Role of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Analysis in the Light of HRL

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            PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION AND JUDICIAL RESTRAINT

     ROLE OF THE SUPREME COURT OF PAKISTAN, ANALYSIS IN THE

                                                   LIGHT OF HRL

  1. Introduction

Law as a living thing develops and creates with our general public. Advanced society unavoidably needs complex laws by which they can win the great administration in entire society and implement the basic rights. Public interest litigation triggers law change when the refinement and improvement of our laws are at fluctuation with the modernity and advancement of our laws. It can likewise require law change by testing laws that abuse the equity or human rights benchmarks.[1]

The lead of law is the essential request in the acculturated social orders and it is the fundamental fixing required for the great administration in a group, all people must have entry to the autonomous courts and the tribunals to break down their question for the moment and unfaltering equity, all people incorporates, each gathering of society with no racial separation and the public interest litigation gives the way to the unprivileged and denied segments of the general public to have free equity, and that equity is critical, the solid society in which the equity is won.

Public interest litigation is the instrument for the social change, which implies that it offers assurance to the social and monetary privileges of the unprivileged, hindered and underestimated groups of the general public, the term public interest litigation, by and large, alludes the lawful move made by the better legal than make a lawful guideline which is of social significance in light of the fact that in broad daylight social rights are the essential purpose of the case, so by the method for suit lawful rights have been set up which are of open significance and went for the social change. Public interest litigation is utilized to spare the social, monetary, political and social liberties of people in general, these rights possibly in the type of the global human rights standards or the rights given by the constitution.[2]

Public interest case might be comprehended as the practice of force by the higher courts, for example, the High court’s and the Supreme Court, particularly to engage or remedy the social shameful acts to specific people or aggregates or to the general population on the loose. It is a non-formal therapeutic technique managing issues identified with the requirement of essential rights, public interest case can likewise be by and large depicted as the instrument of lawful guide and social justice, however, in reality, public interest suit has dependably been worried about the lawful and sacred rights as ensured by the constitution and the other legitimate arrangements.

1.2  MEANING AND SCOPE OF PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION:

Public interest litigation is a recently developing idea in the field of arbitration for the requirement of basic rights. Public interest litigation implies suit in the enthusiasm of people in general. The world “public” means open everywhere; it incorporates all classes and segments of society with no refinement of sex, societal position, financial foundation, ethnic starting point, religion, doctrine or social introduction.[3] the general population who are distraught or poor and denied areas of the general public which can’t assert in the official courtroom, because of their own, social and financial hardship. Thusly the public interest litigation turns into the device which beats the formal lacks in the framework and gives the genuine and substantive justice to the overlooked and under favored gathering of the general public.

The legal meaning of the PIL was given in Russel v. Wheeler in the words:

“Something in which public, the community at large, has some pecuniary interest, or some interest by which their legal rights or liabilities are affected. It does not mean anything so narrow as a mere curiosity, or as the interests of particular localities, which may be affected by the matters in question.” [4]

Black’s Law Dictionary likewise characterizes public interest litigation as a legitimate activity started in a Court of Law for the implementation of public interest or general importance for which people in general or class of the group have financial or some enthusiasm by which their lawful rights or liabilities are influenced. The idea of open intrigue case gives chance to every one of the subjects to have sacred access to equity for the assurance and requirement of major human rights to life and freedom.[5]

In Muntizma board of Director Katchi Abadies, the Karachi High court characterized public interest litigation in the accompanying words:

“not as the suit which is intended to fulfill the interest of the general population, yet…. case which is organized with the longing that the court would have the capacity to give successful alleviation to the entire or an area of society.”[6]

The matters of society fall inside the public interest litigations, general wellbeing and public security, for example, the natural debasement it is of worry everywhere, open strategy and request as the infringement of the crucial privileges of the poor it might be having the infringement of the religious rights or other fundamental rights.

Public interest litigation is gone for to change the circumstance of the impeded gatherings of society for their advancement and basically it is an improve, not just for the people who are gathering to the suit procedure yet for the general population everywhere and all individuals are located similarly and likewise in light of the fact that the point of public interest is the social change which incorporates the adjustment of the organized imbalances, for example, the social-financial status and class, sex, race, religion or sexual introduction[7] and gives the each subject direct access to the justice for the security of their human principal rights, as the author of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah additionally worried on the approach that if the newly conceived condition of Pakistan needs to be prosperous then the privileges of the general population extraordinarily of poor’s ought to be and exclusively considered in the constitution as their  fundamental rights. [8]

The Indian supreme court likewise worried on this approach poor people and the burdened are the more worried under the law as opposed to the rich in light of the fact that the rich on the basis of their solid and overwhelming social and prudent position may stop or oppose the infringement of their rights though poor and the denied individuals don’t have the influence and ability to battle back or save their principal rights,[9] subject was vivaciously protected by the previous Indian chief justice Bhagwati by favoring the weaker segments of the Indian culture on the record of their socially and monetarily impeded position by which they need to affirm their crucial rights, rights, and the essential rights can’t be taken away in light of the fact that they are conceded by constitution, so along these lines they are perpetual rights which can’t be suspended as for the situation The state v Dosso,[10] Muhammad Munir, CJ proclaimed:

“The very essence of the fundamental right is that it cannot be changed like the ordinary law. the very conception of the fundamental right is that it being a right guaranteed by the constitution [sic] cannot be taken away by the law and that it is not only technically inartistic but a fraud to the citizens for the makers of the constitution to say that a right is fundamental but it might be taken away by the law”. [11]

Essential rights are ensured by the constitution and they can’t be taken away be that as it may, at times they must be suspended under article 8(5) of the constitution of Pakistan or under the military law, however, can’t be taken away by the subjects of Pakistan since key rights are ensured by constitution.

Public interest litigation is the practice of the power by the predominant judiciary, for example, high court’s and the supreme court particularly for social change and to stop the social treacheries to the specific people or the gathering or general society everywhere and safeguard their major rights, public interest litigation is the device for the unprivileged and hindered gatherings of the general public to oppose animosity over their essential rights.

1.3. ORIGIN OF PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION

1.3.1. Origin in the United States of America

Public interest litigation, a universal development, having its cause in the American and British arrangement of laws which has gone far with a few varieties and inculcation of indigenous elements, entered in another precedent-based law purview, for example, India and Pakistan. At first, be that as it may, there began a development in United States in 1960’s.[12] The expression ‘public interest’ was first noticeably utilized by American scholarly Abram Chayes, to portray the act of attorneys or open vivacious people who try to accelerate social change through court-requested pronouncements that change legitimate guidelines, uphold existing laws and understandable public standards,[13] Since the nineteenth century, different developments in that nation had added to public interest law, which was a piece of the lawful guide development. The principal lawful guide office was set up in New York in 1876, fundamentally went for securing the privileges of the weaker areas of the group, for example, ladies, kids, physically and rationally disabled minority, however in the 1960s the PIL development started to get budgetary support from the workplace of Economic Opportunity, this empowered attorneys and open vivacious people to take up instances of the under –privileged and to battle against the risks of environment and general well-being and misuse of buyers and the weaker segments.[14]

The developments in the USA were blended of the immaculate social activism and as a gainful business to look, new customers, among the legal advisors of USA. The “unrepresented or unprivileged bunches” or “a gathering interest” were created in worry of two essential reasons as absence of rights for such gatherings and in addition the gathering of new customers for the venturesome legal advisors, who needs to begin the gainful business on such perspective of open intrigue prosecution, in the begin for US legal counselors this gets to be distinctly productive and furthermore proceeds to NGO exercises, however later on especially today, it lost its bubble in the US, in light of the fact that the development of open intrigue case was a lot in nature of private intrigue development which was deficient with regards to the fundamental calculated developed establishments into the sort of open intrigue suit as it is in south Asia and somewhere else nowadays. In beginning, the attorneys saw the idea of open enthusiasm as debilitating to their own advantages however in south Asia public interest litigation concentrates on the serving of established obligations of judges which imply the immediate judiciary.[15]

This turns into a pattern to relate general society interest prosecution with the America, however this can’t be flawlessly accepted that public interest litigation initially originated from USA and this expected approach must be checked now since this approach is by all accounts so straightforward and Anglo-driven on the grounds that if the idea “public interest” is grounded specifically religious, philosophical, and social understandings about the interrelations of law and society so then the each state is having its sign of public interest litigation having its own particular diverse taste because of its own lawful and political culture.[16]

Regardless of drawing its ancestry from that point, over the walk of years, the thought of PIL has outperformed different changes and alterations, to such a degree, to the point that it might be troublesome for a typical man to be familiar with much with its source[17] and another recognition that public interest litigation is just the concerned issue for the western culture extraordinarily the individuals who spearheaded human rights and legitimate methodology to ensure them, such sort of contentions gives a thought that nonwestern culture is having no worry with the term which we knew as human rights, which is an enormous allegation and a somewhat seriously imagined hegemonistic procedure in the post provincial age, Since equity without a doubt, has dependably involved worry among the human social orders and keeps on being in threat all around, and it is not a third world issue, there might be diverse identifiable methodologies and systems of  public interest litigation yet whose sign may fluctuate starting with one jurisdiction then onto the next, there is no such thing exists which is known as one write or model of public interest litigation. [18]

1.3.2. Origin in India

In the early and mid-1980s, the idea of public interest litigation turns into a subject of much talk inside circles of legal activism all through South Asia,[19]when people in general interest suit should be started in India in the late 1970’s extraordinarily in 1980-1981 senior judges like V.R Krishna Iyer began to see the significance of public interest litigation. As he held in Fertilizer enterprise Kamagra Union v Union of India[20]:

“that judges must listen to the grievances of the little people, or else the law of the street would take over” this was not said only with reference to the poor and deprived people, but with general reference to the lawlessness, corruption and the “law of the jungle”, in which the dominant group leaves no space for the deprived group.[21]

In the spearheading Indian open intrigue suitcase, S.P Gupta v President of India,[22] which basically welcomed the troubled and denied gathering of nationals to deliver their grievances straightforwardly to the higher court, for example, Supreme court and the grumbling might be in any shape.[23] justice P. N. Bhagwati in S. P. Gupta v. The Union of India, explained the idea of PIL as takes after,

“Where a legal wrong or a legal injury is caused to a person or to a determinate class of persons by reason of violation of any constitutional or legal right or any burden is imposed in contravention of any constitutional or legal provision or without authority of law or any such legal wrong or legal injury or illegal burden is threatened and such person or determinate class of persons for reasons of poverty, helplessness or disability or socially or economically disadvantaged position unable to approach the court for relief, any member of public can maintain an application for an appropriate direction, order or writ in the High Court under Article 226 and in case any breach of fundamental rights of such persons or determinate class of persons, in this court under Article 32 seeking judicial redress for the legal wrong or legal injury caused by such person or determinate class of persons.” [24]

The Indian Supreme Court has locale over PIL activities through Article 32 of the Indian Constitution, which ensures people the privilege to move the Court for the requirement of major established rights. Remarking on the centrality of this arrangement, the Court has stated:

“The jurisdiction conferred on the Supreme Court by Article 32 is an important and integral part of the basic structure of the Constitution because it is meaningless to confer fundamental rights without providing an effective remedy for their enforcement, if and when they are violated. [25]

Towards mid-1980 the Indian courts appeared to be ready to engage instances of public interest litigation and issue proper bearings in such matters. These cases were started for the advantage of the denied, seized and impeded areas of society. Such procedures were a piece of the legitimate guide development started by certain open energetic gatherings. Free lawful guide development was felt for by the official and bolstered by the legal. While choosing public interest cases the judiciary was ready to unwind the guidelines, veer off from the standard strategies, customs and details that obstructed giving substantive equity to poor people and discouraged. The courts embraced this technique in order to secure the endowments of the run of law for the feeble and powerless individuals from society who had customarily been denied of its advantages.

1.4. NATURE AND FEATURES OF PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION:

The public interest litigation is a mean and a route by which financial and social equity possibly accomplished, the formal court procedures have been changed and the strict prerequisites got casual amid the period of 1990’s, and the better courts have the aggregate purview than passing the requests for the matters identifying with people in general interest case.[26] Public interest litigation cases have the distinctive attributes, all cases don’t have similar qualities in light of the fact that each case is having diverse approach yet at the same time the progression of people in general intrigue suit is of fundamentally essential for the social and monetary equity in Pakistan.[27]

1.5. DOCTRINE OF THE LOCUS STANDI

The key component of PIL is its progression of the conventional lead of locus stand, or standing, which obliges disputants to have endured a lawful harm keeping in mind the end goal to keep up an activity for legal change.[28] The delicacy in locus stand causes turning point in the serving of equity to the denied areas of the general public.

Generally, the meaning of locus stand is as:

‘’ Locus standi means the legal capacity to invoke the legal jurisdiction of the court, if the petitioner has no locus standi, he cannot be heard in the court of law. The traditional view in regard to locus standi in writ jurisdiction has been that, only such person has locus standi who:

: Has suffered a legal injury by reason of violation of his legal right or legally protected interest; or

: Is likely to suffer a legal injury by reason of the violation of his legal right or legally protected interest.”

In this manner, before a man obtained locus standi, he needed to have an individual or individual right which was abused or debilitated to be damaged. He ought to have been close to home wronged as in he had endured or was probably going to endure some bias, financial or something else.”[29] In past locus standi was a standing principle which was not sufficiently extended around then, and needs to show up the oppressed individual in the court without anyone else’s input though the public interest litigation was lying on the advancement of the locus standi.

Along these lines, the legal understood that the principle deterrent which denied poor people and the distraught of viable access to equity was the conventional lead of locus standi or standing which demands that exclusive a man who has endured a particular lawful damage by reason of genuine or undermined infringement of his legitimate or established right or lawfully or unavoidably secured intrigue, can bring an activity for legal review. It is just the holder of the correct who can sue for real or undermined infringement of such right and no other individual can record an activity to vindicate such right. The first change came as the weakening of the necessity of ‘locus standi’ for starting procedures, and the better courts have than change the customary for the advancement of denied and destitute individuals which are not completely mindful of their rights, even the denied areas of individuals were granted the rights by the constitution and the official was not ready to play out their obligation which is to release of the protected obligation of the predominant court of the state, justice Bhagwati in S.P Gupta versus the Union of India ,[30]

Today an inconceivable determination is occurring in a legal process, the theater of law is quick changing and the issues of the poor are going to the cutting edge. The court needs to develop new techniques and devises new procedures with the end goal of giving access to the equity to substantial masses of the general population who are denied to their essential human rights and to whom flexibility and freedom have no significance. The main path in which this should be possible is by engaging writ petitions and even letters from people in general energetic people legal review for the advantages of people who have endured a lawful wrong or a lawful harm or whose protected or legitimate rights have been damaged, however, who reason of their destitution or socially or financially hindered position can’t approach the court for alleviation.” The justice, has plainly of this view the customary perspective of the locus standi ought to be changed and rather the simple and relentless method for equity ought to be presented in which poor are allowed to counsel the court with no kind of wavering and the court ought to answer them regardless of the possibility that they are asking for help through letters or writ petitions.[31]

Since the goal was to guarantee redressal to the individuals who were generally excessively poor, making it impossible to move the courts or were unconscious of their lawful privileges, the Court permitted activities to be brought for their benefit by social activists and legal counselors. This expanded the idea of access to equity and opened the courts to countless and oblivious masses of the nation.[32] The locus standi idea was changed in Pakistan when it was chosen the good equity and the entire seat concurred over that the case was Nusrat Bhutto case.[33]

After Martial Law in 1977 Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto alongside ten different partners of his gathering was captured by requests, sensationally wronged Begum Nusrat Bhutto the spouse of Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto who excessively expected office of Acting Chairperson of Pakistan People’s Party after seizure of Mr. Bhutto, recorded a statutory appeal to under Art 184(3) of the Constitution for manhandle of basic privileges of her significant other.

