Revisiting Parental Involvement from an Afro-Centric Perspective

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Revisiting Parental Involvement from an Afro-Centric Perspective

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………….

Overview of Study

Introduction

Statement of Problem

Purpose of Study

Significance of Study

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Review of Literature

Background of the Study

Afro Consciousness Theoretical Framework

Historical and Social Context of African American Experience with Schooling

Intersection of the African American Culture and Parental Involvement

Past and Present view of African-American Parents Influence on Public School

Barriers to Parent Involvement

African-American Parent Involvement and its Effect on Academic Achievement

Overview of Empirical Studies of African-American Parental Involvement

Epstein Six Types of Parent Involvement

Key Findings and Gaps in the Research

Justification of the Research Proposal Based on the Review

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

Methodology

Research Questions

Hypothesis to Be Tested

Procedure -Permission to Study

Data Selection

Quantitative Research Design and Approach

Population and Sample

Data Analysis

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANANYLIS

Findings

Summary

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY RECCOMEDATINOS AND CONCLUSION

Summary of Findings

Recommendations

Conclusions

Abstract

The lack of parental involvement is a major issue that negatively affects the education of black children. After decades of research and efforts to increase the rate of parent involvement in low resource public schools, there has been limited progress in this area.  Revisiting earlier research using an Afro Centric Consciousness framework may unlock some vital clues and how to better engage African-American parents in school-related activities. This study looks at how an Afro centric viewpoint may mediate African-American parent’s perceptions, beliefs and practices about parental involvement and how the academic activities African-American parents engage in with their children align with the Epstein’s Six Types of Parent Involvement to gain a better understanding and strategy for addressing parental involvement among a population of African-American parents.

CHAPTER I

Overview of the Study

This quantitative research study has a two-fold purpose.  First, it seeks to examine the extent of an  Afro centric message, experiences and cultural viewpoint that  mediates African-American parents’ involvement in public school education. Second, it explores how the volunteer activities outlined in Joyce Epstein’s Six Types of Parental Involvement align with that of African-American parents’ volunteer participation. Information gathered from this study will provide greater insight into the how, what and why of African-American parental involvement. Chapter 1 will offer an introduction to the study, detailing the background, statement of the problem, purpose, significance, limitation of study and research questions. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the history context of African American experience in education and a review of literature will be used. Research methods are described in Chapter 3, including the selection of participants, research design, and data collection. The data collected in the study will be reported in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 details the findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

Introduction

A national survey sponsored by W.K.Kellogg Foundation and Ebony magazine (New America Media, April 2004) polled 1,005 African-Americans to gain insight on issues related to income, housing, health care, relationships, race and education. A fifth of the survey respondents stated that the biggest education issue affecting the quality of black children’s education is the lack of parental involvement.   The lack of parental involvement as an educational issue in the African-American community is no surprise. Numerous empirical studies have investigated the reasons as to why African-Americans seldom volunteer in schools.  Some researchers attribute the lack of parental involvement to poverty (Johnson, 2010).  Poverty hinders parental involvement because African-American parents may feel less competent to deal with teachers who they consider affluent and professional on academic issues (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences 2017). Other researchers suggest that parents with past negative school experiences may not see schools as welcoming places and this may prevent African-American parents from volunteering at school settings (Johnson 2010).  Whatever the truth may be, most research studies on parental involvement seldom take into account the cultural behaviors of African-Americans that may promote or hinder parental involvement.

Statement of the Problem

Decades of school reforms has brought forth the importance of an adage that states, Parents are their child’s first teacher (Price, 2017). With each new school year, parents, teachers and students see changes. Schools are changing the way that they interface with parents in order to encourage greater parental involvement.  Today’s parents are busy, engaged and wired that they seldom have time for traditional parenting activities that take place in schools.  Therefore, the Parent Teacher Organization (PTO) meetings are set at different times of the day to accommodate the vast majority of parents.  Likewise, many schools have adopted Joyce Epstein’s view of parental involvement and have expanded methods by which volunteer opportunities are available to parents beyond the school facility.  Also, many social services and educational organizations have formed groups to help support parental involvement of African-American parents such as “My Brothers-keeper” (Elder, 2016). Nevertheless, none of these programs and their efforts has increased the number of African-American parents that volunteer at their child’s school (Roberts, 2015). Parental involvement is so important and has great influence on school achievement that it is necessary to take a deeper look into why African-America parents are not actively involved in their children’s education (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences, 2017). Setting back and re-visiting parental involvement from an Afro centric perspective may provide the insight needed to understand the behaviors that African-American parents have that may or may not align with customary views about parental involvement such as Joyce Epstein’s parent involvement model or may give a new understanding of how to reach and promote parental involvement from a cultural perspective (Asante 2009).

Statement of Purpose

This quantitative research study has a two-fold purpose.  First, it seeks to examine the extent that Afro centric messages, experiences and cultural viewpoint that mediate African-American parents’ involvement in public school education. Second, it explores how the volunteer activities outlined in Joyce Epstein’s Six Types of Parental Involvement align with that of African-American parents’ volunteer participation.

Significance of the study

The Afro centric perspective may suggest a broader perspective of parental involvement and provide an avenue to fully explain why African-American parents participate or not participate in school volunteer efforts.  Using an Afro centric perspective allows researchers to tap into the cultural beliefs, experiences that shape African-American parent’s behaviors that may positively influence or hinder parental involvement in public school classrooms and other settings Also this study may help researchers and practitioners to identify the types of parental involvement activities that occurs outside of the school setting (Asante 2009).  The significance of this story is its opportunity to broaden educators’ understanding of the intersection between culture perspective and parental involvement.

Limitation of Study

This study’s population is limited to African-American parents who have children enrolled in public school; pre-kindergarten through fifth grade, therefore any information gathered for this study has limited opportunity to generalized findings to a broader population of white families or African –American families who have children enrolled in public schools.  A convenient sample was used because of freedom to obtain research participation.  A more broadly distributed research population that used random sampling may have produced a different result.

Research Questions

1. How does an Afrocentric viewpoint mediate African-American parent’s perception, beliefs and practices considering parent involvement?  Specifically African-American parents will be asked to respond to 35 statements on the  Afrocentric Self-Consciousness Scale that reflect some beliefs, opinions and attitudes of black people using a Likert Scale from 1 to 5.  A number one (1) response represents a strong disagreement while the number five (5) response represents a strong agreement.

