Internet of Things Based Approach for Open Precision Farming

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Annexure-3

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS  
 CHAPTER                                   TITLE                                            PAGE

       NO                                                                                                      NO

                         ABSTRACT                                                                      i

                         LIST OF FIGURES                                                            ii

 
                         LIST OF ABBREVATIONS                                              iii  

LIST OF TABELS                                                           iv      

                  1             INTRODUCTION                                                           1       

1.1  AGRICULTURE                2

1.2 FARMING         4

1.2.1 IRRIGATION FARMING                  5

1.2.2 PROBLEMS IN IRRIGATION   5

1.2.3 OPEN PRECISION FARMING   6

1.3 INTERNET OF THINGS    8

1.3.1 IOT IN AGRICULTURE    10

 2                IOT BASED APPROACH FOR OPEN

                                             PRECISION FARMING                 14

                                   2.1 PARTS REQUIRED     15

2.2 SENSORS      15

2.3 SENSORS IN AGRICULTURE   16

2.4 DHT-11 SENSORS     21

2.5 3 IN 1 PH SENSOR     24

2.6 WI-FI MODULE-ESP8266      26

                                   2.7 SOLINOID VALVE     28

2.8 THINGSPEAK     32

2.9 BLYNK ANDROID APPLICATION  33

2.10 THINKVIEW ANDROID APPLICATION 34

3                METHODOLOGY       36

                                         3.1 FINDING THE RIGTH HARDWARE  37

3.2 FINDING THE RIGHT CLOUD PLATFORM        38

                                   3.3 HANDS ON WITH THE HARWARE AND            39                                                PROGRAMING

3.4 UPLODING THE DATA TO THE THINGSPEAK 42

3.5 CONTROLLING THE DEVICE WITH IOT        44

3.6 REACT AUTOMATICALLY TO CERTAIN           45   CONDITIONS USING THINGSPEAK

3.7 DISPLAYING TEMPATURE AND HUMIDITY  GRAPH ON PHONE USING ANDROID               APPLICATION                                                                        46

3.8 ASSEMBLING THE WHOLE SETUP    46

4.                    CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE      48

4.1   CONCLUSION       49

4.2  FUTURE SCOPE       49

5                       REFERENCE         50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             ABSTRACT

In this work we aim to develop a working prototype of internet of things based approach on open precision farming, where it increases the efficiency in farming thereby reducing the wastage of water and monitoring the fertility in soil.

As a initial step the application of internet of things(IOT) has been realized by controlling LED using ESP8266 module. The ESP8266 is a low-cost Wi-Fi chip with full TCP/IP stack and MCU (Micro Controller Unit)capability produced  by  Shanghai-based Chinese manufacturer, Espress Systems. This small module allows microcontrollers to connect to a Wi-Fi network and make simple TCP/IP connections. The esp8266 is programmed with the help of Arduino IDE  and configured in such a way that it connects to the available local area network. The led is connected to the output pins of the esp8266. This led can be turned ON/OFF by the smartphone application called Blynk.

As further, to measure the temperature and  humidity of the soil DHT11 sensor is used. This sensor  is connected to ESP8266 and programmed to send the data to one of the cloud platform Thinkspeak where The temperature and humidity can be monitored in real time.ThingSpeak is a open source  Internet of Things (IoT) application and API to store and retrieve data from things using the HTTP protocol over the Internet. ThingSpeak enables the creation of sensor logging applications, location tracking applications, and a social network of things with status updates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                          LIST OF FIGURES

 

FIG NO                             TITLE                                                       PAGE NO

  1. FIG 1.1            AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS    3
  2. FIG 1.2            PRECISION FARMING CYCLE    6
  3. FIG 1.3            INTERNET OF THINGS     10
  4. FIG 1.3.1         SMART AGRICULTURE AND PRESICION   13
  5. FIG 2.2            SENSOR USAGE DATA     20
  6. FIG 2.3            DHT11 SENSOR      22
  7. FIG 2.5            WIFI MODULE -ESP 8266     28
  8. FIG 2.6            WORKING OF SOLENOID VALVE   31
  9. FIG 2.8            BLYNK INTERFACE     33
  10. FIG 3.3a          CONFIGURATION OF BLYNK APPLICATION-1 40
  11. FIG 3.3b          CONFIGURATION OF BLYNK APPLICATION-2 40
  12. FIG 3.3c          CONFIGURATION OF BLYNK APPLICATION-3 41
  13. FIG 3.4a          CONFIGURATION OF IoT PLATFORM-1  42
  14. FIG3.4b           CONFIGURATION OF IoT PLATFORM-2  43
  15. FIG3.4c           CONFIGURATION OF IoT PLATFORM-3  44

 

 

                                    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

 

ABBREVIATION                 EXPANSIONS                   PAGE NO

IOT                                         INTERNET OF THINGS    8

LED                                      LIGHT EMITTING DIODE   39

TCP/IP                                TRANSMISSION CONTROL   26

PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL

MCU                                    MICRO-CONTROLLER UNIT  26

GDP                                     GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT  4

DSS                                  DESICION CONTROL SYSTEMS   5

PA                                           PRESICION AGRICULTURE              5

GPS                                  GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS       5

GNSS                     GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS    5