The Advocate for the Federation raised the introductory complaint that Begum Bhutto has no locus standi to record a writ under Article 184(3) as she herself is not a harmed party and that no question of open centrality has emerged.

Anwar-ul-Haq Chief Justice made the main judgment and managed this underlying protest. He held, and every single other partner of the seat concurred that;

“Clause (1) (c) of Article 199 does indeed contemplate that an application for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights has to be made by an aggrieved person. Now, it is true that in the case before us the petitioner is not alleging any contravention of her own Fundamental Rights, but she has moved the present petition in two capacities, namely, as wife of one of the detents and as Acting Chairperson of the Pakistan People’s Party, to which all the detents belong. In the circumstances, it is difficult to agree with Mr. Brohi that Begum Nusrat Bhutto is not an aggrieved person within the meaning of Article 199.”

High Courts in Pakistan have the jurisdiction under the Article 199(1)(c)[34] of the Constitution, 1973 where if any matter relating the authorization of general society interest, however, the necessity of locus standi has been extended because of the appeal to must be recorded by the distressed individual, the high court has enlarged and extended the prerequisite and the high court is having the jurisdiction to acknowledge the petitions as of people in public interest case, where the principal privileges of the residents have been abused and that infringement has been conveyed to the notice of the court.

In an Indian instance of Fertilizer Corp. The Kamgar Union v. the Union of India,[35] a 1980 case brought by assembly line laborers testing the legality of an administration manufacturing plant’s offer of a steel plant, the Court noticed that:

“It may get to be distinctly essential in the changing consciousness of legitimate rights and social commitments to take a more extensive perspective of the subject of a locus to start a procedure….”

If there should be an occurrence of S.P Gupta,[36] the public interest case the Supreme Court of India explained another lead for cases including infringement of protected rights:

“[If] such person or determinate class of persons is by reason of poverty, helplessness or disability or socially or economically disadvantaged position, unable to approach the court for relief, any member of the public can maintain an application for an appropriate direction, order or writ . . . seeking judicial redressal for the legal wrong or injury. . . .”

The Court additionally extended access to equity by building up “epistolary locale,” expressing that judges would “promptly react” to letters or postcards cautioning them to sacred rights infringement and regard such entries as formal writ petitions for PIL purposes.[37] Furthermore, the candidate for such cases must be a man acting in a true blue way, the legal alleviation will be conceded on the premise of the real demonstration of a man, in muntizma board of trustees v chief katchi abadies[38] the court perceived that people acting bona fide could start public interest litigation cases for the legal help of an public harm, it was held that this standard of genuine will be pertinent where there is the privilege of public and not enforceable as it is of the private right.[39] The Indian court has made it clear for a situation, in any case, that

“[t]he lowering of the locus standi threshold does not involve the recognition or creation of any vested rights on the part of those who initiate the proceedings.” [40]

Because the locus standi will be developed the premise of the general population right and not on the private premise, the supreme court of Pakistan is having the locale in regards to the authorization of the Public interests as found in Article 183(4), that the matter must be of open significance and with reference to the implementation of any central rights as conceded by the constitution of Pakistan, as for a situation Mian Ajmal J. has amplified this stipulation into a twofold necessity, that the matter must be of open significance and that open significance ought to have reference to the basic rights as allowed by the constitution.[41]

In history of public interest litigation in Pakistan, the essential case which is Benazir Bhutto v Federation of Pakistan,[42] for this situation the miss Bhutto brought the appeal to for the benefit of her political gathering as a bona fide individual, on the grounds that prior the court even forbid the genuine representation of this kind, however this case delivers a definitive judgment on a matter of public interest which is more successful and less prohibitive structure for the public interest litigation, for this situation chief justice Haleem pinpointed the escape clauses in the working of present judiciary and exhorted that the legal ought to be anything but difficult to get to and ought to acts like an unbiased umpire, ought to permit the truths to rise up out of the realities of the case, that a man wronged ought to start the legal procedures, chief justice Haleem contended that

“this is to limit the parties concerned and to make the rule of law selective to give protection to the affluent or to serve in aid [sic] for maintaining the status quo of the vested interests.”

Pakistani judiciary has never saved the kind words while depicting its acquired legitimate framework, particularly with regards to implementing fundamental rights, previous chief justice Mohammad Afzal Zullah expressed that

“The doors of the traditional legal system in a way have been closed to the poor.”

Such inadequacies and provisos, combined with the trouble confronted by the poorer prosecutors to request the equity from judiciary in any case, in which there is trouble in access to justice, which added up to the refusal of justice. In this manner legal restored itself and extended the prohibitive guidelines of the locus standi, and the real representations looking to uphold the principal privileges of different gatherings of individuals were presently permitted as well as are critical in an approach to give equity to un favored gatherings, subsequently chief justice expressed in the Benazir Bhutto v Federation:

“It is, therefore, permissible when…in other cases where there are violations of fundamental rights of a class or a group of persons who belong to the category as afore stated and are unable to seek redress from the court, then the traditional rule of locus standi can be dispensed with, and the procedure available in public interest litigation can be made use of, if it is brought to the notice of the court by [a] person acting bona fide.”

Consequently, the request of Benazir was acknowledged as the genuine delegate for her political gathering and was allowed locus standi in light of the fact that the matter was one of public interest and for the implementation of basic rights for all citizens and this case prepared for public interest litigation in Pakistan and opened the entryways of the higher courts than such suit.[43]

1.6. NON-ADVERSARIAL NATURE

Another imperative and critical nature of people in public interest litigation is its non-ill-disposed nature by which it differs from the conventional case prepare, the procedures went to by the court are inquisitorial as opposed to the ill-disposed nature,[44] they have a tendency to be optional in which the court can fuse the components of casual system which judges, is by all accounts vital, reasonable and fitting to take after, Public interest suit, as we consider it, is basically an agreeable or shared exertion with respect to the applicant, the state or open specialist and the court to secure recognition of the established or legitimate rights, advantages, and benefits presented upon the helpless segments of the group and to achieve social equity to them.[45]

Public interest litigation worried with destitution related issues and managing completely impeded petitioners, the court may totally change its appearance, in the spearheading instance of Darshan Masih v the state, Chief justice Muhammad Afzal Zullah had gotten a message sent by the reinforced workers from some brick klin outside Lahore, asking for him to free them of this practice. The Chief Justice held that

“in a fit case of enforcement of fundamental rights, the supreme court has jurisdiction, power, and competence to pass all proper/ necessary orders as the facts justify.”[46] Darshan Masih vs the State

In history of Pakistan  judiciary, a letter was dealt with as the writ appeal to the case was off at first sight and fit to be dealt with under the locale of incomparable court gave by article 184(3) of the constitution, the main equity treated the case on inquisitorial nature, inquiring about the realities, and scrutinizing the witnesses expressly, taking up to two hours a day listening to this matter over at some point, he additionally included Bar and Police for the help with analyzing the actualities.[47] chief Justice Afzal Zullah, treated the matter on non adversarial nature and saw in Darshan Masih case:

That the proceedings were such that no party could be categorized as “complainant”, “accused” and “contesting party”, nor could any of the interim orders passed be treated as indicating success or failure in any form, of any person, party or institution. The case was dealt with through a succession of interim orders, not by one final order, and the judge was, therefore, able to continuously review progress in the matter over some time. This is the technique of “rolling review”, pioneered by the Indian Supreme Court a few years earlier and adopted in Pakistan.” [48]

Thus for another situation, Ameer Bano v S.E Highways, for this situation the Justice Muhammad Aqil Mirza settled the matter of public interest litigation, “through accord”.

For this situation, the inhabitants of the Bahawalpur griped that the moderate development of the interstate was exasperating the city’s sewerage framework. justice Mirza heard the protests of the occupants, shop proprietors, and the nearby partnership, built up the purpose behind the deferral in the development, which was the restriction on occupations, so the Justice issued a request lifting the administration prohibition on occupations so by then the organization can enlist more representatives by which development organization can finish its work rapidly.[49]

For another situation of M. Ismail Qureshi v M. Awais Qasim, a request was held by preeminent court on the issue of understudy legislative issues subsequent to listening to contentions by the understudies, Teachers, and legislators, it was held that because of understudy governmental issues the exercises of alternate understudies have been irritated, the court issued a request prohibiting the political exercises in colleges. Public interest litigation can change over the procedures from adversarial to inquisitorial, here in this request of was held against each another, however, people, in general, was influencing by student politics issues, so the court addressed it as a public issue. [50]

In such kind of public interest cases, there is no trial, government respondents are required to co-work with candidate rather than go about as rivals, and once a petitioner has documented a case then he can’t pull back, as expressed by the Indian preeminent court, in Sheela Barse v. The Union of India, at the point when a candidate looked to pull back a PIL that she had recorded in the interest of kids in Indian prisons, because of her disappointment with the moderate advance of the case. Denying the candidate’s Using Public Interest Litigation and International Law to Promote Gender Justice in India page movement, the Court clarified,

“The ‘rights’ of those who bring the action on behalf of others must necessarily be subordinate to the ‘interest’ of those for whose benefit the action is brought. …The lowering of the locus standi threshold does not involve the recognition or creation of any vested rights on the part of those who initiate the proceedings.” [51]

In public interest litigation cases, there are no conventions as of in the customary method for suit, the writ of appeal to might be recorded through the mailing of a letter, through a message, or if a judge make a move on the basis of suo moto by perusing daily paper or by sitting in front of the TV by basically taking the insight of the matter,[52] but a solicitor can’t surrender or pull back subsequent to filling the as the court held that “in the matter of open intrigue the candidate even he wishes to pull back the request of documented by him require not be allowed to do as such,”[53]

1.7. SUBJECTS OF THE PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION

The accompanying is the subjects which might be disputed under the head of Public Interest Litigation:

(I) The matters of public interest:

For the most part they incorporate fortified work matters, Matters of ignored youngsters, Exploitation of easygoing workers and delinquency of wages to them (with the exception of in individual cases), Matters of provocation or torment of people having a place with Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Economically Backward Classes, either by co-villagers or by police. Matters identifying with natural contamination, aggravation of biological adjust, drugs, nourishment defilement, support of legacy and culture, collectibles, timberlands and untamed life. Petitions from mob casualties and different matters of open significance.

(II) The matters of private nature:

They include:

(i) the threat to or provocation of the solicitor by private people,

(ii)  looking for inquiry by an organization other than nearby police,

(iii)  looking for police security,

(iv) land master occupant question

(v) service matters

(vi)  admission to restorative or building schools

(vii)  early knowing about matters pending in High Court and subordinate courts and are not considered matters of open interest.

(III) Letter Petitions:

Petitions got by post despite the fact that not out in the open intrigue can be dealt with as writ petitions if so coordinated by the honorable Judge choose for this reason. Singular petitions grumbling provocation or torment or demise in prison or by police, grievances of monstrosities on ladies, for example, badgering for settlement, lady of the hour smoldering, assault, murder and grabbing, objections identifying with family annuities and dissensions of refusal by police to enlist the case can be enrolled as writ petitions, if so endorsed by the concerned Hon’ble Judge.[54]

CHAPTER TWO

                                 PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION IN PAKISTAN

  1. OVERVIEW OF HISTORY IN PAKISTAN:

The seeds of PIL were planted over Pakistan in the mid will late-1980s Toward such luminaries of the legitimate calling to Pakistan such as, chief Justices Muhammad Haleem and Nasim Hasan shah Also previous lawyer General Ali Ahmad Fazeel, in the get of a recently reintroduced Constitution, components inside Legal circles started with level headed discussion the inquiry of how the essential privileges enshrined in that Might be viably upheld Toward a populace which might have been (and is) generally unmindful or unconscious for their privileges.

And only the solution for this address might have been identifier Toward chief justice Muhammad Haleem Similarly as a “massification” for society; the place subjects were “increasingly drawn together”[55] What’s more this new methodology for grouping the  public  might have been because of those aggregate privileges and interests about that group, Case in point the individuals of the third world might make sorted under particular case normal premium which may be for clean environment, couple of A long time later chief justice Nasim Hassan shah, remarked the social right, which is some common shared interest of the society.

Implementation of the social privileges provide for impacts of the distinctive privileges, as  a result the premium of a basic man may be on the investment of the entirety society, and the greater part, however, overlook the public eye might a chance to be secured through those animated judiciaries, legal activism may be that act which acquires the social Equity inside the achieve of a regular man, chief justice Haleem specified that “desirability from claiming moving consideration starting with mechanical law on mankind’s welfare situated law” that intention might have been will bring a stable the public eye without any refinement In light of the advantaged What’s more distraught groups, justice Haleem also pointed crazy that this human welfare turned theory deliberations were being committed for different jurisdictions:.

“The supreme court in many countries are…. Making use of public interest litigation for the purpose of making basic human rights meaningful for the common people and for making it possible for them to realize their social and economic entitlements. Public interest litigation is providing access to justice for the deprived sections of the population.” [56]

That the implementation of the greater part, however, overlook bunches from claiming people Might be attained whether the theory distinguished those requirements for privileges past the idea of the aggrieved person; that Equity for the greater part Might be served if the greater part, however, overlook aggregations about people Might a chance to be enforced,[57] on 1987, afterward lawyer general Additionally specify done gathering of the bench of the bar:

“[not] for the purpose of enforcing the right of [a] certain individual against other as happens in the course of ordinary litigation [sic] it is intended to promote and vindicate public interest which demands that violation of constitutional or legal rights of a large number of people who are poor, ignorant or in a socially or economically disadvantaged position should not go unnoticed and underdressed.” The main essence of the PIL is the public significance issues, which is not upon the personal grievance, as in Asad Ali vs Federation of Pakistan,[58] the court declared:

“A petitioner under article 184(3)… may not have the personal grievance in the case, but if he satisfies the court that [the] question raised by him is of public importance and it relates to enforcement of fundamental rights… of a reasonably large section of people, he can successfully maintain the petition.”

Inside the few years, the fundamental privileges were detectable turning into an enforceable and only those constitution and the judiciary began to transform those legal frameworks on protecting and preserving the constitution, Along these lines in this manner it might make All the more helpful to those judiciary to ensure Furthermore serve the greater part, however overlook the unprivileged, distraught Furthermore poor class of the society, there might have been a solid inclination will change those legal framework for Pakistan, on account of the justice Haleem perceived that the single person privileges Might now, in this new period be distinguished on the basis about basic investment which he imparts to an assembly about society, he determinedly felt that those Pakistani legal framework needs on make transformed starting with that mechanical law of the mankind’s welfare done which that legal camwood undoubtedly cook the greater part, however, overlook public, and suit their social interests, which may be clear that he longed to empower people in general interest case will bring a prosperous social order in Pakistan.

2.2 Rights granted by constitution of Pakistan:

The constitution for Pakistan required essential components about public interest litigation, which might make concentrated Toward the Legal activism, yet for this one ought to further with getting those hidden meaning of the constitution, the procurements for people in general premium were lying hidden in the constitution for Pakistan. [59]

The constitution of Pakistan allowed fundamental rights to the citizens, which need aid accessible of the judiciary should find those concealed provisions, to cater people in general interest toward the preferred best approach. Article 4 of the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 enshrines rights to be managed for over understanding with law, as On clause (1) for which asserts that: “to enjoy the protection of law and to be treated in accordance with law is the inalienable right of every citizen, wherever he may be and of every other person for the time being within Pakistan.”[60]

Each Pakistani individual is having an essential or fundamental right, to the assurance of the law and the equivalent treatment under the law.[61] In section one of the Part two of the constitution gives the key rights ensured by constitution, which are communicated in article’s 8-28 of the constitution of Islamic republic of Pakistan, as Article 8 is securing essential rights and expressing that the laws which would stand to conflict with principal rights would be void, as in provision (1) it expressed that

“Any law, or any custom or use having the constraint of law, in so far as it is conflicting with the rights presented by this Chapter, might, to the degree of such irregularity, be void.” [62]

Protects the central rights that conflicting laws would be void.