2. What barriers do African-American parents perceived to parent involvement? Specifically, African-American parents are given a list of possible barriers to parent involvement and ask to respond to the statements based on their level of agreement using a Likert scale, 1 to 5, one indicating strong disagreement and five indicating strong agreement.

3. How do African-American parents think schools are addressing their perceived barriers to parental involvement? Specifically, African-American parents are given statements that suggest how schools may be addressing perceived barriers to parent involvement and asked to respond to the statements based on their level of agreement using a Likert scale, 1 to 5, one indicating strong disagreement and five indicating strong agreement.

4. What perceive influence do African-American parents believe they have on public school stakeholders? Specifically, African-American parents are given a list of public school stakeholders and ask to respond to the list based on their level of influence using a Likert scale, 1 to 3, one indicating no influence whatsoever and three indicating influence related to the parent’sparticipation in the school.

5. What type of influence would African-American parents like to have on schools?  Specifically, African-American parents are given statements that suggest different types of influences on school, they are asked to respond to statements using a Likert scale, 1 to 5, one indicating not important at all and five indicating extremely important.

6. African-American parents are asked to complete a survey on the Epstein’s Six Types of Parent Involvement Scale that provides statements about the types of volunteer activities and asked to respond to the statements using a Likert Scale; one indicating strong disagreement and five indicating strong agreement.

Definition of Terms

The terms below are used within this thesis and are defined as such;

  1. Afro centric- stressing or advancing accentuation on African culture and the commitments of Africans to the advancement of Western human advancement (Asante 2009).
  1. Culture perspective- is two words joined. The main word is characterized generally as the convictions, rehearses, antiquities of a strong gathering. The second word is about your point of review. Social point of view can be about how a gathering sees data coming or leaving their limit (Black Fathers Matter 2016).
  1. Academic Achievement- performance and outcome of education; can be also viewed by looking at the extent to which a student has achieved their educational goals (Price, 2017).

CHAPTER 2:

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Background of the study

This review provides extensive research on African-American parental involvement as it pertains to previous research, historical experiences and effects on children’s academic achievement.  The review also provides an overview of Epstein’s framework for parent involvement that applies to the general school population.  Information about the Afrocentric Consciousness theoretical framework that underlines this research study is provided.

Afrocentric Consciousness Theoretical Framework

Afrocentricity is a worldwide view about African American individuals who re-declare a feeling of organization and rational soundness about being African American. In the l960’s a gathering of African Americans shaped Black Studies offices at colleges and they started to define novel methods for breaking down data (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences, 2017). At times, these new ways were called taking a gander at data from “a dark viewpoint” rather than what had been viewed as the “white point of view” of most data in the American institute (Asante 2009). The Afrocentric worldview is a progressive move in intuition proposed as a structural change in accordance with dark bewilderment, centeredness, and absence of organization. The Afro centrist poses the question, “What might African individuals do if there were no white people?”  as such, what regular reactions would happen in the connections, mentalities toward nature, family relationship designs, inclinations for hues, sort of religion, and recorded referent focuses for African individuals if there had not been any intercession of imperialism or oppression? Afrocentricity answers this question by declaring the focal part of the African subject inside the setting of African history, consequently expelling Europe from the focal point (Asante 2009).

Historical and Social Context of African-American Experience with Schooling

In order to gain knowledge about the historical and social context on African Americans view on schooling one must comprehend issues that may influence African American guardians’ view of open schools, one should first comprehend the predicament of the African American individuals and their encounters with American foundations (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences, 2017). African Americans have a long and testing history in the United States, persisting trials, for example, the ghastly mercilessness of property subjection, Jim Crow, Social equality, school combination and different levels of present day bigotry (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences., 2017). The contention can be made that the legacy of servitude may have left its fingerprints on both the battles and the accomplishments of African American understudies in state funded schools (Mubenga, 2006).

Laws amid and after subjection limited how much a Black individual could achieve and the measure of instruction he or she could get (Legislative Papers, 1830–31 Session of the General Assembly of North Carolina). In a few conditions, Blacks were threatened if Whites knew or suspected that Black individuals were being instructed, particularly in the southern states (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences, 2017). A significant part of the scorn was energized and advanced by government. For instance, the Acts Past of the General Assembly of North Carolina amid the 1830-1831 authoritative session ordered that any individual who showed slaves and free Negros to peruse and compose would be rebuffed with a fine of no under $100.00 dollars and close to $200.00 dollars, including conceivable detainment; free slaves could get upwards of 39 lashes (Legislative Papers, 1830–31 Session of the General Assembly). These laws mirrored the states of mind of that specific time period and the endeavors made by Whites to block African Americans from getting a training in education.

Notwithstanding laws that sustained prejudice and upset the training of African Americans in those circumstances, there were further mishap for the race with the execution of “Dark Codes” which clarifies these as nineteenth century neighborhood and government laws that go to confine the physical development and progression of subjugated Africans (Leary, 2007). Dark Codes were the beginning stage for Jim Crow laws and for cutting edge institutional bigotry (Carpenter, 2013). Wilkerson (2010) recommends that due to and amid the execution of Black Codes and laws, numerous African American individuals succumbed to lynchings all through the South. That is, the demonstration of being beaten, smoldered or hung (among different ghastly things) by white hordes (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences, 2017).

Jim Crow laws endured from the 1880’s until 1965 in a few states. Post liberation laws advancing isolation and the confinement of assets, or the peonage arrangement of the twentieth century a created arrangement of obligation bondage most ordinarily recognized as sharecropping (Wilkerson, 2010). Alexander (2010) also clarifies that the execution of required least sentencing laws have negatively affected African Americans across the nation. Government laws and rules authorized in the 1980’s and 1990’s which made wrongdoings (for the most part medication ownership) uniform regarding sentencing brought about an unbalanced number of African Americans imprisoned in U.S. correctional facilities and penitentiaries, additionally sustaining the bigot framework. Tatum (2007) clarifies that school re-isolation in the 21st century assumed a part in the intergenerational traumatic legacy of numerous African American individuals. Tatum (2007) characterizes school re-isolation as the authorized routine of teaching African Americans in instructive settings which are void of ethnic differing qualities and financial assets and connected with educators. Considering some of these 17 discoveries, there is confirmation that numerous African Americans have built up doubt of essential American frameworks and organizations, creating changed perspectives or recognitions.

