous chapter has underlined the significance of this study. This chapter will cover the literature of the study. Literature reviews are secondary sources get from available work such as journals, books, thesis, and other reports....

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Literature On The Demand For Cigarette

This chapter is to review the existing literature on the demand for cigarette. There is a large volume of published studies describing the price and income elasticity on cigarette consumption. Furthermore, there is also a large and growing body of literature has investigated the effects of taxes and anti-smoking regulations on the demand for cigarettes. So far, there are only a few studies regarding the relationship between aging population and the consumption of cigarette....

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Literature Related To The Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanisms

We start the chapter with reviewing the empirical literature related to the monetary policy transmission mechanisms, as previous studies provide us with necessary tools and ideas for performing the empirical analysis. Based on the literature reviewed, we choose the appropriate model for our analysis. The next section is devoted to describing the data employed. The final part of the chapter addresses the questions regarding the empirical estimation and interpretation of obtained results....

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Literature Review About Behavioral

To illustrate the literature review, a brief discussion will be discussed on behavioral finance, conceptual definition of dependent variable (risk perception), independent variables (information asymmetry, demographic factors, overconfidence and expert knowledge) and the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable....

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Literature Review About Capital Structure And Corporate Finance

Williamson in his article, “Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance”, analyzed the effects of tangible assets and probability of bankruptcy on the relationship between capital structure, leverage, and asset liquidity. He predicted that asset liquidity will increase optimal leverage, which means he concluded positive relationship between asset liquidity and capital structure....

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Literature Review About Capital Structure And Its Determinants

This chapter is the literature review of some journals which are related to capital structure and some of its determinants. Specially, asset liquidity is studied to be found more about its relationship with capital structure. In this chapter, different results from different studies and countries on the relationship between capital structure and its determinants are discussed through different theories like pecking order, trade-off and agency theory....

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Literature Review About Cash And Cash Management

This chapter discusses the theoretical framework, empirical review both covering early studies between 1980 to 1999 and the current studies covers 2000 to 2009. At the end the summary of whole discussion has been provided.....

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Literature Review About Corporate Governance And Disclosures

This section reviews the extensive literature - academic, legislative and policy, in the field of corporate governance and voluntary disclosures with a view to identify the gaps, if any, in existing research in terms of voluntary disclosure studies in India. Based on the literature, a hypothesis is postulated on the on relationship between firm-level attributes and the extent of voluntary disclosures in the top 100 Indian companies listed on the BSE....

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Literature Review About Debt And Equity

In emerging economies debt is the major source of external financing.In early years not have effect on firms but later on its effect appeared.Debt can be used as expropriation mechanism. Debt governance highlight the role of ownership....

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Literature Review About Justication For Banking Regulation

Over the last century the world experienced multitudes of financial crises with different scales of complexity and severity. The frequency of severe banking crisis has increased dramatically in last two decades, Bordo et al. (2001). This escalating severity can be observed in recent episodes of financial turbulences, particularly, the 1997 Asian crisis, in S&L crisis in US and the recent global financial crisis which started in 2007. Most economic downturns were related to financial panics. As a result, the governments in the world have become more concern about financial stability. The World Bank reveals that the government bailouts cost has...

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Literature Review About Managing Credit Risk In Banking

As discussed in chapter one, the main objective of this research is to portray the contemporary practices of managing credit risk in banking industry and comparing the practices between banks in UK and Bangladesh. To achieve the prime objective the research will also critically investigate the nature of credit risk for banks and evaluate the risk as a cause of major bank failures in history. The study will also explore various methods of bank credit risk management especially the Basel framework. Finally the research will try to formulate a set of best practices for credit risk management in Bangladeshi and...

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Literature Review About Mergers And Acquisitions

Although they are often uttered in the same breath and were synonymous, the terms "merger" and "acquisition" mean slightly different things. (Peterson, Marcus, 2007)...

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Literature Review About Ownership And Performance

In order to test the relationship between ownership structure, market structure and bank performance, the relative findings and hypotheses are vital for the research. Thereby, the prior studies should be introduced in this section....