Also, clause (2) holds that

“the State might not make any law which takes away or shortens the rights so presented and any law made in contradiction of this proviso should, to the degree of such repudiation, be void.”

Prevents the state from passing such laws which are as opposed to these basic rights, and in clause (5) of article 8:

“The rights gave by this Chapter might not be suspended with the exception of as explicitly gave by the Constitution.”

Basic rights can’t be suspended, as the key rights have been ensured by the constitution aside from as explicitly communicated by the constitution.

This part additionally gives a principal right as, security to a man, defends as to capture and confinement, servitude and constrained work disallowed, insurance against review discipline, the flexibility of development, get together and affiliation, opportunity to have called. The right to speak freely, flexibility to religion, an opportunity of property rights, equity in residents, shield against segregation, and protection of language. [63]

Every one of these rights is identified with the essential and principal privileges of a citizen, there is sure arrangement identified with the locale of the predominant courts, Article 175 identified with the foundation and purview of the courts.

2.3 JURISDICTION OF HIGH COURT’S:

With respect to purview of the higher courts, Article 199 of the constitution depicted the writ locale of the High courts, a high court may, under the clause(1) in the event that it is fulfilled that no other adequate cure is given under the law, in such case high court will give a request while honing its ward under the Article 199, high court can issue the writs of disallowance, mandamus, and certiorari if there should be an occurrence of the distressed party, on account of “the other individual” high court may issue the writs of habeas corpus and quo warranto.[64] The high courts will hone their purview and will authorize the privileges of the distressed people. The predominant legal implements the crucial rights, and guarantee consistency with the control of law and give access to equity to all nationals, independent of any thought of riches or societal position. Article 184(3) says:

“Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 199, the Supreme Court shall, if it considers that a question of public importance with reference to the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights conferred by Chapter I of Part II is involved, have the power to make an order of the nature mentioned in the said Article.”

This proviso has been viewed as the empowering arrangement for the Court to start proper procedures for the requirement of major rights. The High Courts can likewise practice comparable powers under Article 199 of the Constitution. The principle distinction between the forces of the Supreme Court and High Court is that though the Supreme Court ward is limited to issues of “public significance”, no such condition is forced on the High Court The Supreme Court on account of Benazir Bhutto v Federation of Pakistan[65], which was thought to be the spearheading case in the historical backdrop of Pakistan for the developed the extent of basic rights. [66]

“..proceedings lie for the enforcement of those rights irrespective of the fact whether any prejudicial order has been passed by the Executive under the law as the constitution treats the fundamental rights as superior to ordinary legislation for that reason sub-articles (1) and (2) of Article 8 of the constitution have been enacted which clearly reflect the object and the intention of the framers of the constitution, that is, to keep the fundamental rights on a high pedestal and to save their enjoyment from legislative infractions.” [67]

This case was a milestone in the field of public interest litigation in Pakistan which opened the entryways of the predominant courts for such prosecution,

 2.4 BENAZIR BHUTTO CASE AS THE CATALYST:

In Pakistan, the Public interest litigation takes off by mid-1988, when the president of Pakistan’s people party, Benazir Bhutto conveyed a writ request off to the Supreme Court. In which she tested certain arrangements of the political gatherings act 1962, as violative of the key ideal to frame a political gathering, this essential case is accounted for as Benazir Bhutto v Federation of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto recorded an established request under Article 184(3) of the constitution and stood up to the alterations made in Political Parties Act 1962, as it is violative of article 17, Freedom of Association and Article 25, Equality of residents of the Constitution. The opportunity of Association Order 1978, was likewise stood up to as being unlawful. She extra tested the legality of Article 270-A as by the Constitution Eighth Amendment Act 1985, in so far as it abbreviated energy to legal survey and its placated and limited the purview of better courts than monitor Fundamental Rights of the nationals containing the privilege to frame or be an individual from a political gathering guaranteed under Article 17(3) of the Constitution.

It was more opposed that the arrangements of Article 270-A were questionable to the arrangements of Article 2-A of the Constitution which describe to the idea of lawful sway in Pakistan and the opportunity of the judiciary.

Independently from various guides given to the applicant the crucial one for our review is engaging of this request of under Article 184(3) of the Constitution.

Concerning the “distressed party” status of the candidate, the Court held;

“Interpretation subsections (1) and (6) of section 3-B of the Political Parties Act, 1962 together, the conclusion is irresistible that in the case of non-registration, the penalty automatically follows and the political party suffers its political extermination. Section 3C of the Act was enacted for a limited purpose, that is, for the forthcoming elections and those not having been held, it outlived its purpose and is now no longer of any effect, and by no stretch of imagination it negates the provisions of section 3B or provides an alternative for non-registration under that section. This being so it cannot be suspected that the Political party is also an aggrieved party”.

Summing up the begging to be proven wrong point on the issue of oppressed gathering position of the solicitor, the Court bantered history of the Article 184(3) was held that;

“the right considered ‘sufficient’ is not necessarily a right in strict juristic sense but it is enough if the petitioner discloses that he had a personal interest in the performance of the legal duty which if not performed or performed in a manner not permitted by law would result in the loss of some personal benefit or advantage or the curtailment of a privilege or liberty or franchise.”

The one of a kind element of Article 184(3) of the Constitution is summed up by a method for the Supreme Court in the words that the plain dialect of Article 184(3) shows that it is open finished.

“The Article does not say as to who shall have the right to move the Supreme Court nor does it say by what proceedings the Supreme Court may be so moved or whether it is confined to the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights of an individual which are infracted or extends to the enforcement of the rights of a group or a class of persons whose rights are violated.”

It is important to show the dynamic approach acknowledged by the Supreme Court in the elucidation of constitutional arrangement whereby the Courts particular arm of locale was made to extend to secure the principal privileges of the general population in a way not experienced some time recently. The Court changed over dynamic. The guide was conceded uncommonly, The featuring part of the Supreme Court as a gatekeeper of the constitution progressed.

The constitutional clarification in substances of fundamental rights was given a particular angle in the words:

“Therefore, while construing Article 184(3), the interpretative approach should not be ceremonious observance of the rules or usages of interpretation, that is, this interpretative approach must receive inspiration from the triad of provisions which saturate and invigorate the entire Constitution, namely, the Objectives Resolution (Article 2-A), the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy so as to achieve democracy, tolerance, equality and social justice according to Islam.”

The Chief Justice has included appropriately commented;

“The adversary procedure, where a person wronged is the main actor if it is rigidly followed, as contended by the learned Attorney-General, for enforcing the Fundamental Rights, would become self-defeating as it will not then be available to provide ‘access to justice to all’ as this right is not only an internationally recognized human right but has also assumed constitutional importance as it provides a broad-based remedy against the violation of human rights and also serves to promote socio-economic justice which is pivotal in advancing the national hopes and aspirations of the people permeating the Constitution and the basic values incorporated therein, one of which is social solidarity, i.e., national integration and social cohesion by creating an egalitarian society through the new legal order”

Besides Supreme court acknowledged the request of the Benazir Bhutto as the Bonafide illustrative of her political gathering and conceded her political rights by implementing central rights.

Chief Justice Afzal Zullah had taken the PIL activity and was instrumental in passing what has now turned out to be known as the Quetta Declaration,[68] in which the higher judiciary expected than bring a genuine change and offer better social justice to the citizens of Pakistan and it appears that the Pakistani judiciary sat together to have lawful arranging in the field of public interest litigation suit.[69] This statement re-confirmed the Superior Judiciary’s expectation to convey social equity to all and was a turning point in the early presence of PIL in Pakistan.

By 1993, Chief Justice Nasim Hasan Shah detailed that “more than 600 subjects [had been] ordered [as] requiring activity” under the PIL purview. Some would contend that the right on time to mid-1990s was the brilliant age of the improvement of PIL.

In Pakistan, the judiciary has because of the requests of the general public, started to assume a constructive part to fix bad form done to the general population. This is being done through the procedure of Public Interest Litigation.

2.5 DARSHAN MASIH CASE an epistolary jurisdiction:

Another vital case, soon thereafter Darshan Masih v the state[70],  in which the chief justice of the Supreme Court got a wire referring to the brutal treatment of the bonded workers and their insurance and freedom as conceded by the constitution was acknowledged as the writ request. The PIL idea was presently placed in the legal generation playing field and the item beginning creating as remarkable choices where the approach of the Supreme Court was changed from genius system to issue settling and non-angry.

The Chief Justice of the Pakistan on 30th July 1988 recognized a wire with the accompanying message;

“Chief Justice Supreme Court of Pakistan, Rawalpindi. We plead for protection and bread for our family we are brick kiln bonded laborers. We have been set at liberty by the Court. And now three amongst us have been abducted by our owners. Our children and women are living in danger. We have filed a complaint. No action was taken. We are hiding like animals without protection or food. We are afraid and hungry. Please help us. We can be contacted through Counsel Asma Jehangir. Our state can be inspected. We want to live like human beings. The law gives no protection to us. Darshan Masih (Rehmatay) and 20 companions with women and children, Main Market, Gulberg, Lahore.” [71]

The message was conveyed to Justice Muhammad Afzal Zullah at the Lahore registry of Supreme Court where he was a leader of a Bench with two different partners Justice Javed Iqbal and Justice Usman Ali Shah, for the first time ever in history of Pakistan, a telegram was accepted as an application of the writ and the chief justice took cognizance of the matter personally, despite the informalities attached to the issue. A long detailed discussion was held and many constitutional Articles were under discussion such as Articles 9,11,15,18 and 25. This time Supreme Court did away the adversarial nature of procedures and relied on the support from the judicial circles and government functionaries, Supreme Court held at pg 515,

“… that it had the jurisdiction, power and competence to pass all proper and necessary orders as the fact justify.” After this case legal developments have continued and Supreme Court commented in the ongoing case on the need for enacting the new legislation, which would be able to deal with the different situation f the bonded labour, the Pakistani Legislature has taken the serious Darshan Masih case and as enacted the Bonded Labour System(Abolition) Act 1992.[72] After this judgement bonded labourers were freed and awared of their rights and this unfortunate bonded laboring becomes unlawful.

The challenging idea of public interest litigation has discover its courses in Pakistan, through such lawful activities and got to be sourced to give equity to the general population, the cases are for public interest not on the grounds of private interest, the petition must be for public significance, While defining the contours of the phrase ‘public importance’ used in Article 184(3) of the Constitution in the case of Mohammad Saifullah Khan v Federation of Pakistan[73], the Supreme Court observed that the issue raised must be of such a nature that might negatively affect the whole body of people or an entire community. It must touch the legal rights or liabilities of the public or the community at large. In the same case of fundamental right of public importance, the apex Court said that the personal loss of the petitioner would be immaterial.”[74] There are many examples where Supreme Court litigated for the interest of general public at large, the list as below:

2.5.1 SHEHLA ZIA AND OTHERS Versus WAPDA (WORKS AND POWER DEVELOPMENTS AUTHORITY)[75]

In the recent case, the court had been approached through a public interest litigation letter petition by a group of citizens in order to stop the construction of a grid station in their residential green belt area in Islamabad, the argument was that the electromagnetic fields which this grid station was about to generate would eventually have adverse effects on human health. The Supreme Court of Pakistan accepted this argument in principle and stated that, in the absence of definite scientific evidence it was better to err on the side of caution( p. 712), Supreme Court has justified its intervention by reference to constitutional provision about the right to life (At 9) and the right to preserve and protect the dignity of man (At 14).[76]

The issue raised involves the welfare and safety of the citizens at large because the network of high tension wires is spread throughout the country.

Where life of citizens is degraded, the quality of life is adversely affected and health hazards are created affecting a large number of people the Court in exercise of its jurisdiction under Article 184(3) of the Constitution may grant relief to the extent of stopping the functioning of units which create pollution and environmental degradation

The word “life” has not been defined merely in the Constitution but it does not mean nor can be restricted only to the vegetative or animal life or mere existence from conception to death. Life includes all such amenities and facilities which a person born in a free country is entitled to enjoy with dignity, legally and constitutionally.

2.5.2   Ghulam Ali versus Mst Ghulam Sarwar Naqvi [77]

At right now, it is vital to examine Ghulam Ali versus Mst.Ghulam Sarwar Naqvi on the grounds that in this occurrence, the females’ privileges of legacy and its relentless infringement through stripping them of their lawful rights in property by their partners, it was discussed and clarified and the Supreme Court in conclusion prescribed to the lawful group and the organization to make positive move to allow ladies as a class along these lines, as they can emerge forward to ensure their human rights in inherent property. [78]

It is intriguing to note that this circumstance was not a PIL case. Fairly, it was gotten by the Supreme Court as a claim, from the request of the High Court, The Supreme Court argued that otherwise the female respondents would have been deprived of their fundamental rights to property. At 23 of the constitution on the right to acquire, hold and dispose of the property, and At 24 on safeguards against arbitrary dispossessions of property were invoked here.[79]

2.5.3   Ismail Qureshi v. M. Awais Qasim [80]

The Supreme Court held an inquiry into the issue of student politics, hearing arguments from students, politicians and teachers. After establishing the extent to which student politics disrupted and disturbed other students activities, the court issued an order banning political activities in universities. Here, the petition was filed by one person against another but the interest was of public at large so the proceedings changed from adversarial to inquisitorial and Court addressed the public issue instead of a personal issue.

2.5.4   Suo Motu Constitutional Petition No. 9 [81]

The material concerning open hangings of culprits was made up suo moto move, through the Supreme Court via constitutional right “dignity of man”. The material concerning open hangings of offenders was made up suo-motu move, through the Supreme Court. Then again, when a number of hearings and already announcement of choice, learned lawyer general educated the Court that the organization has fundamentally chosen not to hang culprits out in the open. From now on, the appeal to be released.

2.5.5   MUSHTAQ AHMAD MOHAL versus Honorable LAHORE HIGH COURT [82]

Arrangements to different posts by the Federal Government, Provincial Governments, Statutory Bodies and other Public Authorities, either starting or unplanned or normal, without welcoming applications from people in general through the press is violative of Article 18[83] read with Article 25[84] of the Constitution, and the target under these articles can’t be accomplished unless each citizen similarly set or arranged is dealt with alike and is given equivalent chance to contend inter alia for the posts in previously mentioned Government setups/establishments.

Article 18 incorporates the privilege of a national to contend and take an interest in arrangement to a post in any Federal or a Provincial Government division or a, joined office or independent bodies/organizations and so forth on the premise of open rivalry, which right he can’t practice unless the procedure of arrangement is straightforward, reasonable, quite recently and free from any grievance as to its straightforwardness and decency.

Held that no native generally fit the bill for arrangement in the administration of Pakistan might be oppressed in regard to any such arrangement on the ground just of race, religion, rank, sex, habitation or place of birth of their facilities.

2.5.6   SAAD MAZHAR VS. CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY [85]

Residents of towers in the Capital, had been dislodged because of damages seemed to have been caused to the buildings/towers due to earthquake, prima facie, on account of substandard construction under the supervision of Capital Development Authority, therefore, it was the legal obligation of the Capital Development Authority to provide them alternate accommodation till the time, the buildings, which the residents had vacated, were constructed or some other arrangements were made.

Supreme Court, was of the opinion, that the Constitutional petition, involved substantial question of public importance with reference to fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution under Arts.9, 14, 15, 23 & 24.