Leary (2005) places that the seriousness of bondage alone could have affected the discernments of African American guardians in connection to every single open organization, however particularly in government funded schools. Injury, for example, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) could introduce an unmistakable contention as to why many Blacks are impervious to and not trusting of open organizations. This type of injury may in any case affect the intuitive personalities of numerous African American guardians and kids (Leary, 2005). Leary (2005) composes that African Americans have persevered through the injury of subjection and Jim Crow all through their history in the United States, recommending that numerous relatives experience the ill effects of “Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome,” a condition like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

The distinction is that the activities of Black guardians might be identified with the stressors of subjection, brought on by America’s interest in White amazingness and the American slave exchange custom (Leary, 2005). On the off chance that this hypothesis is right, it gives understanding into the activities of numerous African American guardians and why some pick not to trust or draw in pioneers of open organizations, including open schools. Smolin (2012) talks about the later past, including tragedies, for example, the Tuskegee try – a review composed as a fleeting examination of the impacts of syphilis on human subjects in Macon County, Alabama, despite the fact that touted as “short term”, the trial spread over forty years. The subjects were all poor and Black. Also, they were betrayed what’s more, ignorant about the review and the medications that were regulated (Breakdown of the Black family and its consequences, 2017).

Intersection of the African-American Cultural and Parental Involvement

The sociopolitical, socioeconomic and sociocultural contexts of education in the United States particularly in Charlotte, North Carolina are significant in their impact on African Americans students and their parents (Cousins and Mickelson 2011). African American parents are able to manage and correct the effects but they cannot escape them.  The 2003 MSEP study believed involvement should include the teachers, progress monitoring, reading with their child, and other things. There were 14 parents who participated in the follow up survey and they suggested that realities and life experiences shaped their children. Parents with less flexible jobs were not able to be as involved. Parents suggested that mothers were more present than fathers were in their children’s lives.

These findings in 2003 stated that work schedules, being single parents, and lack of familiarity with some academic subject matter were concerns for them, but the key was not letting those barriers stand in their way (Cousins and Mickelson 2011). Some African American parents tend to feel like their culture is not being taught enough in the classroom, so they tend to not volunteer as much (Asante 2009). The word that they would use is not being Afrocentric. Afro centricity is about African people being agents and actors in their communities (Asante 2009). Afro centrist are children of Harold Cruse and they have appreciation for culture. Some African Americans still are slave minded and this causes cultural differences in the community and in the School System, because these ideas or ways of thinking are passed down which influence academic achievement (Asante 2009).

Past and Present view of African-American Parents Influence on Public SchoolSegregation and racism historically practiced in public schools has led to negative perceptions between educators and African American families and communities. The gap on traditional measures of academic achievement between Black and White children has been debated and analyzed by scholars, legislators, and practioners for decades. School based issues associated with this trend are lower by teacher expectations for students of color, lack of curriculum rigor, and effective teaching (Gerstle, 2002).

Barriers to Parent Involvement

The information that was gathered proposed that the families with low financial status require extra assets, keeping in mind the end goal, to enhance offices, upgrade educator quality, and furnish understudies with access to testing guidelines and higher instructor desires. Their discoveries demonstrated that guardians should likewise have satisfactory data with which to explore the procedures connected with schools (Mole). This report also listed five major barriers. Number 1 was lack of time and other resources. 2 was lack of parents and staff being trained to work with one another. Number 3 was that parents of older children are less likely to attend programs and meetings for their children. 4 were family and school differences. There were differences in education levels, language, and culture styles. Parents who have little education do not participate in school activities with their children. They do not volunteer or attend conferences. Parents who have had negative experiences as students themselves often avoid contact with teachers. Number 5 was the lack of support from state and government officials (Moles).

African-American Parent Involvement and its Effect on Academic Achievement

Academic Achievement is commonly thought to occur when students increase their reading comprehension and become more skilled at mathematical practices, knowing what history is and understanding science. The operational definition is the academic achievement on test. Research collected by NCLB Legislation and the Parent Teacher Association indicates that the higher grades are test scores and graduation rates will also be high (NCLB). When students are engaged during instruction time the better the achievement outcomes are.

The objectives for government funded schools are to teach all understudies with the goal that they may go to school and create applicable employment and citizenship abilities. African Americans children selected in American state funded schools battle to keep up scholastically, also uncovering a supposed accomplishment crevice. Thusly, numerous African American youngsters can’t understand their potential and these results to poor academic achievement. This study analyzed how African American guardians may take part in their kids’ tutoring and how schools may bolster interest to better address the issues of these understudies (National Center for Education Statistics).  Thirty years of research backings the conclusion that family association in kids’ instruction is basic to understudy achievement (U.S. Branch of Education,1994). Expanding families’ contribution in the instruction of their kids so that all youngsters can accomplish at abnormal states is an imperative objective of Title 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as revised by the Improving Americas’ Act OF 1994. Title 1 gives more than 7 billion dollars every year to schools to help kids from low pay families.

Overview of Empirical Studies of African-American Parental Involvement

Parent involvement in schools is a priority for educators and especially parents. Involvement efforts within urban city African Americans are hindered with problems such as collaboration and communication. Although there are precincts in the African American Community involving parental involvement, positive evidence shows that inner city African Americans will still respond optimistically to programs that are targeted towards them and programs of outreach and empowerment that motivate African Americans to be more involved (Adil and Farmer 2006).

Epstein Six Types of Parent Involvement

Parental Involvement is most commonly based on the six-type model created by Joyce Epstein (Epstein 1987). Epstein six categories of involvement include (1) parents responsibility to provide for the children with basic needs throughout their developmental years;(2) communication-parents and teachers staying in contact; (3) learning at home- parents doing homework with their children and teaching them basic skills;(4)volunteering- parents participating in their child’s schools functions;(5) decision making- parents participating in school organizations;(6) community connections- parents gathering and making collaborations with their community and outside agencies(Michigan Department of Education).  There are six terms in Epstein’s six type of involvement: The framework for defining six different parent involvement types. This frame work is supposed to help educators in developing school and family partnership programs (Michigan Department of Education).