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Literature Review About Ownership Structure And Firm Performance

In terms of corporate governance, the correlation between ownership structure and firm performance has been an important topic and the scholars pay sustaining interest on it. The debate of whether there is a relationship between ownership structure and firm performance is an on-going theme....

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Literature Review About Portfolio Theory And Assets

Ample work has been done on pricing asset due to its vital importance in finance literature. Several researches have been conducted in the area of pricing stock prices Harry Markowitz (1952) gave portfolio theory in his research “portfolio selection”, Sharpe (1964) and Lintner (1965) introduced capital asset pricing model, Sharpe was awarded with noble prize for his work on capital asset pricing model, Stephen A. Ross (1976) came up with arbitrage pricing theory which is much flexible in comparison to portfolio theory and capital asset pricing model because it can incorporate many factors for the purpose of asset pricing ....

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Literature Review About Sexuality Support For Patients Nursing

As is well documented the issue of sexuality has not been sufficiently well addressed within the context of Palliative Care (Butler et al 1998; Watkins et al 1998; Bourgeois-Law 1999; Stead et al 2002; Lemieux et al 2004)....

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Literature Review About Small And Medium Enterprises Finance Essay

Small and Medium Enterprises form an important part of the economy and it plays an important role in the growth of both the developed and developing economies. The contribution of SME towards national income and creation of employment is enormous. In recent years SMEs have also played a significant role in making their presence felt in international markets. Many SMEs are now involved across the value chain from production to export of goods across the globe. Despite these advantages which SMEs offer and the potential which SMEs have there are many barriers and risks which SMEs face in today’s market....

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Literature Review About Socially Responsible Investments

This chapter reviews the literature relating to socially responsible investment in a funds management context. A quick review of funds management, specifically mutual funds is presented in Section 2.1. This is followed by a brief introduction to socially responsible investment (SRI) funds in Section 2.2, which includes an explanation of the investment screening approach used by these funds. Following this, Section 2.3 summarises the existing evidence on the performance of SRI funds relative to non-SRI funds. Thereafter, Section 2.4 examines how variation in screening intensity affects performance of SRI funds, while Section 2.5 examines how this variation affects the flow-performance...

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Literature Review About Strategic Financial Management

Financial strategy is mainly focused on the financial aspects of strategic decisions. Of course, that means communication with the interests of shareholders and capital markets are so loose. However, a sound financial strategy and competitive strategy as the best company, the business must take into account all internal and external stakeholders....

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Literature Review About The Basel Ii Norms

The review of expansion in the Nigeria banking and financial system shows that the banking sector has undergone remarkable changes over the years, in terms of ownership structure, the number of institutions, as well as the level of operations. This is mainly motivated by the deregulation of the financial sector in order to obey the rules of international standards. As at the end of June 2006, the number of insured banks stood at 25 with different sizes and degree of soundness (Adams J. A. 2005)....

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Literature Review About The Capital Earnings Association

The explanation of this paper is to observe personally the capital-earnings association to try to conclude which between the possible explanations of the association appear to be important. We use annual data 1983-1989 in addition three years of lags on book standards of capital earnings, and a quantity of other variables. Data from the Report, almost insured U.S. commercial bank used, yielding an unusually huge data set of over 80,000 bank-year report (Berger, 1995)....

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Literature Review About The Current Financial Crisis

Since 2007, we are hearing everyone talking about financial crisis. During the past years, every day when we listened to the radio or watched the television, we would always hear about the global financial crisis, stock market crashes, subprime crisis, credit crunch and collapse of large and small companies in many parts of the world. In the context of this financial crisis, there are two simple questions that one would like to ask. “What has gone wrong on earth that caused today’s global Financial Crisis to happen?” and “What is the possible remedy?”....

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Literature Review About The Definition Of Risk Perception

To illustrate the literature review, a brief discussion will be discussed on behavioral finance, conceptual definition of dependent variable (risk perception), independent variables (information asymmetry, demographic factors, overconfidence and expert knowledge) and the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable....