Directions to provide accommodation temporarily to the displaced families of the towers, by hiring residences of almost of equal status to what they were occupying in the towers and if, it was not possible, then a committee should be constituted which would work out, within a period of three days, monthly rent of each residence, which will be paid to them, so that they may make arrangements of their accommodations.

2.12   IQBAL HAIDER Vs CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY[86]

Conversion of public park into a commercial park by the Capital Development Authority violating the fundamental right enshrined in Art.26 of the Constitution was a question of public importance.

Supreme Court held the conversion of a public park into the prescribed commercial project was not sustainable in the eye of law, being contrary to law and fundamental rights of the general public, enshrined under Art.26 of the constitution.

In above all cases, Supreme Court and high courts practiced jurisdiction to provide justice among all the groups of society included students, women, and old age citizens, dignity of a person, environmental issue etc., and being the gate keeper of justice Supreme Court and high courts prevail justice on such mechanism which is of human rights, as justice Nasir Aslam Zahid said that public interest litigation was said to be a vehicle for expeditious dispensation of justice and the object was achieving socio-economic justice for the poor, He added, public interest litigation could bring socio-economic change in a society and for that reason it was referred to as a means for attaining a social welfare state.[87]

Chapter 3

                                             Critique of PIL in Pakistan

 

 

  1.  Usurpation of the power of other branches and role of judiciary:

Public interest litigation is for the general public serving, however, there is much feedback on it in light of the fact that many individuals trust that while practicing PIL, The legal meddle over other two organizations of express that are legislation and executive. Each organization is conceded control by law under the constitution of Pakistan which they practice while serving general society.

The liberal democratic systems in the world have the custom of power sharing among the state foundations. Individuals’ freedom is guaranteed when forces of the legislature are partitioned between executive, judiciary and administrative branches.[88] What’s more, justice won among them and nobody tends to squash each other, and if one of the institution is concentrated with too much power will lead to the abuse of power, this is the main essence of the doctrine of separation of power, The doctrine of separation of powers curtails the exercise of political power in order to prevent its abuse. As a consequence, the principle of checks and balance
allows other branches of government a measure of intrusion into another branch’s
functions. The legislature for example, checks the executive through reserving the
power to impeach a President, while the executive on the other hand checks the
legislature through presidential assent to make a bill law. The judiciary on its part
checks the executive and legislature through its power of review. Conversely the
executive and legislature check the judiciary through determining the appointment
of the members of the judiciary.[89]

Total detachment of forces or separation of powers is no place found in the sacred frameworks of the world. A few covers are inescapable in the strict utilization of this regulation. An arrangement of balanced governance is unmistakable normal for this precept. States in the World like USA attempted to embrace this precept in strict conduct however proved unable succeed. Thus, there is no unadulterated and total general model of partition of forces in the universe. The court of South Africa in 1996 while clearing up the protest on the constitution, clarified that,

“Under the democratic systems of government it is a general practice that checks and balances result in the imposition of restraints by one branch of government upon another, thus, there is no absolute separation.”

It additionally kept up that,

“Mostly the presidential systems in the world are based on the division of powers… Some constitutional democracies, like Argentina, Brazil, Panama, the Philippines, and the United States of America have adopted the Separation of powers model. It exists in different forms in different countries, like in USA, Netherlands and the France, members of the executive may not continue to be members of the legislature, while in German separation of powers this is not a requirement. Moreover, because of the different systems of checks and balances that exist in these countries, the relationship between the different branches of government and the power to influence one branch of government over the other differs from one country to another”. [90]

In various nations, there are distinctive standards with respect to state foundations, yet nobody is incomparable to other each organization is liable to other if the issue in regards to state or open.

An appropriately selected assembly began its commission in 1947 however, it is a hard truth that political supervisors of Pakistan couldn’t choose to set up and execute any of the administration frameworks. Hypothetically, they reported running the state under Islamic majority rule government be that as it may, for all intents and purposes they embraced neither vote based system nor Islam. They formed their own framework to deal with the issues of state. Powers remained identity focused as opposed to working through particular organizations. The constitutions, received in Pakistan give the different part and capacity of the three foundations, however as a general rule, judiciary stayed uninvolved to the executive.[91]

While, a legitimately chose to get together proceeded with its govern as the newly conceived state of Pakistan, the errand before that constituent gathering was gigantic and enormous. It was bound to set patterns and just values. It was its assignment to shape what’s to come foundations. Unfortunately this critical errand was undermined by a few individual interests, absence of accord and some common security issues furthermore, monetary weights. It is sufficiently fascinating to watch that it amid this period it was legal that offered insurance to the undemocratic moves of the senator general and afterward military run the show. Then again the assertion is turned around. It saw with respect to judiciary that it needs to face pressure because of official and military guidelines. Justice Qazi Muhammad Jamil is of the view; the legal can’t battle the tyrants. We require solid Political Institution which is inadequate in the nation.[92]

Geoffrey K. Roberts opines that “judiciary is the branch of government and administered by the executive branch, in cases where dispute arises as to meaning, validity or supposed branch of such laws”

Judiciary is the gatekeeper of the mass freedoms and rights. Its autonomy is one of the basics of vote-based system. It on account of such hugeness H. Rahman attests that.

“Nothing touches the welfare and security of the citizen more than the judiciary. No mass, therefore, can over-estimate the importance of the mechanism of justice”

Besides The Universal statement of human rights Art.10 and the global agreement on common and political rights Art.14 (1) broadcast that everybody ought to be qualified for a reasonable and open hearing by a capable, autonomous and fair tribunal built up by law. A free legal is basic to the usage of this privilege. Essentially expressed, legal autonomy is the capacity of a judge to choose a matter from weight or actuation. Furthermore, the organization of the judiciary overall should likewise be free by being separate from government and different groupings of control. [93]

In Pakistan, the idea separation of powers was implied and proposed ideal from the freedom (1947). Abdul Rashid, the then chief justice of government court of Pakistan communicated on 1949, that the freedom of judiciary can as it were be accomplished on the off chance that it is partitioned and free from the executive and lawmaking body. There have been three constitutions instituted in Pakistan: 1956, 1962 and 1973. The initial two annulled while, the constitution of 1973 is working in Pakistan with different changes. The constitution of 1973 depends on Westminster display. Under this model of government, Prime Minister is the head of an Executive branch, which essentially originates from the parliament and is responsible to it not at all like the US President in the World. Thusly, the chose parliament runs the executive organ of the state.[94]from some years ago, many states have opted for the new democratic system in which judges are having hold and influence over country’s politics than ever before, by which they overreached their functions and overlapped powers of other branches of government this is sometimes enabled to be known as the judicial activism,[95]As Judiciary is the main branch of government it provides justice to the public by enforcing law made by legislature and executive and safeguard the fundamental rights of the public, Judiciary worked as a “watch dog” in a democratic state, A strong and balanced judiciary can point out the unconstitutional act null and void, done by the legislature and executive.[96] An independent judiciary is in favor of the public but critics over this system, feels this causes threats to the democratic order, in which every institution is having separate duties but under public interest litigation it provided steady justice when worked under its sphere, system breakdown when there is no check and balance, so the powers are separated but the rule of check and balance is prevailed as too much power in one unit will lead to the exploitation of power.

3.2 Chaudhry Iftikhar and the extravagant time of public interest litigation:

Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry turned into the Chief Justice of Pakistan on 2005. He attempted to deal with the prominent cases with honest and fair-minded manner. He always utilized suo motu powers to give equity in the issues known with human rights and additionally instances of political and vulnerable interests. The most prominent instances of political and open interests were: missing people, privatization of Pakistan Steel Mills (PSML), presidential races, deferment of the general races and the legitimateness of the Musharraf holding double position at a time (as Chief of Army staff and President), In the missing people case, chief justice summoned the prominent police authorities and took disjoint deeds against them. While in PSML case, Chaudhry (Chief Justice) highlighted abundant irregularities in the privatization process. The massive debasement for the situation was a monetary misfortune to the national exchequer. [97] that time president Musharraf was not happy of Justice Iftikhar independent and self directing activities, On 9 march 2007, chief justice was suspended President Musharraf also filed a reference in which he alleged “misconduct” done by chief justice, after this suspension their was a huge unrest state in the whole country with regard to the truth of allegations against justice and also whether the President have the ability to suspend the justice in such circumstaces. Chief justice was having enormous support from every walk of people, people came out to support him and “go Musharraf go” slogans were raised. On July 20, 2007, chief justice was restored to his place as Chief Justice in a ruling by the thirteen-member Pakistani Supreme Court which also put down the misconduct reference filed against him by President Musharraf.[98] So due to having support of all the aspects of people, chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry was restored

3.2.1 Critics over chief Justice:

While serving his suo moto jurisdiction he was also criticized, there were negative outcomes Firstly, it led to a violation of the separation of powers envisaged in the constitution. Critics alleged that because of the Court’s activism, senior members of the executive – both politicians and civil-military bureaucrats – often found themselves spending a good part of their time in office attending and preparing for hearings, rather than focusing on positive work; this was wasteful as well as demoralizing. Also, in the view of many, the Court’s practice of setting up “implementation benches” amounted to a usurpation by a function rightfully belonging to the executive.

Secondly, critics pointed out the many tasks the Court couldn’t accomplish by focusing itself on judicial review of executive action. They alleged that as a result, the Court neglected what has generally been viewed as Supreme Court’s primary job: its work as the top-most appellate court in the country, which expounds upon intricate and novel questions of law. Critics suggested that the Court could have better utilized its time focusing on a quicker disposal of cases pending before it. The Court’s most respected international critics, the Geneva-based human rights group, International Commission Jurist made this point with clarity in its 2013 Report:

While the ICJ commends and supports the Court’s use of its judicial authority to promote rule of law and human rights, the ICJ is also concerned that there are some inadvertent consequences of the expanded use of Article 184(3)… these include an increase in case-load leading to long delays faced by litigants… and violation of separation of powers…”[99]

Initially, critics accused the Chaudhary Court of biased politics. When it took on the interests of the ruling political executive the PPP government, critics suspected that it had forged and secretive alliance with the leading opposition parties, PML-N and PTI who had supported it in the period of exile. Critics noted how the prominent PML-N politicians were regularly crowding to the Court as petitioners, carrying out their smear campaign against the government in the court room, instead of debating thing in the Parliament or engaging in the much more costly exercise of protesting out on the streets.[100]

3.3 The Enigma of Disqualification of PM and memo gate case:

Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani was the Prime Minister of Pakistan then. Compulsorily he was obliged by a sincere obligation to constitute a letter to the Swiss specialists for the reviving of cases yet, he declined to agree to the request of the court. It was further expressed that

“The accused PM Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani, is found guilty of and convicted for contempt of court under Article 204 (2) of the constitution of Pakistan, read with section (3) of the contempt of court ordinance for willful disregard and disobedience of this court‟s direction in paragraph no. 178 of the judgment delivered in the case of Dr. Mubashir Hassan v. Federation of Pakistan.[101]

It is appropriate to say here that for this condition, Supreme Court did not prevent the PM. It just brought about the removal of the leader of the state as he unnoticed the court for not composing a letter to the Swiss Authorities. Parliament was manifestly bound to vacate PM and representative preference for his replacement. Under the article 63(1) (g) of the constitution, an individual should be excluded from being chosen or picked as, and from being an individual from the Majlis-e-shoora (parliament).Hence forth PM Yousaf Raza Gillani was pronounced preclude for being the individual from parliament and furthermore from being the leader of the official branch.[102] In such case Supreme court over-lapped the power which may lead to oppression of power of one institution of government over another. An article in the Wall Street Journal, for instant, lamented:

Any involvement in politics by a sitting judge, not to mention a chief justice, is utterly inconsistent with an independent judiciary’s proper role. What is even worse, Chief Justice Chaudhry has been using the court to advance his anti-Zardari campaign.” Writing in the context of the PM’s ousting, Markanday Katju, a renowned Indian jurist, inquired:

[H]ow can the court remove a Prime Minister? This is unheard of in a democracy. The Prime Minister holds office as long he has the confidence of Parliament, not the confidence of the Supreme Court. I regret to say that the Pakistani Supreme Court, particularly its Chief Justice, has been showing utter lack of restraint. This is not expected of superior courts. In fact the court and its Chief Justice have been playing to the galleries for long. It has clearly gone overboard and flouted all canons of constitutional jurisprudence.… It seems to me that the Pakistani Supreme Court has lost its balance and gone berserk.[103]

Ultimately, in the so-called “Memo Gate” case, when the military high-brass, in precise, Chief of Army Staff and the head of Pakistan’s leading spy agency, also came rushing to the Court, seeking relief which the Court all to readily granted, critics suspected a return of the military-judiciary connection which had so dominated the Supreme Court before the rise of Chief Justice Chaudhary. [104] There was massive critic over the Chaudhry court, one of the lawyer Ijaz Saroof wrote in his article about the Chaudhry court,

The Chaudhary court was a political establishment. Not necessarily in the partisan political party sense (although there was quite a bit of that as well) but in the larger sense of engagement and competing for power.[105]

Judiciary while practicing public interest litigation never has a tendency to usurps the forces in whatever other branch yet the principle objective is to serve general society which is encroached and denied their essential rights, in above cases the official branch has a tendency to usurps the legal while squashing its freedom by preventing it from playing out its obligation, however, constitution has given the organizations of express a privilege of check and adjust so when there is anything which is against the nobility or ethical quality of state or autonomy of legal from the execution of its obligation under law is void and invalid.it is quite clear that the Chaudhry court was failed to follow the doctrine of judicial restraint, which if opted would work for the betterment and interest of the public at large.

3.4 Suo moto:

The excitement for social justice drove a few judges to start PIL activities suo moto or revive petitions through suo moto procedures. Similarly, as with standing, the suitability of such an activity was reliant upon the issue raised and the expected recipients of the case. These activities, to a great extent provoked by daily paper reports and delegate in character, uncover much about the sensitivity of judges, for illustration, when activated by the situation of widows whose annuities had not been paid.[106]

As article 184(3) of the Constitution of Pakistan gives the Supreme Court the unusual vigor to expect jurisdiction over any ‘question of open significance with reference to the implementation of any … Fundamental Rights… ‘. The Supreme Court may affirm jurisdiction either on the basis of an appeal to made to the Court by any group, or all alone movement – mentioned to as suo motu  notice.

Pakistani courts had in the past interpreted this skill hardly and once in a while practiced it, holding it just for outstanding conditions. After Chief Justice Chaudhry’s restoration in 2009, the Supreme Court started to grow the utilization of Article 184(3)[107], outstandingly its suo motu forces, to react to an variety of matters including proclamations of human rights violation, mishandle of force and dishonor.[108]Besides this all, the supreme court became the only ray of hope for the whole nation, in 2011 alone 1,50000 applications were received by the supreme court which were sent by the common citizens, which is clear that how much the common public trust the superior judiciary, and the court practiced its powers under article 184(3) to serve the justice at large.[109]

Article 184(3) is an uncommon arrangement which gives the expansive energy to the higher judiciaries to take sou moto notice for the matters of public significance identifying with human rights. Also and especially as of late, the Supreme Court has practiced its unique ward all alone movement (suo motu) without a request of by any invested individual. Under Pakistani law, an individual judge may take suo motu notice of a matter for the benefit of the Supreme Court. Since its reinstatement, however, it has for the most part been Chief Justice Chaudhry who has practiced suo motu.