Parenting is defined by helping all families establish home environments to help children as students. Family support programs to assist with nutrition and other services. Home visits that will help transition from elementary to middle, and high school (Roekel, 2008).

Communication means designing active forms of school to home and home to school communications about children’s success and school programs. Conferences will be held at least once a year between the teachers and parents. Schedules and notices are other forms of communication (Roekel, 2008).

Volunteering means to recruit parents or other community leaders that will help support the school. Parent’s centers and organizations such as PTA are useful to children’s success. School officials can invite parents to serve as room parents or school crossing guards (Roekel, 2008).

Learning at home is offering information and thoughts to families about how to help students at home with homework and other activities. Sharing ideas about the ways families can support learning at home. Reading to the child at home, talking to the child about school and providing families with information about the skills being addressed in classrooms and involving families with setting goals for their child and planning for their transitions (Roekel, 2008).

Decision making is including parents in school decisions making and developing parent leaders and school representatives. Encouraging families to participate in PTA/ PTO meetings and informing families about the school board, and its members, voting opportunities, and other related issues (Roekel, 2008).

Collaborating with the community means to connect the family to the community in efforts to strengthen family and student learning. Information will be offered on community resources, workshops, and parent meetings that focus on community health, social service agencies, and other programs (Roekel, 2008).

Key Findings and Gaps in the Research

Urban Schools ability to reform with federal legislation like the Educate America Act in 1991 and The Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2001 have grew parental involvement in schools to a national priority (School Psychology Quarterly, vol 21).  Studies have shown that parental involvement increases the success of academic and behavioral performance of children in schools (Henderson and Berla, 1994). When a parent has strong involvement the child’s readiness for school is more present. There will be positive attitudes, attendance, and entry toward post-secondary education (Elder, 2016). Even though there are limitations in existing research, parent involvement is currently viewed as a positive approach in order to increase success in school. Inferences for the future will be based on the results of the survey and questionnaire responses. The data includes that the methods of endorsing parental involvement in Elementary Schools will include both positive and negative insights. The key findings from this study will be beneficial to gaining an understanding of perceptions and barriers of parents.

Justification of the Research Proposal Based on the Review

Based on the proposed research, African American parents who are involved more are likely to have children who succeed more in school. Barriers in the African American community are always going to be present however those barriers can be addressed. If African American parents apply the Afro centric role, negative thoughts and practices will decrease as it relates to parent involvement. African American parents should apply the Epstein model with Afro centric views in order to increase academic success (Roberts, 2015).

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers concerning parent involvement in African American communities with an Afro-centric point of view while using Epstein six type parent involvement model. The overall objective of this study was to determine the attitudes of African American parents toward an instrument that identifies with their beliefs about parent involvement in the African American community.

Research Questions

In order to investigate the problem of this study, an exanimation of the History following African Americans regarding education was needed. The following research questions directed the development of this study, collection of data, a look at African American history, urban communities, and Epstein six type model in regard to parent involvement within the African American community.

1. How does an Afro centric viewpoint mediate African-American parent’s perception, beliefs and practices considering parent involvement?

2. What barriers do African-American parents perceived to parent involvement?

3. How do African-American parents think schools are addressing their perceived barriers to parental involvement?

4. What perceive influence do African-American parents believe they have on public school stakeholders?

5. What type of influence would African-American parents like to have on schools?

Hypothesis to Be Tested

The following was used while investigating this study: 1. barriers that affect parent involment,1 parenting, 2 communicating,3 influences, 4 decision making. 5 history of African American history.  The hypothesis was tested on each on of these items to measure African American involvement and barriers that affect education in the African American community. If the school addressed resources to prevent barriers then parent involvement would increase. African Americans have always had a negative opinion on parent involvement   because of poor treatment by the media. African American parents do not volunteer as much because they do not feel like they have any influence in their child’s school district.

Procedure -Permission to Study

Before beginning the study, the researcher completed academic research requirements. After permission was given from the Institutional Review Board at Tougaloo, College in Tougaloo Mississippi, the researcher proceeded to get clearance from the Department of Research and Evaluation from the Jackson Public School District.

Data Selection

An Afro centric framework was used to determine cultural messages, experiences, volunteer participation in the classrooms and school settings were investigated. The target population was Elementary Parents. They were recruited at Public School in Jackson, Mississippi. The ethnicity of the parents was all African American. Genders were males and females. The research was done by distributing a survey on parent teacher conference day. Parents took the survey to a quiet room with light refreshments without interruption. The survey and directions were explained to participants prior to receiving the survey. Chapter 2 defined problems concerning African American parental involvement. The specific focus was on African American parent’s barriers and perceptions to education and involvement.  The data gave a valuable description of how African American parents perceived involvement and solutions to improve parent involvement in urban communities. Fifty Five surveys were given out and forty five were returned.

Quantitative Research Design and Approach

This study used a quantitative design. This method allowed the researcher to generalize results from a targeted population. This method also allowed views and opinions to be explored for further findings. A survey was used in this study to investigate the views of African American parents regarding parent involvement while addressing certain barriers they encounter. Survey research is a method of gathering data from individuals who are representative of a certain population. The survey contained a cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and importance of the results.

Population and Sample

This section will highlight the setting of the research study. It provides a detailed description of the selection and ethnical protection for the participants. The participants were chosen a Public School in Jackson, Mississippi. The participants were parents of those students who attend that school. Letters and surveys were given to two hundred African American parents. The oldest parent being fifty years of age and the youngest parent was twenty. Their education of parents ranged from a GED to a Master’s Degree.

Data Analysis

The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The Descriptive statistics   were used to analyze data and address the hypothesis. parents was given a list of public school stakeholders and asked to respond to the list based on their level of influence using a Likert scale, 1 to 5, one indicating no influence whatsoever and five indicating influence related to the parent’s participation in the school.