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Literature Review About The Efficiency Market Hypothesis

Many previous researchers have studied in the field of seasonal regularities, particularly for the day of the week effect, January effect, the quarter effect and holiday effect. Some of them considered the seasonal effect is the divergence from the theories of asset pricing behaviour and it could be evidences of market inefficiency (see Lakonishok et al. 1995). Another researcher such as Fama and French (1993) thought that seasonal effect was just anomalies for temporarily exist in the market and the market is still efficient according to the market efficient hypothesis. Other researchers focus on explanation of earing abnormal profit from...

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Literature Review Agency Cost And Maturity Matching Theory

Myers (1977) discussed that risky debt financing caused low investment benefits when a firm's investment had chances to look for growth option. Financial Analysts worked to represent equity holders failed to accomplish profitable investment options because risky debt control a part of equity holders’ incentive in the form of a decrease in the probability of default. Myers represented that low investment benefits could be assured by providing short-term debt to mature before the growth options utilized. The hypothesis was that the firm’s assets had a greater ratio of growth options were used shorter-term debt....

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Literature Review And Determinants Of Interest Rates

We may not always realize it, but interest rates play an important role in our everyday lives and can greatly affect our buying power. Consequently, the overall trend of interest rates can have a major effect on our investments, thus, as an investor it is important to pay close attention to different trends in interest rate. Major shifts in direction, be increase or decrease, should cause you to review present investments as well as point towards potential investment opportunities. Normally interest rate mean everything stated by State Bank of Pakistan (from now onwards SBP) funds rate to any of the...

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Literature Review And Empirical Predictions On Mispriced Stocks Finance Essay

Most of the research done in prior pertains to analysts’ ability to recognize the mispriced stocks, focusing on the stock recommendation instead on the analysts’ valuations per se. For example, Womack (1996) documents substantial market reactions to the announcement of analysts’ recommendations, indicating investors believe that recommendations are valuation relevant. However, Bradshaw (2001) uses analysts’ earnings forecasts as an input to residual income model, and discovers that resulting valuations are inadequate to describe the affiliated stock recommendations even when there is a proof that these valuations recognize mispriced stocks (Frankel and Lee 1998). These findings indicate that personal valuations of the analysts differ from the findings of residual income...

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Literature Review And Overview Of Efficient Market Hypothesis

In order to better understand the origin and the idea behind the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH), the first section deals with an overview of the EMH. Section 2 deals with the Random Walk Model which is a close counterpart of the EMH. We then have examine the different degrees of information efficiency that exist, namely the weak form efficiency, semi-strong form efficiency and the strong form efficiency. In section 4, we have a brief overview of the different types of statistical tests that have been used in the literature to examine the weak form efficiency. Section 5 explains the implications...

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Literature Review Health Care Changes

Health care is facing drastic changes. Relevant literature refers to those that are sources important in proving in depth knowledge needed to make changes in practice or to strengthen the present study in order to lay down the foundation which helps to reveal the prevailing situation of the similar studies in different areas....

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Literature Review Institutional Holdings And Corporate Governance

Corporate governance paradigm is based on the argument of Berle and Means (1932) that separation of ownership and control leads to the problems associated with agency theory so that the managers of a company may not act in the best interest of owners. Throughout the twentieth century, the pattern of ownership continued to change from declining individual ownership to increasing institutional ownership. So, it is not surprising that institutional investors are increasingly looking more carefully at the corporate governance of companies because good governance goes hand in hand with increased transparency and accountability. Many studies have been conducted to see...

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Literature Review Investigating The Calendar Effect

Famas’ (1965) general work, which called “calendar effect”, is between the most investigated subjects in finance. The distribution of the stock returns is a puzzling empirical finding, which has been accomplished by many researchers in the world stock markets. The most unusual empirical result is that the distributions of stock returns are not the same for all days of the week. This is the “Day-of the-week”. Monday, the first trading day of the week, is characterized by an abnormally negative mean of return while on Friday, the last trading day of the week returns producing the highest returns of the...

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