There is most likely the Supreme Court can’t, as an issue, of course, engage a Constitutional request of under Article 184(3) of the Constitution and sidestep the High Court which has jurisdiction under Article 199 of the Constitution, inter alia, to implement primary rights under provision (2) thereof. To be sure, Supreme Court ought to be thoughtful in selecting cases for engaging under Article 184(3) of the Constitution and just those cases ought to be engaged which truth be told and in law include inquiries of principal rights… an adjusted, considered and aimless arrangement is to be developed by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court additionally held that in practicing their forces, courts must not act in opposition to legal standards, with the help of authoritative strategy or official expert or as a social reformer. Rather, courts must limit themselves to the space of law and order of the Constitution. Since Chief Justice Chaudhry’s reclamation in 2009, the Supreme Court of Pakistan has moved far from before points of reference, altogether expanding the utilization of its unique locale. Between 2009 to 2011 the Court discarded 149 cases under Article 184(3), contrasted with 23 cases taken up from 2001 to 2008.The expansion in the Supreme Court’s practice of its forces of unique purview can be ascribed to its flexible translation of the two criteria under Article 184(3), ‘public importance’ and ‘fundamental rights’.[110]

3.4.1 The Supreme Court picked up a conspicuous ground over securing What’s more propelling appreciation for human rights:

  • Providing change to casualties of genuine wrongdoings, including human rights infringement, by requesting and checking criminal examinations and requesting indictments; )

 Public lynching of two siblings in Sialkot (2010) [111]

On 15 August 2010, two siblings, Muneeb and Mughees Butt were publicly lynched by a crowd in Sialkot within the sight of cops. The Supreme Court took suo motu notice of the case and framed examining groups after which, On 20 September 2011, Anti-Terrorism Court issued its verdict, sentencing seven people to death, six to life in prison, and giving all the policemen involved in the incident three-year terms. The justice prevailed to the common public because that was not only a personal matter but it relates with the whole society, as Dr mehdi hassan expressed, member of the executive council of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP):

“The judiciary must be more attentive to cases such as these or else the people’s faith in the system could shatter,”[112]

   Shooting of Sarfraz Shah (2011) [113]

On 8 June 2011, Sarfaraz Shah was additional judicially murdered by Sindh Rangers in Karachi. The Supreme Court, seeing video film that showed up in the media, took up suo motu purview of the occurrence on 9 June 2011. On 10 June 2011, Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry, composing the decision for the Court, inferred that extreme constraint had been utilized against Sarfraz Shah. The Supreme Court commented this was

a …[c]classical case of high handedness of the law enforcing agencies and instead of feeling a sense of responsibility and showing uprightness and honesty, they are, even today, concealing the facts while appearing before this Court.[114] The court verdict was that the ranger person who killed Sarfraz Shah was sentenced to death and the rest of six accused were sentenced to life imprisonment.[115]

  • Supreme Courtalso promoting and securing women rights by taking up petitions and taking suo motu notice of circumstances including brutality against ladies in Pakistan; The Supreme Court has practiced its suo motu purview speedily in various matters including inhumanity against women, for example, stoning to death and respect slaughtering, frequently depending on media reports. The practice of the Court’s unique jurisdiction and its requests sometimes have prompted to fortifying enactment on savagery against ladies.

In 2003, Irshad Hussain tossed acid on 13-year-old Naila Farhat[116], forever deforming her face. Depending on media reports, Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry took suo motu notice of Naila Farhat’s case, holding that instances of corrosive brutality in Pakistan constituted a matter of open significance identifying with the requirement of crucial human rights according to Article 184(3). Member of provincial Assembly Tabasum Younus Katozai said that easy access to acid has resulted in the growing number of burn cases in the province. “The crime will be curbed only when the culprits are given severe punishment,” On 20 November 2009, the Supreme Court passed a request for the situation. Composing the judgment, Chief Justice Chaudhry watched that the Government ought to pass enactment denying acid assaults, give heavier sentences to culprits of corrosive viciousness, and manage the deal and buy of acid. In light of the Supreme Court arrange, Parliament passed the Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Acid Act in December 2011.

Supreme Court likewise paid notice on rape assault and violence against women, court also strictly censured the out of court settlements.

  • Protecting gatherings defenseless against discrimination, eminently transgender and transsexuals in its point of interest decision perceiving the privileges of the hijra group. Rights of transgender:

The Supreme Court issued a landmark judgment in 2009 Aslam Khaki vs senior superintendent of police, to secure the group’s naturally ensured ideal to equivalent treatment under the watchful eye of the law[117]and gave a judgement in which was expressed clearly that transgender are the respected citizens of the state and the government at all level is bound to give them equal rights at all instances without any type of discrimination.

The Supreme Court, under Article 184(3), has mediated in various criminal cases including human rights infringement to guarantee that casualties have access to a successful lawful cure and reparations under the law.

3.5 Critique of Suo Moto and judicial bias:

The ICJ’s 2012 write about its main goal to Pakistan raised worries that the Supreme Court was utilizing its Article 184(3) controls unreasonably and suggested that its unique jurisdiction is utilized all the more prohibitively and on the basis of straightforward criteria. Subsequent to undertaking a more inside and out investigation of the Court’s law in the present Report, the ICJ keeps on being worried that the Supreme Court’s translation of what are ‘public significance’ and ‘fundamental rights’ has now and again been conflicting and has some of the time neglected to conform to perceived international’ law and guidelines. The ICJ’s review of the Supreme Court’s current statute shows a remarkable absence of consistency in matters taken up by the Court. [118]The suo moto was criticized by Asma Jahangir, a well known lawyer of Pakistan stated that suo motu “could poison the system” by allowing the court to make purely political decisions while creating tension with the other branches. This critique relates to the fact that when a court uses suo motu for political decisions, it steps on the feet of the elected branches of government. Not only does this cause mistrust of the judiciary by the other branches of government, it could lead to an all out rebellion where the president and parliament refuse to execute the decisions of the court. Such an occurrence would not only damage the procedural workings of the judiciary, but would call into question the credibility and legitimacy of the court’s decisions.[119] For instance, the Court took suo motu see when a female Member of Parliament slapped a lady surveying officer since it ‘conveyed disgrace to the nation’. Thus, the Court took suo motu notice of the treatment of exile Pakistanis at airports, watching that despite the fact that expatriates send back billions of dollars to the nation consistently, the Civil Aviation Authority did not even stretch out ordinary courtesy to them. However, the Court stayed quiet when an anti-terrorism court sentenced six work development pioneers to 10 years detainment for challenging the refusal of force to linger proprietors to build their wages according to an administrative arrangement. Another problem arisen in the suo moto cases that without legal standard there is inequality of justice, which means the court took notice on some issue when they are having media coverage and left other, there is no system to check its judicial activism.[120]

Reactions about the absence of clear criteria on what the Supreme Court considers issues of public importance, The trite saying “give a man a fish, you feed him for a day, teach a man how to fish, you feed him for life,” is relevant. Suo motu notices allow for the sordid, discriminatory legal system to flourish with a lucky draw being conducted one day at a time. The people are being sent a message that instead of approaching the courts, which would also necessitate the establishment of a uniformly accessible justice system, they should weakly hope for a miracle. Miracles are hardly ever democratic. Laziness thrives under this dispensation. Suo motu notice allows for fleeting relief from systemic problems, while inadvertently according legitimacy to those very systems it seeks to fight.[121]

In declaring jurisdiction of matters under Article 184(3), the Supreme Court has additionally once in a while deciphered essential rights in a way that is conflicting with worldwide human rights law.

3.6 Failure to address major human rights issues:

The Supreme Court has acted quickly on a few matters, tending to a noteworthy number of human rights petitions especially identifying with the organization of equity in criminal cases, ladies’ rights and the privileges of transsexuals. In any case, the Court has been hesitant to utilize measures available to its in different examples, for example, giving responsibility to the nation’s progressing emergency of upheld vanishings, settling the states of more than 7000 individuals on death column, and completion the capacity of security strengths to keep suspects self-assertively and with exemption.

There comes some heedful result of suo moto:

    Increased the case stack:

As the preeminent court paid heed all alone movement the case stack expanded and brought about the postponed equity. a large number of cases are pending in the court which frustrates the privilege to hear in the criminal case for no sensible reason.

    Far achieving outcome:

The Supreme Court’s aura in Article 184(3) cases has now and again had sweeping outcomes, which have accidentally attracted people who might not have initially expected being influenced by the case. Since 184(3) judgments can’t be advanced, the result has been to leave oppressed or influenced parties without review or cure.

    Violating sometimes right to fair trial:

The Supreme Court’s choice to practice its unique purview, especially when it takes suo motu notice of cases, has harmed the assumption of purity and the privilege to a reasonable trial.

    Lead to friction with other branches of government:

The extended utilization of Article 184(3), has in some cases prompted to erosion between the Court and different branches of the State. Quite, the Supreme Court has mediated and now and again usurped the locale of managerial organizations including establishments, for example, the Election Commission, the National Accountability Bureau, and even the Parliament.

    Not complementary to criminal process.

In many occasions, it can’t all alone satisfy casualties’ entitlement to cure and reparation. The Supreme Court’s unique purview must be practiced in a way that is correlative to the criminal procedure.

3.6   Marginalization of lower courts:

Similar to the higher court of the express, the Supreme Court arrange can’t be amended by any higher courts or tribunal courts of the nation. The Constitution of Pakistan and the Supreme Court Rules, 1980, do however permit disputing parties a constrained right of the survey of Supreme Court choices. Nonetheless, the Court’s survey ward is significantly more constrained in degree than its re-appraising locale. Under the Supreme Court Rules, the Supreme Court may audit its judgments and requests on the ground of ‘a mistake obvious on the substance of the record’ or on disclosure of new and imperative confirmation. Not at all like interests, similar judges who passed the first judgment or request tried to be surveyed may hear audits. The alternative of a survey, thusly, is not equivalent to an interest.

The ‘PCO Judges’ case exhibits the need to guarantee that the Supreme Court, in practicing purview under Article 184(3), does not give an attitude that leaves influenced parties with next to zero open doors for review, either in engaging discoveries or looking for a substitute cure. On 31 July 2009, the Supreme Court passed a judgment in the Sindh High Court Bar Association case. In that judgment, the Supreme Court proclaimed General Musharraf’s declaration of crisis and Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO), 2007, unlawful. The Court likewise decided that

every legal arrangement made by the ‘accepted’ Chief Justice Dogar, without the assent of the by law Chief Justice Chaudhry, were unlawful and void. Therefore, of the Supreme Court’s decision, Justice Bhinder and more than 100 different judges selected by accepted Chief Justice Dogar were consequently rejected from their workplaces as judges of the high courts and Supreme Court. [122]

                                                     CHAPTER FOUR

                                                THE WAY FORWARD

  1. The way forward:

Public interest litigation is that which cures the deprived sections of the state, it gives power to them which are ignorant and also gives the voice to those which are unable to speak for their fundamental rights which are granted to them under the state law.in Pakistan superior court is granted the right to take cognizance of the matter which is of public interest under the article 184(3) of the constitution, as discussed in the previous chapters the PIL in detail it’s clear that this is a double edged sword which may cure the patient or kill him, so the use of the judicial powers may not encroached the other branches of government.

PIL has evolved in the era of former chief Chaudhry Iftikhar Ahmad. Under Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, the court has relied on its constitutional right to take suo motu action. In Article 184 (3)[123] of Pakistan’s Constitution, the Supreme Court is allowed to take suo motu action whenever there is a violation of fundamental rights as enumerated in Chapters 1 and 2. Thus, the court has initiated several cases based on news stories that appeared in the print or electronic media or letters sent to the court by common citizens.[124] Supreme court started to serve public under the article 184(3) because under this article constitution has granted the supreme courts powers to serve the common public.

Alongside in past judiciary might have been suffered because of political un stability, key and basic privileges were suspended and higher courts were Hosting no power to issue writs authorize them under theory. Then afterward those restoration about constitution for 1985, judiciary needed a chance to react to protect those key greater part, however overlook the public, judges utilized PIL Concerning illustration those feasible alternative will give nationals with the chance with voice their assumption Furthermore redress their grievance, judiciary figured it out under PIL that social justice might have been the vital issue which those court if maintain. Chief justice envisaged those legal activism through PIL Concerning illustration An intend for claiming social justice,.

“The function of adjudication is not to solve the disputes, but also to give meaning to public views… this approach..  Indicates the importance of considering the dispute settlement process as a method of resolving social conflicts through the application of a system of flexible rules of law that should be meant to promote human welfare”[125]

Those PIL development began On 1990’s and Notwithstanding over new period it picked up new vigour, especially in the occasion when from claiming chief justice Chaudhry, over Aug 2006 supreme court announced that its sou moto jurisdiction……. Is a source of strength for the rule of law, good governance and awareness of legal rights[126] for all the classes of society equally without the imbalance use of power.

It might have been those enchantment of suo moto forces envisaged to article 184-3 from claiming constitution that enabled justice Chaudhry would do the undoable. He set a point of reference that those that the judiciary can be one of the most difficult barriers to cross to loot the general riches. Those suo moto notices created panic among the ranks of corrupt elite but at the same time they did bring a ray of hope for the nation. At whatever point there might have been violation for mankind’s privileges or whatever episode about corruption, it might have been the chief equity who remained against it. Since 2009 those Supreme Court need consumed defilement situations directing, including billion of rupees, spared billions of the national exchequer, which needed very nearly Run of the pockets of the capable and the strong.[127] There is An rundown about suo moto cases Previously, which supreme court need made steps for people in general premium which might have been the certain angle for sou moto movement On account it won people in general premium In large:.

4. 1. 1 Reko Diq case: the Supreme Court took dependent upon an instance worth $500 billion, When Balochistan’s gold mines were being tossed to multi-nationals as peanuts. The Supreme court retraction the particular illicit terms of the lease of the gold mines expressed that those concurred upon arrived at on july 23, 1993 might have been void Furthermore for clash for the laws of the state.[128]

4. 1. 2 the NICL Scam: over a letter of the transparency International, those Supreme Court took a suo moto notice for doubtful buys worth Rs5 billion toward those national protection particular organization constrained (NICL) from claiming which the majority of the measure been recuperated.[129]

4. 1. 3 Elimination of dual nationals from parliament: the supreme Court took dependent upon situations which brought up those issue if An double national could hold a position for parliament or not, and the court governed that those constitution bars A double national from getting to be a parliamentarian also ruled that every last one of salaries, What’s more perks drawn by double nationals make recouped from the MPs. Indeed going a counsellor will PM Nawaz Sharif, Shujat Azeem, might have been also sent pressing In the issue.[130]

4. 1. 4 Utilities management instances at large: there were instances when the court actively exercised legal audit again choices made by utilities regulators… On these cases, which those court actively took up, those controllers required will publically uncover Also legitimately defend those justification behind their estimating or circulation decisions, something which they needed never preceding been constrained to do.[131] Following cartelisation of sugar mafia and phenomenal climb in the sugar price, Apex court took suo moto notice after hearing Furthermore analysing those entire sugar promoting process, settled those sugar cost toward Rs40 for every kg and requested the federal and provincial governments should take constantly on essential steps to guarantee the sale of sugar in the entire country on the value likewise concluded eventually by the Supreme Court.[132]

4. 1. 5 fake degrees case: The military administration required acquainted A profoundly undemocratic protected alteration which proclaimed a collage level degree, As a prerequisite to contesting elections. In spite of the fact that it might have been evacuated before long thereafter, the 2008 elections were directed same time this standard might have been on the books. To by-pass this rule, numerous government officials submitted forged degrees to the election commission. Upon being petitioned, the court requested election commission to investigate every last one of degrees it required accepted and should arrangement every last bit – including could parliamentarians – strictly for understanding for those standards,[133] the Supreme Court likewise ruled for Rizwan Gill the event that anybody who need submitted a fake instructive record for the decision requisition for Pakistan can’t hold a position in the parliament. Similarly as an after effect of this judgment, a couple parliamentarians had to lose their seats in the parliament.