Chapter 4

Data Analysis

The following chapter presents an analysis of data using data gathered from the Parental view of Parental Involvement Survey, which examines barriers to parental involvement; influence with stakeholders, influence requested by parents, and the Epstein Six Types of Parent Involvement Survey.  The researcher analyzed data from self-reported surveys completed by parents of students enrolled in the second largest urban district in the state of Mississippi.  The survey comprised questions that required each respondent to self-report their perceptions on parental involvement, barriers to parental involvement, and desired influence on schools.  As the district is comprised of 99.9% African American students and parents, and the population for this research comprised on 100% African American students and families, data analysis represents perceptions of African American parents.

The analysis of data attempted to answer the following research questions:

1. How does an Afro centric viewpoint mediate African-American parent’s perception, beliefs and practices considering parent involvement?

2.What barriers do African-American parents perceived to parent involvement?

3.How do African-American parents think schools are addressing their perceived barriers to parental involvement?

4.What perceived influence do African-American parents believe they have on public school stakeholders?

5.What type of influence would African-American parents like to have on schools?

The following analysis of Tables 1-5 addresses research question: Question talks about focusing on the Black culture to better parent involvment among African Americans. 2. What barriers do African-American parents perceived to parent involvement?  Based on the data presented below in Table 1, 92.5% of those surveyed disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement that they lacked time and resources needed to establish an effective partnership with their child’s school and teacher.  Moreover, according to the data presented in Table 2, 85% of those surveyed felt that their child’s school knew how to effectively work with them and their child.  Consequently, in Table 3, 80.0% of those surveyed believed that the school’s organization and practices worked well for both them and other parents.  Conversely, only 10.0% of those surveyed reported a difference in their point of view from those of the school, teachers, and staff.  An overwhelming majority of parents, 95.0% feel that the district and state broad of education is interested in parental involvement.  As these barriers are addressed by parents, the perceived barriers to parental involvement are non-factors in prohibiting their involvement in their child’s school

Table 1 I lack the time and resources needed to establish an effective partnership with my child’s teacher and school.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative

Percent

Strongly Disagree 22 55.0 55.0 55.0
Disagree 15 37.5 37.5 92.5
Neutral 2 5.0 5.0 97.5
Strongly Agree 1 2.5 2.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Table 1 is a representation of resources that parents have in order to have effective partnerships with teachers. Fifty five percent strongly disagreed. Thirty-seven point five disagreed. Two percent was neutral. Two-point five percent strongly agreed.

Table 2.  My child’s school does not know how to effectively work with me and my child.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 25 62.5 62.5 62.5
Disagree 9 22.5 22.5 85.0
Neutral 4 10.0 10.0 95.0
Agree 1 2.5 2.5 97.5
Strongly Agree 1 2.5 2.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table is a presentation on school working with parents. Sixty-two-point five percent strongly disagreed. Twenty-two point five disagreed. Ten percent was neutral. Two-point five percent agreed. Two point five also strongly agreed.

Table 3. The school’s organization and practices do not work well for me as it may for other parents.

Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Strongly Disagree 21 52.5 52.5 52.5
Disagree 11 27.5 27.5 80.0
Neutral 6 15.0 15.0 95.0
Strongly Agree 2 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Table three is a representation of organizations and school practices. Fifty-two-point five percent strongly disagreed. Twenty-seven point five disagreed. Fifteen percent was neutral. Five percent strongly agreed.

Table 4 is a presentation of point of view of parents. Forty-seven-point five percent strongly disagreed. Thirty-two   point five disagreed. Ten percent was neutral. Two-point five percent agreed. Seven-point five percent strongly agreed.

Table 4 .I find there is a big difference in my point of view and that of the school, teachers, and staff.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Strongly Disagree 19 47.5 47.5 47.5
Disagree 13 32.5 32.5 80.0
Neutral 4 10.0 10.0 90.0
Agree 1 2.5 2.5 92.5
Strongly Agree 3 7.5 7.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 5.  I seldom get the impression that the district or the state board of education is interested in parent involvement
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 26 65.0 65.0 65.0
Disagree 12 30.0 30.0 95.0
Neutral 1 2.5 2.5 97.5
Strongly Agree 1 2.5 2.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Table five is a presentation about the impression that the district or board of education being interested in parents. Sixty five percent strongly disagreed. Thirty percent disagreed. Two-point five percent were neutral. Two-point five percent also strongly agreed.

The analysis of data presented in Tables 6-11 attempts to explain research question 3.  How do African-American parents think schools are addressing their perceived barriers to parental involvement?  According to the data presented in Table 6, 62.5% of respondents reported that their school allows flexible times to see the teacher.  This affords parents the opportunity to collaborate and interact with teachers.  Moreover, 55.5% agree or strongly agree that the school organizes parent teacher workshops that assist in parental collaboration to help children with learning obstacles.   Table 7 shows that 32.5% of parents still reported that schools send home more information about children misbehaving rather than reporting good behavior.  Alarmingly, parents also self-reported, 37.5% that their PTO fails to recognize volunteers.  More importantly only 22.5% of parents reported that their school is doing a good job in addressing barriers to parental involvement.  As the data shows, although parents believe the school is decreasing the barriers to parental involvement; parents still feel as if the school could or should do more to increase involvement across the board.

Table 6.  My school allows more flexible times to see your child’s teacher.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 12 30.0 30.0 30.0
Disagree 13 32.5 32.5 62.5
Neutral 6 15.0 15.0 77.5
Agree 5 12.5 12.5 90.0
Strongly Agree 4 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Table six is a presentation of schools being flexible. Thirty percent strongly disagree. Thirty-two point five disagreed. Fifteen percent was neutral. Twelve point five agreed and ten percent strongly agree.