4. 1. 6 Bank of Punjab case: Throughout the Musharraf regime, Haris steel managers to connivance the then president of bank of punjab President Hamesh khan took A budgetary office about Rs8. 6 billion looking into fake collaterals, fake documents Also fake organizations. CJ Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry then afterward as much rebuilding for Walk 16, 2009 took dependent upon the mega debasement outrage Also requested reallocation for advantages of the looters Also a lot need in this way been saved with the bop.

4. 1. 7 Violence in Karachi: when dozens of innocent individuals were being murdered in karachi daily, and the PPP legislature might have been completing nothing, it might have been once more the Supreme Court who took suo moto notice of the occurrence Furthermore CJ alongside two other members of Supreme Court went to karachi and got notification instances there. Supreme court gave down judgment in karachi viciousness case, which brought about downgrade about dozens of police officers pushed out from turn.

4. 1. 8 Public lynching of two brothers: another suo moto perceive might have been assumed control people in general lynching about two brothers done in Sialkot. The The accused of that incident have been awarded death sentence and imprisonment.[134]

4. 1. 9 The refusal about privileges with religious minorities and extending the right for transsexuals: As in Aslam khaki v. Senior superintendent of Police,[135] the court passed a request which  was hailed by critics and support alike as extending the rights of transsexuals, however overlook transsexuals in the nation. The court stated: Needless to observe that eunuchs in their rights are citizens of this country and subject to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973, their rights, obligations including right to life and dignity are equally protected. Thus no discrimination, for any reason, is possible against them as far as their rights and obligations are concerned. The Government functionaries both at federal and provincial levels are bound to provide them protection of life and property and secure their dignity as well, as is done in case of other citizens.

4. 2 Issues of public interest litigation:

Same time PIL may be a supportive device for social justice, it need problems:.

4. 2. 1 firstly, there may be a risk about misuse Toward private interests, Courts need generally made under record the bona fides of the solicitor Also cautioned that vexatious, What’s more pointless petitions might prompt a ill-use of the procedure of the court. Concerning illustration over an instance from claiming India, Raunaq worldwide Ltd. V. I. V. R. Development Ltd.[136] The taking after perceptions were aggravated with the target for streamlining the foundation from claiming PILs: “When a petition is filed as a public litigation … the Court must satisfy itself that the party which has brought the litigation is litigating bona fide for public good. The public interest litigation should not be merely a cloak for attaining private ends of a third party or of the party bringing the petition … Even when a public interest litigation is entertained, the Court must be careful to weigh conflicting public interest before intervening.”[137]

Secondly, implementation of decisions is another problem of PIL, notwithstanding of the judgements of the courts, the situation has not changed blatant violations of the human rights still continue, for example the bonded labours, the conditions of the bonded labourers remains very poor.

Thirdly, the perspective of the court in the same instances stay inconsistent, as the Sindh high official need rejected 94 situations of bonded labours, glaring violations of the women rights, particularly, honor killings are still proceed with.

Fourthly, absence of assets is in turn obstacle of the transform for execution. The constitution gives that standards of approach relies on the accessibility of the resources, Pakistan has no case law in regards to such a plea.

Fifthly, the court’s jurisdiction over PIL cases is restricted to basic rights, hence PIL gives A piece meal approach to justice that doesn’t consider implementation about comprehensive order.

Sixthly, the commentators contend that security for particular case of human right Eventually  prompt violation of different human right, for case those Conclusion of a contamination made business protects the right should An clean environment, Yet violates those right about vocation from claiming its workers, which may be clinched alongside inconsistency to theory that same time securing you quit offering on that one correct ought not abuse whatever available right.

At long last PIL might prompt legal official confrontation, which prompts those violation from claiming hypothesis of detachment of powers, legal overlaps other limbs for legislature.

The humiliating treatment mered out to government officials by members of judiciary on the routine basis during court proceeding has demoralized the civil bureaucracy and senior government functionaries, to avoid being harassed, prefer inaction.”

judiciary under the PIL Frequently overlapped the  legislature and executive which brings about those impedance Furthermore interference in the attempting about government, here need aid exactly about cases Likewise on account theory below.[138]

4. 2. 1 amendment from claiming presidential case 2013:

The Supreme Court took notice upon an appeal  under article 184(3) on sake of the ruling party, those Pakistan Muslim League(Nawaz), trying will progress those date of the Presidential elections. The court took up the appeal  on the foundation of securing promoting good on religion, but its ruling in the case did not elaborate or provide any sufficient reasoning to show how holding elections on the original date that had been set by the Electoral Commission implicated the right to religion. The PML-N guaranteed that voting ought  not be held in the last ten days of the blessed month of Ramadan Concerning as some parliamentarians might pick on try for Umrah ,Furthermore a portion might additionally decide will try looking into Aitekaf. The election commission rejected the application, guaranteeing that the decision for some parliamentarians should watch non-obligatory religious practices may be not An addition reason to warrant the date of the Presidential elections to be changed. Then PML(N) party members requested to Supreme court under article 184(3) looking for need to election dates transformed and parliamentarians right to take part for non-obligatory religious practices might be disregarded Assuming that if elections were held in the last ten days of Ramadan. The petition also claimed that the court might have been obliged to take measures to guarantee that all parliamentarians required the chance to vote in the Presidential elections. The court exercise its jurisdiction through the appeal  under article 184(3) of the constitution on 25 july 2013, then afterward after single hearing ordered the election commission should change the election date to 30 july 2013.[139]

4. 2. 2 Testing the authenticity for Baluchistan government:. The Balochistan high court bar association requested the supreme court under article 184(3) to pay notice over the deteriorating human rights circumstance in Balochistan, notably targeted killings, kidnappings, enforced disappearances. The petitioners asked the court  to guarantee the fundamental rights of public at large and the members of the bar cooperation were ensured. This body of evidence turned into known as the Baluchistan law and order case.

For 12 october 2012, over a between time request in the Baluchistan law What’s more request case, the supreme court held that , ‘…as far as Provincial Government of Baluchistan is concerned it had lost its constitutional authority to govern the Province because of violation of fundamental rights of the people of Pakistan’[140] under the constitution of Pakistan, chosen members of the provincial legislature body have the prerogative to structure administration. As in length as the chief minister and the provincial government summon the certainty of the legislature, they have the protected right with finish their tenure so the only exception may be set out for Article 234[141] of the Constitution, which permits the President of pakistan on Accept works of the provincial administration Assuming that he will not fulflil the undertakings of the the constitution of pakistan and the affairs of state are are not running with accordance of constitution but constitution doesn’t enable the supreme court on releasing or dismissing the provincial government on any basis, , even if they are incapable of addressing serious human rights violations.[142]

4.2. 3 Supervision 0f National Responsibility Department (NAB).

On 28 january 2013, when the chairperson of NAB, communicated worries that the supreme court might have been trespassing to the working and functions of NAB in a letter to President Zardari. In the letter, he affirmed that those tight deadlines to submit advancement reports set by the supreme Court were setting NAB authorities under enormous pressure and compromising  their independence, He further composed that there may be Indeed going a risk that NAB work force might lose their independence and cannot carry investigations in an independent way due to pressure exerted upon them by honourable supreme court.

In indian supreme Court, the direct investigations were once debated On 1994 in jain hawala case,[143] the Justice Verma, warned against the judiciary’s cooperation Previously, investigations Similarly as expressed once: “The judiciary is required to oversee public authority and persons in public office and direct them to perform their functions when a case comes to court, not take over their functions. You make the authority perform but not take over and when you do so, you erode the separation of powers which is part of our political and constitutional scheme” it is clear by said statement that when one branch of government is over coming other and over lapping it causes the damage to the doctrine of separation of power.

4. 2. 4 Disqualification of Yousaf Raza Gillani (2012):

On 26 April 2012, A seven-member bench of the supreme court indicted previous leader Yousaf Raza Gilani of contempt of court after he required rejected should actualize all the Court’s requests in the  NRO judgment. The court over its discoveries held that those leader required brought the Supreme court and the judiciary under ‘ridicule’ situation wilfully flouting the order to Prime Minister to compose a letter to the Swiss Government, expressing Pakistan’s expectation on becoming a civil party in the corruption case pending in Switzerland against previous President Zardari.

However, despite the fact that the court shown that those conviction for contempt of court might need other adverse consequences, it didn’t hold that Yusuf Raza Gillani might make disentitled from parliamentary enrollment pursuant on article 63 (1)(g)[144] of the constitution Previously, its judgment passed ahead 26 April 2012 for ‘bringing the judiciary under ridicule’ the speaker of the national assembly managed that those conviction for contempt didn’t exclude leader Gillani from participation for parliament Similarly as he required not been indicted to defaming or bringing the judiciary into ridicle,[145] In all above events the court overlapped for different establishments for legislature which may be hazardous for the term for democracy, over modern democratic world each institution of government working on energy in their spheres without over lapping one another on the foundation of separation of control doctrine, it exercises the political force without abusing it, as a consequence, the principle of checks and balance allows other branches of government a measure of intrusion into another branch’s functions.[146]

 4. 3 Article 184(3) and when Public Interest Litigation is truly needed:.

PIL is textually grounded in the procurements relating the jurisdiction and judicial review powers  of the higher courts under the Pakistan constitution of 1973, the 1973 constitution enabled the higher courts with distinctive approaches through a elaborate set claims key privileges which are straightforwardly enforceable by the courts. Furthermore of the general appellate and advisory jurisdictions, it enriched both Supreme court and the provincial high courts with a special ―original jurisdiction with specific jurisdictional, procedural, and remedial powers devoted to the enforcement of the Fundamental Right additionally strengthened the judiciary‘s power to enforce these rights by providing that laws that were inconsistent with or made in derogation of the Fundamental Rights were void. The high courts and the Supreme Court jurisdiction for enforcing the fundamental rights was the base on which PIL nurtured.

The original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court under Article 184(3) of the 1973 Constitution is exercisable independently of the high courts. Article 184(3) states:

Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 199[147], the Supreme Court

shall, if it considers that a question of public importance with reference to the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights conferred by Chapter I of Part II is involved have the power to make an order of the nature mentioned in the said Article.”

Article 184(3) gives supreme court to have discernment of the matter if it repudiates public in general interest, Supreme court make an order to redress the aggrieved party, however supreme court can make orders by which the interest of the deprived sections can be prevailed under the theory of public interest because supreme court is granted with the power under constitution to make an appropriate order when fundamental rights of public at large are violated should settle on an suitable request will implement those basic right, , Article 184(3) focuses on two main issues firstly violation of fundamental rights and secondly proving conditions of locus standi, whereas the doctrine of locus standi is relaxed in public interest litigation, there are certain conditions in which locus standi is not required when the fundamental rights of deprived or common people are at risk.

The Hon’ble chief justice Muhammad Haleem, stated in the case, Benazir Bhutto vs federation of Pakistan[148] thus dealing with the issue of locus standi maintained that where there are violations of fundamental rights of a class or a group of persons who are unable to seek redress from the Court, then the traditional rule of locus standi can be dispensed with, and the procedure available in public interest litigation can be made use of, if it is brought to the notice of the Court by a person acting bona fide. [149]

The dilution of legal standing is the centre part of PIL, a interpretive Conclusion that might have been at first seen as novel but now as appears to be reasonably natural. Regardless, the court‘s locale will be confined by those edge prerequisites for ―a inquiry for general population imperativeness with admiration to those requirement of key privileges. This implies that whatever person, if alternately not a ―aggrieved party, might invoke the supreme Court‘s purview Concerning violations of fundamental rights concerning the public interest.[150] PIL departs from customary locus standi rules.  A most noteworthy shift will be the non-adversarial nature of the case prompting collective and investigative prosecution. The court has gone over its customary rule of determination of a dispute and issuing an order over it, as a caretaker about key rights, the court receives subject objections acquires the important one to the consideration of administration authorities such as government officials. Further, the court gives a forum that will examine the general public issues and provide the emergency relief by issuing an temporary order.[151]

However, there are specific conditions under which locus standi is not required, this will be dependent upon the judiciary to check the necessities for which principle for locus standi is not needed for example, Assuming that an individual acting bona fide and having an interest in the proceeding for claiming PIL will have locus standi and approached the court for poor people and needy, suffering from violation of their essential privileges. But as an individual for personal or private benefit or having political intention or any angled attention need no locus standi.

Similarly, a vexatious appeal brought under the colour of PIL brought in the recent past the court to vindicating any individual grievance, deserves dismissal at the edge. The Court should not allow its process to be abused by mere busybodies, meddlesome interlopers, wayfarers or officious interveners having absolutely no public interest except for personal gain or private profit either for  themselves or as proxy of others or for any other extraneous motivation or for glare of publicity,[152] the petitioner filling the PIL case must having the bona fide intention, their must a chance to be no private or any particular interest in the mind of that person only keeps the public interest in front and opposed to personal interest, Assuming that the locus standi will be not joined through public interest then the court will announce it as mala fide act, for example, such that happened in land mark case, claiming Dr Tahir ul Qadri case:

  1. 3. 1 Dr Tahir ul Qadri case:.

The issue might have been that, Dr. Muhammad Tahirul Qadri, those Administrator of Pakistan Awami Tehreek (political party), documented a appeal to under article 184(3) of the constitution on 7th February, 2013 in which he sought the reformation of the the election commission of Pakistan (ECP). He challenged that “the appointment of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and selection of four members of the ECP was not according to the article 213 and 218 of the constitution. And that’s why these appointments are void ab-initio.”  Therefore, he claimed in the appeal that the appointment of the CEC alongside the members of the election commission be made as stated by those article 213(2) (a) Also 218(2) (a) Also (b) of the 1973constitution.

Chief justice Iftikhar Chaudhary headed the three member bench and rejected the appeal to on the ground that “Qadri could neither demonstrate any violation of his fundamental rights nor establish his locus standi to contest the elections given that he was a dual national.”  Court discovered in the brief proclamation document perusing the Qadri that he holds the nationality of Canada also. As stated by the Canadian citizens act 1985, an individual need on indicate devotion of the Canada. He or she has to take loyalty oath before the Canadian constitution

“From this day, I pledge my loyalty to Canada and her majesty Elizabeth the second, queen of Canada. I promise to respect our country’s rights and freedoms, to uphold our democratic values, to faithfully observe our laws and fulfill my duties and obligations as a Canadian citizen.”

On the other hand the citizenship act of Pakistan 1951, section 14(1)reads, “ if any person is citizen of Pakistan, and is at the same time a citizen or a national of any other country renouncing his status as citizen or national thereof, cease to be a citizen of Pakistan.” This disqualifies a person from the membership of the parliament. The article 63(1) reads as, “A person shall be disqualified from being elected or chosen as…a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (parliament), if, under the section(c) of the same article, “he ceases to be a citizen of Pakistan, or acquires the citizenship of a foreign state.”

With respect to the article 184(3) of the public interest litigation it will be concerned whether a case decided by the court falls under the theory of public interest litigation or not In this regards, the elucidation of the Indian supreme court is pertinent to quote. It might have been held in the Ashok Kumar Pandey v state from claiming West bengal[153] that,.