Table 7.is a depiction of  My child’s school organizes parent/teacher workshops.  We learn together how to better help my child learn while getting to know each other.2.5 percent strongly disagreed. 27.5 disagreed. 15 percent was neutral and 32.5 agree. 22.5 percent strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 11 27.5 27.5 30.0
Neutral 6 15.0 15.0 45.0
Agree 13 32.5 32.5 77.5
Strongly Agree 9 22.5 22.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 8. The Title I staff and other personnel send home information about what is going on at school.  We get to hear good news now rather than news about your child misbehaving. 2.5  percent Strongly Disagree. 32.5 percent disagree. 22.5 are neutral. 22.5 agree. 20 percent strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 13 32.5 32.5 35.0
Neutral 9 22.5 22.5 57.5
Agree 9 22.5 22.5 80.0
Strongly Agree 8 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 9. is an image of the question My principal started hosting focus group meetings to talk to parents and get their opinions about things we read about in the papers or will be discussed at district board meetings.5 percent strongly disagree. 32.5 disagree. 15 percent agree. 35 percent strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 2 5.0 5.0 5.0
Disagree 13 32.5 32.5 37.5
Neutral 6 15.0 15.0 52.5
Agree 14 35.0 35.0 87.5
Strongly Agree 5 12.5 12.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 10. is an image of The PTO recognizes volunteers and that person recognizes a certificate signed by the district superintendent.2.5 percent strongly disagree. 35 percent disagree. 30 percent was neutral. 17.5 percent agree.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 14 35.0 35.0 37.5
Neutral 12 30.0 30.0 67.5
Agree 7 17.5 17.5 85.0
Strongly Agree 6 15.0 15.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 11 is an illustration of  Overall, I believe that my child’s school is doing a good job in addressing barriers to parent involvement. 45 percent disagree. 32.5 percent are neutral. 7.5 percent agree. 15 percent strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Disagree 18 45.0 45.0 45.0
Neutral 13 32.5 32.5 77.5
Agree 3 7.5 7.5 85.0
Strongly Agree 6 15.0 15.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Data analysis presented in Tables 12-18 explores perceived influence that parents have with school stakeholder and attempts to answer and explain research question 4. What perceived influence do African-American parents believe they have on public school stakeholders?   According to data analysis presented in Table 12, parents feel as if their influence is equally important in issues related to their child and consequently as a result of their participation in the school.  The results of analysis of Tables 13-18 demonstrates that parents feel that their participation in school activities or organization precipitates their level of influence in the school and as it relates to their influence on issues and outcomes as it relates to their child.  Data analysis of Tables 13-18 also reveal no statistical differences in the percentage of parents who perceive their influence to be related to issues only concerning their child and the influence exerted based on the level of participation in the school as it relates to the school board, principal, and the classroom teacher.

Table 12 is an image of  What do you perceive your current influence in the school district?
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
No influence whatsoever 6 15.0 15.0 15.0
Influence related to issues only concerning my child 17 42.5 42.5 57.5
Influence related to my level of participation in the school 17 42.5 42.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

15 percent had no influence whatsoever. 42.5 percent had influences only related to their child. 42.5 percent also had influences related to the their level of participation in school.

Table 13. What do you perceive your current influence in your child’s school?
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
No influence whatsoever 6 15.0 15.0 15.0
Influence related to issues only concerning my child 19 47.5 47.5 62.5
Influence related to my level of participation in the school 15 37.5 37.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 14 is a representation of the question What do you perceive your current influence in your child’s classroom? 10 percent had no influence whatsoever. 42.5 percent had only issues related to their child. 47.5 percent had influences related to their level of participation ins school.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
No influence whatsoever 4 10.0 10.0 10.0
Influence related to issues only concerning my child 17 42.5 42.5 52.5
Influence related to my level of participation in the school 19 47.5 47.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 15. What do you perceive your current influence is with the school district superintendent?
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
No influence whatsoever 2 5.0 5.0 5.0
Influence related to issues only concerning my child 22 55.0 55.0 60.0
Influence related to my level of participation in the school 16 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 16. What do you perceive your current influence is with the President of your local school board?
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
No influence whatsoever 8 20.0 20.0 20.0
Influence related to issues only concerning my child 18 45.0 45.0 65.0
Influence related to my level of participation in the school 14 35.0 35.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 17. What do you perceive your current influence is with your child’s school principal?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
No influence whatsoever 6 15.0 15.0 15.0
Influence related to issues only concerning my child 21 52.5 52.5 67.5
Influence related to my level of participation in the school 13 32.5 32.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 18. What do you perceive your current influence is with your child’s school teacher?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
No influence whatsoever 3 7.5 7.5 7.5
Influence related to issues only concerning my child 17 42.5 42.5 50.0
Influence related to my level of participation in the school 20 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

The data presented in Tables 19-25 address research question 5 what type of influence would African-American parents like to have on schools?  According to Table 19, 42.5% of respondents reported they would want the same influence as other parents in the school.  This shows a since of longing for equitably when engaging in conversations and interactions with school personnel and officials about their respective children

Table 19.  Same influence other parents have
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Not Important At All 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Of Little Importance 11 27.5 27.5 30.0
Somewhat Important 11 27.5 27.5 57.5
Very Important 6 15.0 15.0 72.5
Extremely Important 11 27.5 27.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 20. Influence over my child’s class placement. As reported in Table 20, only 37.5% of respondents feel that it is important to have influence on the place of their child in certain classrooms.  This shows a degree of trust in counselors and administrators in accurately placing students in classrooms. 
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Not Important At All 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Of Little Importance 13 32.5 32.5 35.0
Somewhat Important 11 27.5 27.5 62.5
Very Important 7 17.5 17.5 80.0
Extremely Important 8 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 21. Influence over what school my child can go to.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Not Important At All 3 7.5 7.5 7.5
Of Little Importance 10 25.0 25.0 32.5
Somewhat Important 7 17.5 17.5 50.0
Very Important 10 25.0 25.0 75.0
Extremely Important 10 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Table 21 shows that parents in the survey are in aligned with the belief that school choice is important as 67.5% reported that having a say in where their children attend school is important and they should have influence on where their children should attend school.

Table 22. Influence over how my child is treated by his or her teachers.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Not Important At All 4 10.0 10.0 10.0
Of Little Importance 12 30.0 30.0 40.0
Somewhat Important 9 22.5 22.5 62.5
Very Important 6 15.0 15.0 77.5
Extremely Important 9 22.5 22.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 23. Influence over whether my child fails or pass to the next grade.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Not Important At All 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Of Little Importance 10 25.0 25.0 27.5
Somewhat Important 12 30.0 30.0 57.5
Very Important 7 17.5 17.5 75.0
Extremely Important 10 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 24. Influence over how my child is punished and disciplined.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Of Little Importance 2 5.0 5.0 5.0
Somewhat Important 11 27.5 27.5 32.5
Very Important 16 40.0 40.0 72.5
Extremely Important 11 27.5 27.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 25. I have no idea because no one has ever asked me this question.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Not Important At All 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Of Little Importance 1 2.5 2.5 5.0
Somewhat Important 15 37.5 37.5 42.5
Very Important 10 25.0 25.0 67.5
Extremely Important 13 32.5 32.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Tables 26-43 represent self-reported data of what parents do when they engage in volunteer activities at their child’s school.  The data reflects parents perceptions of their involvement according the Epstein’s Six Types of Parental Involvement.