Public interest litigation is a weapon which has to be used with great care and circumspection and the judiciary has to extremely careful to see that behind the beautiful veil of public interest an ugly private malice, vested interest…” It was further held that, „it is to be used as an effective weapon in the armoury of law for delivering social justice to the citizens…it should not be used for suspicious products of mischief. It should be aimed at redressal of genuine public wrong or public injury and not publicity oriented or founded on personal vendetta.”[154]

Likewise the Supreme court does On the whole cases, it is setting off profound under each part of the ual citizenship with figure out Dr Qadri’s locus standi to dispute the ECP composition. On the face for it, the very fact that the appeal been documented by a dual national Furthermore has challenged a sacred establishment is particularly irking to those judges.[155] However, court rejected the appeal to on the ground that under the recent case, there was no key privileges violation. In this way court demonstrated its fairness and impartiality, and augmented its role against the elite politicians and military. [156]

Constantly protector of the public rights the Pakistan supreme court demonstrated the locus standi, then again locus standi may be loose in the serving from claiming PIL, locus standing will be an intricate legitimate doctrine, in any case basically, it is an approach on protect the house for justice from loiterers, alternately the individuals who wish to waste the court’s time or decrease its validity Toward bringing pointless asserts. Justice kennedy expressed that locus standi

“is not just an empty formality. It preserves the vitality of the adversarial process by assuring both that the parties before the court have an actual… stake in the outcome, and that “the legal questions presented … will be resolved, not in the ratified atmosphere of a debating society, but in a concrete factual context conducive to a realistic appreciation of the consequences of judicial action.”

same time judiciary clinched alongside Pakistan slights procedural obstructions In this way that they can address the catastrophic challenges to citizens’ rights, it should be noted that fairness may be regularly conceived of procedure.[157]

4. 4 compelling reason of instrument that defend PIL Concerning illustration it is twofold edged sword:

However it is stated that judiciary uses PIL under the option of “need”, and the court has to determine whether use of PIL is needed or not in a specific situation, if it is needed then judiciary has to follow the code and conduct, they have to consider the all aspects of the respective case and go through if that is a public concerned and needs the cognizance, court also take cognizance of the matter which is not of public interest but becomes constitutional matter needed the legal right as the bonded labour was properly prohibited under law after when court receive a letter from the brick kiln labour Darshan masih[158] in certain cases only a letter or a complaint by a petitioner side worked as the writ petition such conditions are harassment or torture to death in jail by police, rape, murder, or kidnapping, but the judiciary have to keep in view the code under which PIL prevails.

The Chaudhry court has done milestones in the form of public interest litigation in Pakistan and redressed the aggrieved parties, but from the eye of critique they sometimes overlapped the other branches of government and the relation between and other branches was remained tensed during Chaudhry era, the main purpose to serve the PIL is that true need in which the main cause of PIL is hidden if that is neglected then the serving of PIL is not for public but for the private interest, under the article 184(3) supreme court serves the public fundamental rights.as discussed above the standing doctrine is relaxed but certain procedures and barriers are still there.

Supreme Court took sou moto on PIL cases to give relief to the aggrieved parties, but critique were of view they overlapped the legislation and executive while interfering there authority, whereas the supporters of PIL admired and praised the working of PIL during the era of Choudhry court, as they took very important steps in human rights aspect to prevail justice. but there was still need of a mechanism that justify the credibility of the working of judiciary, that mechanism which checks and balance the power of the supreme court given by constitution as the PIL is a two edged sword which may cures or kill, working of court must be under the proper framework and judicial activism should be restrained, A court may be judicially active or inactive regardless from claiming PIL, Judicial activism is an expression of huge number of shades. No person today subscribes on Bacon’s see that judges must best announce the law Furthermore don’t make law. Such a view might have been rightly portrayed Likewise a fairy tale perusing a recognized English judge master Reid. Judges do and must make law but not in the manner as legislatures or law making bodies do[159]. Judiciary which gives cover of the denied areas under the PIL and secure their key privileges by court orders, a court may be strongest and minimum vulnerable, when it grounds its intercessions while enforcing the fundamental rights of the common people against authority. No question of the court breaching the separation for forces arises, No question of the court breaching the separation of powers can arise, as it carries out its constitutional function of protecting the basic rights of individual,[160] same time taking sou moto notice under the article 184(3) the doctrine about separation of powers guarantee the rule of law Likewise stated justice (retired) Fakhruddin g. Ebrahim, previous chief of election commission Pakistan, has observed that.

“…The superior courts may successfully cure many of the nation’s evils only by taking a deliberate approach to addressing injustices in its society through a legal framework that respects the balance of power and can be expanded on by jurists to come.”[161]

Supreme court ought to embrace a transparent and simple methodology under which the sou moto activity need been taken and must think about under a clear criteria that how the public importance issue is considered to be violated as a fundamental right.

Supreme court must pay attention to the deeds requested under those article 184(3) are under the consistency with theory which doesn’t encroach any other institution of  administration Also that request of law must on the bona fide plan, Also Additionally not for the intention of populism e.g If a matter will be among the public or on media but Supreme Court should check the reliability of the matter whether suo moto is mandatory or not and their favours was well defined by a known lawyer in its writing:

“A politician might be beholden to popular opinion if lacking in foresight and the ability to build opinion instead of following it. But a judge is required to decide legal questions without taking into account considerations of fear or favour. Popularity when actively sought is a consideration of favour. Judicial codes of conduct everywhere, including in Pakistan, require judges to avoid publicity and exposure to public.”[162]

Supreme Court must make such orders under which it ensures the underprivileged section of society quick and low-cost justice, slow legal procedure results into fail of justice as it is a legal maxim, justice delayed is justice denied, the supreme court of Pakistan requested the judges should clear up those outrageous excess of cases which will be upto 1. 4 million instances for this occurrence the amount of judges and prepared police examiner needed to be expanded, Supreme court have to emphasis on solving the cases instead of taking more,[163] Supreme court of Pakistan has to mobilized the justice on all surfaces of courts, As denied areas are to start with moving towards district courts, Judiciary in Pakistan In the district level is itself a Obstruction in the method for expedient Justice. It’s hosting three kinds of problems like an insufficient number of judges in the districts, recruitment of inexperienced or functionally illiterate judges with no specialisation required over the civil or criminal branch.[164] Supreme Court has to take this problem seriously and derive a permanent and solid solution for it.

Logic from claiming Legal limitation as instrument for accountability:. A sovereign and least vulnerable supreme court will be in the interest of the Pakistan, But an independent and sovereign  court implies autonomy from interference of executive and legislation but not from the accountability, an instrument of responsibility will be required and that is judicial restraint, Supreme  court has to take care of the denied group but when the interest of the large group of society may be In stake but not to the personal interest, the wisdom behind the doctrine of judicial restraint is that there is broad separation of powers under the Constitution and the three structures of the State, the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary must respect each other and must not generally trespass into each other’s sphere, otherwise the system cannot function properly. Also, the judiciary must realise that the legislature is a democratically-elected body which expresses the will of the people (however imperfectly) and in a democracy this will is not to be lightly frustrated or upset.[165]

As observed by Justice AS Anand, former chief justice of India:

“Courts have to function within the established parameters and Constitutional bounds. With a view to see that judicial activism does not become judicial adventurism, the courts must act with caution and proper restraint. They must remember that judicial activism is not an unguided missile. Failure to bear this in mind would lead to chaos. Public adulation must not sway the judges. They must remember that they cannot run the government.”[166]

A portion of people defend judicial activism stating that the legislature and executive are not appropriately performing their works. The Answer on this contention is that the same accuse is frequently all the levelled against the judiciary. Should the law making body or official then assume control judiciary’s functions, if the legislature or executive are not properly performing their functions, it is for the people to correct them by exercising their authorisation properly, or by peaceful and lawful public meetings and protests, and/or by public criticism through the media and by other lawful means. The cure may be not if the judiciary holding the control of these functions, because that would not only be against the separation of powers in the Constitution, as well as the judiciary having skills nor the assets to perform these capacities or functions.

The moral of this story is that if the judiciary does not maintain limitation or restraint and crosses its limits, there will be a reaction which may do great damage to the judiciary, its independence, and its respect in society.[167]As happened in election commission case, dismissal of PM but staying on safe side and prevailing justice by following the philosophy of judicial restraint may leads to respectful and non-biased judiciary.


[1] Ibrahim Sule, “Fundamental Rights Enforcement Rules and Public Interest Litigation: Understanding the Rules”, March 12,2013, http://works.bepress.com/ibrahim_sule/3/

[2] Siri Gloppen, “Public interest litigation, social rights and social policy”, New Frontiers of Social Policy, December 15, 2005, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.545.2334&rep=rep1&type=pdf

[3] Faqir Hussain,”public interest litigatin in Pakistan”,working paper serios no 5(1993): 1, accessed december  15, 2015, http://www.sdpi.org/publications/files/W5-Public%20Interest%20Litigation.pdf

[4] Muhammad Amir Munir, Public Interest Litigation in the Supreme Court of Pakistan: Powers under enabling article 184(3) of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973,(2007): 11.

[5]Justice Abdus sattar asghar,” public interest litigation” last accessed December 15, 2015, http://www.scbap.com/docs/Public%20Interest%20Litigation%20by%20Justice%20Abdus%20Sattar%20Asghar.pdf.

[6] Muntizma Committee v Director, Katchi Abadies, Sindh (PLD 1992 Kar 54).

[7]  Siri Gloppen, “Public interest litigation, social rights and social policy”, New Frontiers of Social Policy, December 15, 2005, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.545.2334&rep=rep1&type=pdf

[8] JusticeAbdus sattar asghar, ” public interest litigation” last accessed December 15, 2015, http://www.scbap.com/docs/Public%20Interest%20Litigation%20by%20Justice%20Abdus%20Sattar%20Asghar.pdf

[9] G.L Pieris,”public interest litigatin in the indian sub-continent: current dimensions.”  40, no. 1( 1991): 66, accessed december 15, 2015,  https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-and-comparative-law-quarterly/article/div-classtitlepublic-interest-litigation-in-the-indian-subcontinent-current-dimensionsdiv/67AC4F49487A3B4C04E69F0C180B91DB

[10] The state vs dosso (PLD 1958 SC 533)

[11] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000): 24-25.

[12] Faqir Hussain, ”public interest litigatin in Pakistan”, SDPI working paper 5, (1993): 1, accessed at December 15, 2015 http://www.sdpi.org/publications/files/W5-Public%20Interest%20Litigation.pdf

[14] Advocate Mahbubul Islam , ” Defending Human Rights through Public Interest Litigation: Role of Human

Rights Activists in Bangladesh”, accessed December 15, 2015,

<http://www.hrpb.org.bd/images/PDF_File_%20RPB/Advocate%20Mahbubul%20Islam.pdf>

[15] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000): 114-115.

[16] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (London and Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000), 3,4

[17] http://www.indiankanoon.org/doc/441971/ last accessed June, 2013.

[18] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (London and Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000), 3,4.

[19] Ahmad Rafay Alam, ”public interest litigation and the role of judiciary,”: 1, accessed December 15, 2015, http://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/ijc/Articles/17/2.pdf

[20] Fertilizer enterprise Kamagra Union v Union of India AIR 1981(1) SCC 568

[21] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (London and Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000), 116.

[22]S.P Gupta v President of India (AIR 1982 SC 149).

[23] Ibid., 116.

[24] Manas Ranjan Samantaray,  Mritunja Sharma,.”public interest litigation: a conceptual framework” interscience management review(IMR) 2, no. 3  (2012) last accessed December 15, 2015,  <http://interscience.in/IMR_Vol2Iss3/paper5.pdf>

[25] Avani Mehta Sood,” LITIGATING REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS: Using Public Interest Litigation and International Law to Promote Gender Justice in India.” Center for reproductive rights,(2006): 24, last accessed December 15, 2015

<http://reproductiverights.org/sites/default/files/documents/media_bo_India1215.pdf>

[26] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (London and Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000), 44

[27] Ibid 44

[29]Dr B L Wadhera ,Public interest litigation a hand book with model PIL formats (Delhi: universal law publishing co pvt ltd, 2009), 13-14.

[30] S.P Gupta vs Union of India 1981(supp) SCC 87: AIR 1982 SC 49.

[31]Dr B L Wadhera ,Public interest litigation a hand book with model PIL formats (Delhi: universal law publishing co pvt ltd, 2009), 15

[33] Begum Nusrat Bhutto vs chief of army staff and federation of Pakistan PLD 1977 SC 657.

[34] At 199. Jurisdiction of High Court.

(1) Subject to the Constitution, a High Court may, if it is satisfied that no other adequate remedy is provided by law,-

(c) on the application of any aggrieved person, make an order giving such directions to any person or authority, including any Government exercising any power or performing any function in, or in relation to, any territory within the jurisdiction of that Court as may be appropriate for the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights conferred by Chapter 1 of Part 11.

[35] Fertilizer Corp. Kamgar Union v. Union of India, AIR 1981 SC 149.

[36] S. P. Gupta, 2 S.C.R. 365, at pg 17

[37] Avani Mehta Sood, “Gender justice through public interest litigation: case studies from India,”(2008): 839- 840, accessed at 23 june, 2013 (http://clpr.org.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Gender-Justice-through-PIL-case-studies.pdf)

[39] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000), 45

[40] Sheela Barse v. Union of India, (1988) Supp. 2 S.C.R. 643, ¶ 11 (India).

[41]  Sabir shah v shad Muhammad khan, PLD 1995 SC 66.

[42] Benazir Bhutto vs federation of Pakistan, PLD 1988 SC 416.

[43] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000):39, 41, 44.

[44] ibid

[45]Avani Mehta Sood,”litigating reproductive rights: using public interest litigation and international law to promote gender justice In India,”center for reproductive rights,(2006): 26. Last accessed 15 December, 2015,

http://reproductiverights.org/sites/default/files/documents/media_bo_India1215.pdf

[46]   Darshan Masih vs the State PLD 1990 SC 513.

[47] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (London and Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000), 51.

[48] Darshan masih vs state of pakistan PLD 1990. SC 513.

[49] Ameer bano v S.E Highways PLD 1996 Lah 592

[50] M ismail qureshi v m awais qasim 1993, SCMR 1788

[51] Avani Mehta Sood,”litigating reproductive rights: using public interest litigation and international law to promote gender justice In India,”center for reproductive rights,(2006): 25. Last accessed 15 December, 2015,

http://reproductiverights.org/sites/default/files/documents/media_bo_India1215.pdf

[52] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (London and Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000), 77.

[53] Pervaiz Elahi v Province of Punjab, PLD 1993 Lah 595, at p. 655.

[54] Manas Ranjan Samantaray, Mritunja Sharma,”public interest litigation: a conceptual framework” interscience management review(IMR) 2, no. 3  (2012): 30-31 last accessed December 15, 2015,  <http://interscience.in/IMR_Vol2Iss3/paper5.pdf>

[55] Ahmad Rafay Alam,”public interest litigation and the role of judiciary,”: 2, accessed December 15, 2015, http://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/ijc/Articles/17/2.pdf

[56] Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000): 27-28.

[57] Ahmad Rafay Alam,”public interest litigation and the role of judiciary,”: 1, accessed December 15, 2015, http://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/ijc/Articles/17/2.pdf

[58] Asad ali vs federation of Pakistan PLD 1988 SC 161, at p.290.

[59]   Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000): 29

[60] Constitution of Pakistan At 4(1).

[61]   Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000): 30

[62] Constitution of Pakistan, At 8.

[63] Ibid.

[64]   Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000): 30-31.

[65] Benazir vs Pakistan PLD 1988 SC 416

[66] Faqir Hussain, “public interest litigation,” SDPI Working Paper Series 5(1993):4-5.