Table 26. I associate with parents who have children that are the same or near my child’s age
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Disagree 2 5.0 5.1 5.1
Disagree 2 5.0 5.1 10.3
Neutral 15 37.5 38.5 48.7
Agree 11 27.5 28.2 76.9
Strongly Agree 9 22.5 23.1 100.0
Total 39 97.5 100.0
Missing System 1 2.5
Total 40 100.0
Table 27. I read information about child development and age-appropriate learning expectations
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
 Valid Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 2 5.0 5.0 7.5
Neutral 14 35.0 35.0 42.5
Agree 13 32.5 32.5 75.0
Strongly Agree 10 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 28. I take advantage of community resources to help me be a better parent
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 2 5.0 5.0 5.0
Neutral 6 15.0 15.0 20.0
Agree 19 47.5 47.5 67.5
Strongly Agree 13 32.5 32.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 29. I engage in conversation with my child’s teacher
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 4 10.0 10.0 10.0
Neutral 11 27.5 27.5 37.5
Agree 14 35.0 35.0 72.5
Strongly Agree 11 27.5 27.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 30. I contact the school personnel whenever there is a problem or I need information about school policies or program
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Disagree 2 5.0 5.3 5.3
Neutral 11 27.5 28.9 34.2
Agree 15 37.5 39.5 73.7
Strongly Agree 10 25.0 26.3 100.0
Total 38 95.0 100.0
Missing System 2 5.0
Total 40 100.0
Table 31. I read and respond to information sent home by my child’s school
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Neutral 10 25.0 25.0 27.5
Agree 13 32.5 32.5 60.0
Strongly Agree 16 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 32. I volunteer at my child’s school
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 4 10.0 10.3 10.3
Neutral 15 37.5 38.5 48.7
Agree 10 25.0 25.6 74.4
Strongly Agree 10 25.0 25.6 100.0
Total 39 97.5 100.0
Missing System 1 2.5
Total 40 100.0
Table 33. I believe that the school values the time and effort parents give to the school
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 3 7.5 7.5 7.5
Neutral 12 30.0 30.0 37.5
Agree 10 25.0 25.0 62.5
Strongly Agree 15 37.5 37.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 34. I receive information from the school asking me to volunteer also with suggestions in ways that I may volunteer
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Neutral 9 22.5 22.5 25.0
Agree 13 32.5 32.5 57.5
Strongly Agree 17 42.5 42.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 35. is a representation of the question I help my child with his or her homework. 5 percent strongly disagree. 5 percent disagree. 37.5 was neutral. 15 percent agree. 37.5 strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Strongly Disagree 2 5.0 5.0 5.0
Disagree 2 5.0 5.0 10.0
Neutral 15 37.5 37.5 47.5
Agree 6 15.0 15.0 62.5
Strongly Agree 15 37.5 37.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 36 is a demonstration of the question My child’s teacher sends home interactive activities that encourage my child to discuss and interact with me and other family members. 2.5 percent strongly disagree. 25 percent disagree. 27.5 was neutral. 17.5 agree. 27.5 percent strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 10 25.0 25.0 27.5
Neutral 11 27.5 27.5 55.0
Agree 7 17.5 17.5 72.5
Strongly Agree 11 27.5 27.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 37 is a illustration on parents taking their children on field trips. I take my child on trips that are 50 miles or greater from our home to expose him or her to learn new and different things. 2.5 percent strongly disagree. 22.5 disagree, 30 percent was neutral. 17.5 percent agree. 27.5 strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 9 22.5 22.5 25.0
Neutral 12 30.0 30.0 55.0
Agree 7 17.5 17.5 72.5
Strongly Agree 11 27.5 27.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 38 is a depiction of goals shared. I share the goals and values of my school5 percent strongly disagree. 5 percent disagree. 25 percent was neutral. 37.5 percent agree. 27.5 strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Disagree 2 5.0 5.0 5.0
Disagree 2 5.0 5.0 10.0
Neutral 10 25.0 25.0 35.0
Agree 15 37.5 37.5 72.5
Strongly Agree 11 27.5 27.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 39. I attend PTP and/or school board meetings
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 5.0
Neutral 15 37.5 37.5 42.5
Agree 13 32.5 32.5 75.0
Strongly Agree 10 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

2.5 percent strongly disagree. 2.5 percent disagree. 37.5 was neutral. 32.5 agree. 25 percent strongly agree

Table 40. is a symbol of  I participate in training to help me become a parent leader/representative in the school. Ten percent disagreed. Forty-five was neutral. Twenty-seven point five agreed. Fifteen percent strongly agree.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 4 10.0 10.3 10.3
Neutral 18 45.0 46.2 56.4
Agree 11 27.5 28.2 84.6
Strongly Agree 6 15.0 15.4 100.0
Total 39 97.5 100.0
Missing System 1 2.5
Total 40 100.0
Table 41.is a representation of  My school does a good job of informing me about community programs for children in my age group.  Ten percent disagreed. Forty percent was neutral. Twenty-seven point five agreed. Twenty-two point five strongly agreed.
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 4 10.0 10.0 10.0
Neutral 16 40.0 40.0 50.0
Agree 11 27.5 27.5 77.5
Strongly Agree 9 22.5 22.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0
Table 42. The school provides equal opportunity for my child and family to participate in programs and services provided by the school and community
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Disagree 1 2.5 2.5 5.0
Neutral 8 20.0 20.0 25.0
Agree 19 47.5 47.5 72.5
Strongly Agree 11 27.5 27.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Table 42 is a presentation of schools providing equal opportunity.  Two-point five percent strongly disagreed. Two-point five percent also disagreed. Twenty percent was neutral. Forty-seven point five agree. Twenty-seven point five strongly agree.

Table 43. I participate in planned community-school activities
Frequency Percent Valid

Percent

Cumulative Percent
Valid Disagree 3 7.5 7.5 7.5
Neutral 10 25.0 25.0 32.5
Agree 13 32.5 32.5 65.0
Strongly Agree 14 35.0 35.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

Table 43 is a representation of participating in community school activities.  Seven-point five percent disagreed. Twenty five percent was neutral. Thirty-two point five agreed. Thirty five percent strongly agreed.

Summary

Based on the data presented below in Table 1, 92.5% of those surveyed disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement that they lacked time and resources needed to establish an effective partnership with their child’s school and teacher.  Moreover, according to the data presented in Table 2, 85% of those surveyed felt that their child’s school knew how to effectively work with them and their child.  Consequently, in Table 3, 80.0% of those surveyed believed that the school’s organization and practices worked well for both them and other parents.  Conversely, only 10.0% of those surveyed reported a difference in their point of view from those of the school, teachers, and staff.  An overwhelming majority of parents, 95.0% feel that the district and state broad of education is interested in parental involvement.  As these barriers are addressed by parents, the perceived barriers to parental involvement are non-factors in prohibiting their involvement in their child’s school. The results of analysis of Tables 13-18 demonstrates that parents feel that their participation in school activities or organization precipitates their level of influence in the school and as it relates to their influence on issues and outcomes as it relates to their child.  Data analysis of Tables 13-18 also reveal no statistical differences in the percentage of parents who perceive their influence to be related to issues only concerning their child and the influence exerted based on the level of participation in the school as it relates to the school board, principal, and the classroom teacher.

Chapter 5

Summary, Recommendation, and Conclusion

African American children are surrounded by many different interruptions that harm their ability to be successful. An investigation of African American perspective of parent involvement was explored and barriers that may consist within the African American community.   The purpose was to examine the apparent barriers in African American communities and to address the lack of parent involvement in urban communities. School officials have a responsibility to ensure that parent’s participation tactics are used and are beneficial to the students’ academic success. Having an Afro centric view, while combining the Epstein six type methods will allow African American parents to become more involved in the community and their child’s school. Black parents should become involved in a cultural aspect that seeks to serve as a protector for African American children.   The data revealed a lack of communication as a key issue to this problem. They feel as though they have no “say so” in the district.

The discussion about parents perceived barriers will help reduce patterns of mistrust and isolation within the community. When examining involvement among the black community’s researchers should seek out the racial socializations and more parts to parent involvement. Potential findings will help policy holders and school officials implement educational activities that involve and inform African American parents about obstacles their child may face. These policy interventions would help the ongoing efforts to reduce racial inequalities among the African American community.

Recommendations

Schools may elect to follow a teacher led parent-school partnership.  Parents stated that communication had a big impact on the success of their children.  This would mean that parents would continue to come to schools, but teachers and school officials would make home visit too. Communication is the key for African American parents to feel important. Teachers need contact with parents outside of the classroom or school setting so that their perceptions about communication only occurring when their child does something wrong is dispersed. Principals and directors could execute approach changes to command that educators visit the homes of their understudies at any rate once amid the school year.

Parents who work cannot eat lunch with their children. They also cannot volunteer in classrooms. They still want to be a part of their child’s academic success. Schools might create programs and meetings around holidays or community based events. For example, schools could participate in community festivals. They could also get to know other parents as a way of encouragement and a facilitator  for those working parents who cannot always come to school functions. Racial decency and social capacity are enormous issues with African American guardians. Schools should stop neglecting social contrast and start tolerating them. This would build a foundation with the workforce and guardians.

Schools could start having academic classes for parents who only have a high school diploma and for those parents who are having trouble understanding the children’s homework. These classes could be held on weekends or after school. This would also increase the homework being brought back to school because the parents would know how to help their children.

Further Recommendations

It is also recommended that teachers and principal’s beliefs could be done using similar questions and also interview questions.  This study may also lead to more effective parent and school partnerships. Effective relationships between parents and school officials are key to increase parent involvement in the African American Community. While schools do a neutral job on informing parents they still lack the connection with the African American community. Even though some parents are involved few are actually engaged in their child’s academic success. It would be interesting to interview more schools in the districts. Also, research could be done on how African American teachers feel about parent involvement.  Schools frequently contacted parents when there were behavioral issues, but failed to keep in contact about improvements that their children are making. Further research communications should be done to make sure these perceptions African parents are accurate.

Conclusion

The prevalent gap between African American and other races are recognized nationwide. Black parents are frequently looked at as parents who are not involved in their children’s education. It is a common problem in the African American community where schools do not communicate with African American parents and African American parents are not involved as it relates to academic success. The research states that the disconnect does not come from an absence of engagement, but from the scarcity   of practicing participation, trust and communication. Based on the topics that were developed from this study, recommendations were made and school administrators, teachers, and personnel can make interventions on involving African American parents in an optimistic and significant way. School districts in which this study was done can use this as insight to help achievement gap in African American communities Findings from this quantitative research study may help bridge the communication gap by developing an awareness of African American parents’ beliefs of public schools.

References

 

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Appendix A IRB

CONTENT AREA:

Parent Involvement, Types of Parent Involvement

RELATED TOPICS:

Intersection of Culture and Parent Involvement

PROPOSED TOPIC:

Revisiting Parent Involvement from an Afro centric Perspective: The Why and Why Not?

RELATED SUB-TOPICS:

Afro centric Framework, Parenting,

RATIONALE:

The lack of parental involvement is one major issue that negatively affects the education of black children. After decades of research and efforts to increase the rate of parent involvement in low resource public schools, there has been limited progress in this area.  Revisiting earlier research using an Afro Centric Consciousness framework may unlock some vital clues and how to better engage African-American parents in school-related activities. This study looks at how an Afro centric viewpoint may mediate African-American parent’s perceptions, beliefs and practices about parental involvement and how the academic activities African-American parents engage in with their children align with the Epstein’s Six Types of Parent Involvement to gain a better understanding and strategy for addressing parental involvement among a population of African-American parents.

SPECIFC FOCUS:

The specific focus is to strengthen parent involvement in the African American community while having a Afro centric view along with continuing to practice Epstein six type parent model.

Appendix B

Approval letter from the Research and Evaluation Department

Appendix C

Survey

 

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