[67] Benazir vs Pakistan PLD 1988 SC 416

[68] Alam, Ahmad Rafay.”public interest litigation and the role of judiciary,”: 1, accessed December 15, 2015, http://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/ijc/Articles/17/2.pdf

[69]   Werner Menski, Mansoor H. khan, Mehreen k. Raza, Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan (Karachi: Platinum and Pakistan law house, 2000):71

[70] Darshan Masih v. The State (PLD 1990 SC 513)

[71] Hafiz Muhammad azeem Adv” public interest litigation in Pakistan; a voice of silent victim”(blog), 19 February, 2015(07:50 am), http://hmazeem.blogspot.com/2015/02/public-interest-litigation-in-pakistan.html

[72] 86 87

[73] Mohammad Saifullah Khan v Federation of Pakistan (1989) PLD SC 166

[74] A.Ullah, “PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN: INNOVATE APPROACHES TO REFUSE STANDING,” Journal of Quality and Technology Management 9, no.2 (2013):100, accessed at 26 Jan,2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/iqtm/PDF-FILES/04-Dr%20Aman%20Ullah_v_ix_issueII_Dec2013.pdf

[75] Shehla Zia v. WAPDA (PLD 1994 SC 693)

[76] Pg 14

[77] Ghulam Ali v. Mst. Ghulam Sarwar Naqvi, PLD 1990 SC 1

[78] Hafiz Muhammad azeem Adv” public interest litigation in Pakistan; a voice of silent victim”(blog), 19 February, 2015(07:50 am), http://hmazeem.blogspot.com/2015/02/public-interest-litigation-in-pakistan.html

[79] Pg 51

[80]    Ismail Qureshi v. M. Awais Qasim (1993 SCMR 1788)

[81] 1994 SCMR 1028

[82] Suo moto case: LAHORE 1997 SCMR 1043

[83] Article: 18 Freedom of trade, business or profession, freedom of business or profession.-Subject to such qualifications, if any, as may be prescribed by law, every citizen shall have the right to enter upon any lawful profession or occupation, and to conduct any lawful trade or business,

[84] At 25. Equality of citizens. (1)  All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law.

(2)  There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex 1[****].(3)  Nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.

[85] 2005 S C M R 1973

[86] Suo moto case: P L D 2006 SC 394

[87] “Public interest litigation problems and scope,” ( Lahore: human rights commission of Pakistan, 2010):9, last accessed at 26 Jan,2017, http://hrcp-web.org/hrcpweb/wp-content/pdf/ff/26.pdf

[88] Muhammad Ikramullah Khan. Muhammad Ayaz,” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

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[89]Oscar Sang, “THE SEPARATION OF POWERS AND NEW JUDICIAL POWER: HOW THE SOUTH

AFRICAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT PLOTTED ITS COURSE,” ELSA MALTA LAW REVIEW 3 (2013):98, last accessed 3 Feb, 2017, http://www.elsa.org.mt/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/8.-Article-Oscar-Sang.pdf

[90] Muhammad Ikramullah Khan. Muhammad ayaz” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

of Pakistan (2007-2013),” A Research Journal of South Asian Studies 31, no.1(2016):260-261, last accessed 15 December, 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/17%20Ikram%20ulla_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdf

[91] Muhammad Ikramullah Khan. Muhammad Ayaz” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

of Pakistan (2007-2013),” A Research Journal of South Asian Studies 31, no.1(2016):257, last accessed 15 December, 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/17%20Ikram%20ulla_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdf

[92] Irum Khalid, “Role of Judiciary in the Evolvement of Democracy in Pakistan,” journal of political studies 19, no.2(2012):126, last accessed 27 July 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/pols/pdf-files/role%20of%20judiciary-winter2012.pdf

[93]  Irum Khalid “Role of Judiciary in the Evolvement of Democracy in Pakistan,” journal of political studies 19, no.2(2012):127, last accessed 27 July 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/pols/pdf-files/role%20of%20judiciary-winter2012.pdf

[94]     Muhammad Ikramullah Khan. Muhammad Ayaz,” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

of Pakistan (2007-2013),” A Research Journal of South Asian Studies 31, no.1(2016):263-264, last accessed 15 December, 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/17%20Ikram%20ulla_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdf

[95] Oscar Sang, “THE SEPARATION OF POWERS AND NEW JUDICIAL POWER: HOW THE SOUTH

AFRICAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT PLOTTED ITS COURSE,” ELSA MALTA LAW REVIEW 3(2013):96, last accessed 3 Feb, 2017, http://www.elsa.org.mt/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/8.-Article-Oscar-Sang.pdf

[97] Muhammad Ikramullah khan. Muhammad Ayaz” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

of Pakistan (2007-2013),” A Research Journal of South Asian Studies 31, no.1(2016):264-265, last accessed 15 December, 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/17%20Ikram%20ulla_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdf

[99]   Omer Ijaz Gillani,”Rethinking judicial activism: PAKISTAN’S EXPERIENCE WITH THE CHAUDHARY COURT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR POST-COLONIAL POLITIES,” ( master’s thesis, university of Washington school of law, 2014),40-41.

[100] Some of the petitions filed by politicians may be quickly mentioned here. Firstly, there were cases brought about by sitting cabinet members: Faisal Saleh Hayat initiated the Rental Powers Case; Azam Swati initiated the Haj Corruption Case. Khawaja Mohammad Asif pursued the Power Plants case; Jaffar Iqbal Jhagra pursued the Gas Prices Case; Marvi Memon pursued the 2010 Flood case as well as the PIA case.

[101] Dr mubashir Hassan vs The Federation of Pakistan, PLD 2010, SC 265.

[102]     Muhammad Ikramullah Khan. Muhammad Ayaz,” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

of Pakistan (2007-2013),” A Research Journal of South Asian Studies 31, no.1(2016):267, last accessed 15 December, 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/17%20Ikram%20ulla_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdf

[103]  Markandey Katju, “Pakistan Supreme court has gone overboard,”Hindu, 22 june, 2012, http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/pakistans-supreme-court-has-gone-overboard/article3556637.ece

[104] Omer Ijaz Gillani, ”Rethinking judicial activism: PAKISTAN’S EXPERIENCE WITH THE CHAUDHARY COURT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR POST-COLONIAL POLITIES,” (master’s thesis, university of Washington school of law, 2014),43.

[105]  Ijaz Saroop,”Farewell to the judges party?,” Express Tribune accessed 2 Feb,2017. https://tribune.com.pk/story/645548/farewell-to-the-judges-party/

[106] Monika Sangeeta Ahuja, ”Public interest litigation in India: a socio legal study,”(PhD diss, university of London),  93

[107] As the article 183(4)stated:

“Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 199, the Supreme Court

shall, if it considers that a question of public importance with reference

to the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights conferred by

Chapter I of Part II is involved, have the power to make an order of

the nature mentioned in the said Article.”

[108] Rema Omer, Authority without accountability: the Search for justice in Pakistan.(Geneva: International commission of jurists, 2013): , last accessed 23 jan, 2016. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/530f088d4.pdf

[109] https://www.thenews.com.pk/archive/print/634729-golden-era-of-judiciary-was-seen-under-cj-chaudhry,-say-experts

[110] Rema Omer, Authority without accountability: the Search for justice in Pakistan.(Geneva: International commission of jurists, 2013): 42-43, last accessed 23 jan, 2016. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/530f088d4.pdf

[111] Suo Motu Case No. 14 of 2010

[112] https://tribune.com.pk/story/232348/one-year-after-sialkot-lynching-after-sarfraz-shah-verdict-hope-for-justice/

[113] Suo Motu Case No. 10 of 2011

[114] Suo Motu Case No. 10 of 2011, para 12.

[116] Human Rights Case No. 12912-P of 2009

[117] Rema Omer, Authority without accountability: the Search for justice in Pakistan.(Geneva: International commission of jurists, 2013): 56-62, last accessed 23 jan, 2016. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/530f088d4.pdf

[118] Reema omer

[119] https://www.dawn.com/news/661830

[121] https://tribune.com.pk/story/188804/making-sense-of-suo-motu/

[122] Rema Omer, Authority without accountability: the Search for justice in Pakistan.(Geneva: International commission of jurists, 2013): 84-85, last accessed 23 jan, 2016. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/530f088d4.pdf

[123] article184(3) of the constitution of Pakistan: “Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 199, the Supreme Court shall, if it considers that a question of public importance with reference to the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights conferred by Chapter I of Part II is involved, have the power to make an order of the nature mentioned in the said Article.”

[124]“ Suo Motu: Pakistan’s chemotherapy?,” DAWN, Aug. 31, 2011. http://www.dawn.com/news/655910/suo-motu-pakistans-chemotherapy accessed on 23 Jan 2017

[125] Muhammad Haleem, “law justice and society”, PLD Journal 1986 205-16.

[126] Khurshid Iqbal, The right to development in international law: the case of Pakistan.(Oxon: Routledge taylor and francis group,2009) ,157.

[127] “The magic of sou moto, at its best,”news international, Dec. 11, 2013. https://www.thenews.com.pk/archive/print/634805-the-magic-of-suo-moto,-at-its-best

[128] “Supreme Court declares Reko Diq agreement void,”DAWN, Jan.07, 2013 http://www.dawn.com/news/776967

[129] Suo Moto Case No. 18 of 2010 (Suo moto action regarding violation of Public

Procurement Rules, 2004 in procurement loss of billions of rupees to public exchequer caused by

National Insurance Company Ltd.)

[130] The magic of sou moto, at its best,”news international, Dec. 11, 2013.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/archive/print/634805-the-magic-of-suo-moto,-at-its-best

[131] Omer Ijaz Gillani,”Rethinking judicial activism: PAKISTAN’S EXPERIENCE WITH THE CHAUDHARY COURT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR POST-COLONIAL POLITIES,” ( master’s thesis, university of Washington school of law, 2014), 33.

[132] The magic of sou moto, at its best,”news international, Dec. 11, 2013. https://www.thenews.com.pk/archive/print/634805-the-magic-of-suo-moto,-at-its-best

[133] Omer Ijaz Gillani,”Rethinking judicial activism: PAKISTAN’S EXPERIENCE WITH THE CHAUDHARY COURT AND.

IMPLICATIONS FOR POST-COLONIAL POLITIES,” ( master’s thesis, university of Washington school of law, 2014), 34.

[134] The magic of sou moto, at its best,”news international, Dec. 11, 2013  https://www.thenews.com.pk/archive/print/634805-the-magic-of-suo-moto,-at-its-best

[135] Constitution petition no 43 of year 2009

[136] (1999) 1 SCC 492

[137] Balakrishnan, K.G. “growth of public interest litigation in India,” Address by Justice K.G. Balakrishnan, Chief Justice of India Singapore Academy of Law, Fifteenth Annual Lecture 8 Oct, 2008. http://supremecourtofindia.nic.in/speeches/speeches_2008/8%5B1%5D.10.08_singapore_-

[138] Khurshid Iqbal, The right to development in international law: the case of Pakistan.(Oxon: Routledge Taylor and Francis group,2009) , 167.

[139] Rema Omer, Authority without accountability: the Search for justice in Pakistan.(Geneva: International commission of jurists, 2013): 49, last accessed 23 jan, 2016. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/530f088d4.pdf

[140] President Balochistan High Court Bar Association v. Federation of Pakistan (Constitutional Petition

No.77 of 2012), para 48

[141] Article 234, gives Power to issue Proclamation in case of failure of constitutional machinery in a Province.

[142] Rema Omer, Authority without accountability: the Search for justice in Pakistan.(Geneva: International commission of jurists, 2013): 91, last accessed 23 jan, 2016. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/530f088d4.pdf

[143] Vineet Narain v. Union of India (1998) 1 SCC 226.

[144] Article 63(1) enumerates the various conditions under which a person is disqualified from holding membership in Parliament. Article 63(1)(g) states that a person must be disqualified from holding membership

in the Parliament, if[H]e has been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction for propagating any opinion, or acting in any manner, prejudicial to…. the integrity or independence of the judiciary of Pakistan, or which

defames or brings into ridicule the judiciary.

[145] The Speaker’s ruling can be accessed here: http://dawncompk.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/

`1ruling-speaker-na.pdf

[146] Oscar Sang, “THE SEPARATION OF POWERS AND NEW JUDICIAL POWER: HOW THE SOUTH

AFRICAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT PLOTTED ITS COURSE,” ELSA MALTA LAW REVIEW 3(2013):96, last accessed 3 Feb, 2017, http://www.elsa.org.mt/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/8.-Article-Oscar-Sang.pdf

[147] Article 199(1)(c) of the 1973 Constitution deals with the original jurisdiction of the high courts and provides:

“[A] High Court may, if it is satisfied that no other adequate remedy is

provided by law . . ., on the application of any aggrieved person, make

an order giving such directions to any person or authority, including any

Government exercising any power or performing any function in, or in

relation to, any territory within the jurisdiction of that Court as may be

Appropriate for the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights . . . .”

[148] Benazir Bhutto vs. Federation of Pakistan” (PLD 1988 SC 416)

[149]Justice Abdus Sattar Asghar. “PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION,”: 3-4. Last accessed at 26 Jan, 2016.

[150] Maryam S Khan,” GENESIS AND EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION IN THE SUPREME COURT OF  PAKISTAN: TOWARD A DYNAMIC THEORY OF JUDICIALIZATION.” Last modified 23 Feb, 2015, accessed at 26 Jan, 2016 http://ideaspak.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Public-Interest-Litigation-in-the-Supreme-Court.pdf

[151] Syed Mansoor Ali Shah, “Supreme Court of Pakistan, SALVAGING DEMOCRACY – JUDICIARY OUR LAST HOPE, going beyond public interest litigation,”: 6, accessed at 27, Jan 2016. http://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/ijc/Articles/17/1.pdf

[152] Dr. P. Nalla Thampy Thera, Petitioner vs Union of India, principles-of-public-interest-litigation-and-locus-standi

[153] Ashok Kumar Pandey Vs State of West Bengal, 6 (2004) 3 SCC 349.

[154] Muhammad Ikramullah Khan. Muhammad Ayaz, ” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

of Pakistan (2007-2013),” A Research Journal of South Asian Studies 31, no.1(2016):270-271, last accessed 15 December, 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/17%20Ikram%20ulla_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdf

[155] “Qadri faces grilling but still stays a dual national,” News international, 13, Feb 2013.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/archive/print/412824-qadri-faces-grilling-but-still-stays-a-dual-national

[156] Muhammad Ikramullah Khan. Muhammad Ayaz,” An Evaluation of Separation of Powers: A Case Study

of Pakistan (2007-2013),” A Research Journal of South Asian Studies 31, no.1(2016):271, last accessed 15 December, 2016, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/17%20Ikram%20ulla_v31_no1_jan-jun2016.pdfqdwvfbecw

[157] Waris Hussain “loiterers of justice beware,” DAWN, Feb 18, 2012. http://www.dawn.com/news/696366/loiterers-of-justice-beware

[158] Darshan Masih v. The State (PLD 1990 SC 513)

[159] Pritam Kumar Ghosh, “judicial activism and public interest litigation in India, ”galgotias journal of legal studies 1, no. 1(2013):93, accessed at 26 Jan, 2017, http://law.galgotiasuniversity.edu.in/pdf/issue6.pdf

[160] Ibid

[161]  Rema Omer, Authority without accountability: the Search for justice in Pakistan.(Geneva: International commission of jurists, 2013): 94, last accessed 23 Jan, 2016. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/530f088d4.pdf

[162]  Baber Sattar, “Hubris as Justice,” DAWN, 30 July, 2013. Accessed at http://www.dawn.com/news/1032941

[163] “ Public interest litigation: scope and problems,”( Lahore: human rights commission of Pakistan, 2010):19, last accessed at 26 Jan,2017, http://hrcp-web.org/hrcpweb/wp-content/pdf/ff/26.pdf

[164] Ziaullah khan,” justice delayed is justice denied,” Daily Times, accessed on 27 Jan, 2017, http://dailytimes.com.pk/opinion/12-Jan-17/justice-delayed–is-justice-denied–

[165] Markandey Katju, “the philosophy of judicial restraint,” Express tribune accessed at 26 jan, 2017, https://tribune.com.pk/story/406897/the-philosophy-of-judicial-restraint/

[166] Markandey Katju, “the philosophy of judicial restraint,” Express tribune accessed at 26 jan, 2017, https://tribune.com.pk/story/406897/the-philosophy-of-judicial-restraint/

[167] ibid

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