RGB                                                RED GREEN BLUE    6

PC                                              PERSONAL COMPUTER    6

M2M                                       MACHINE TO MACHINE   9

DNA                                    DIOXYRIBOSE NUCLEIC ACID  9

HVAC                    HEATED VENTILATION AIR CONDITIONING  9

WI-FI                                          WIRELESS FIDELITY   15

MIT               MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 10

UN                                               UNITED NATIONS   10

RFID                            RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION  16

EC                                      ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY  17

NTC                          NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT 21

OTP                                     ONE TIME PROGRAMMABLE  22

SOC                                          SYSTEM ON CHIP   26

PCB                                     PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD   27

NO                                           NORMALLY OPEN   32

NC                                           NORMALLY CLOSED   32

HTTP                        HYPER TEXT TRANSMISSION PROTOCOL 32

API                     APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE 32

UI                                           USER INTERFACE    32

BLE                                  BLUETOOTH LOW ENEGRY   46

USB                                    UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS   34

VAC                          VOLTS ALTERNATING CURRENT  30

IDE                        INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT BOARD  43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                        LIST OF TABLES

 

          TABLE NO                          TITLE                                                PAGE NO

  1. TABLE 2.1      TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF DHT11  22
  2. TABLE 2.2     TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DHT 11  24
  3. TABLE 3.1      IOT ENABLED DEVICES     37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER   1

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.INTRODUCTION

 

 

  1.1  AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is the development and rearing of creatures, plants and parasites for nourishment, fibre, bio fuel, therapeutic plants and different items used to manage and improve human life. Agribusiness was the key improvement in the ascent of inactive human progress, whereby cultivating of tamed species made nourishment surpluses that supported the advancement of development. The investigation of agriculture is known as farming science. The historical backdrop of agribusiness goes back a large number of years, and its improvement has been driven and characterized by significantly unique atmospheres, societies, and advancements. Modern agribusiness in light of expansive scale monoculture cultivating has turned into the predominant rural approach.

Present day agronomy, plant rearing, agrochemicals, for example, pesticides and composts, and mechanical improvements have much of the time pointedly expanded yields from development, yet in the meantime have created across the board biological harm and negative human wellbeing impacts. Specific reproducing and present day rehearses in creature farming have comparatively expanded the yield of meat, however have raised worries about creature welfare and the wellbeing impacts of the anti-microbial, development hormones, and different chemicals regularly utilized as a part of mechanical meat generation. Hereditarily changed life forms are an expanding part of agribusiness, in spite of the fact that they are prohibited in a few nations. Agrarian sustenance creation and water administration are progressively getting to be noticeably worldwide issues that are cultivating banter on various fronts. Huge debasement of land and water assets, including the consumption of aquifers, has been seen in late decades, and the impacts of a dangerous atmospheric deviation on farming and of agribusiness on an unnatural weather change are as yet not completely caught on.

The major agricultural items can be extensively gathered into sustenance, strands, fills, and crude materials. Particular nourishments incorporate oats (grains), vegetables, natural products, oils, meats and flavours. Strands incorporate cotton, fleece, hemp, silk and flax. Crude materials incorporate wood and bamboo. Other valuable materials are additionally delivered by plants, for example, pitches, colours, drugs, fragrances, bio fuels and decorative items, for example, cut blossoms and nursery plants. More than 33% of the world’s specialists are utilized in agribusiness, second just to the administration division, in spite of the fact that the rates of agrarian labourers in created nations has diminished fundamentally in the course of recent hundreds of years. In this work, we plan to build up a working model of Internet Things. It depends on an approach for open accuracy farming. It expands the productivity in cultivating along these lines decreasing the wastage of water and checking the fruitfulness in soil.

farming systems snip.JPG                            FIG 1.1 AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

1.2  FARMING

Cultivating is developing products or keeping creatures by individuals for sustenance and crude materials. Cultivating is a piece of farming. Cultivating Systems in India are deliberately used, as per the areas where they are generally reasonable. The cultivating frameworks that fundamentally add to the residential GDP of India are subsistence cultivating, natural cultivating, and mechanical cultivating. Areas all through India contrast in sorts of cultivating they utilize; some depend on agriculture,  cultivating, agro forestry, and some more. Because of India’s geological area, certain parts encounter distinctive atmospheres, in this way influencing every locale’s farming profitability in an unexpected way. India is extremely reliant on its rainstorm cycle for expansive product yields. India’s farming has a broad foundation which backpedals to no less than 10 thousand years. As of now the nation holds the second position in farming generation on the planet. In 2007, horticulture and different businesses made up over 16% of India’s GDP. In spite of the enduring decrease in agribusiness’ commitment to the nation’s GDP, farming is the greatest business in the nation and assumes a key part in the financial development of the nation. India is the second greatest maker of wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, silk, groundnuts, and handfuls more. It is additionally the second greatest collector of vegetables and natural product, speaking to 8.6% and 10.9% of general generation, separately. The significant natural products created by India are mangoes, papayas, sapota, and bananas. India likewise has the greatest number of domesticated animals on the planet, holding 281 million. In 2008, the nation housed the second biggest number of dairy cattle on the planet with 175 million.

1.2.1 IRRIGATION FARMING

Water system cultivating is when yields are developed with the assistance of water system frameworks by providing water to arrive through waterways, repositories, tanks, and wells. In the course of the most recent century, the number of inhabitants in India has tripled. With a developing populace and expanding interest for sustenance, the need of water for rural profitability is vital. India confronts the overwhelming errand of expanding its sustenance creation by more than 50 percent in the following two decades, and coming to towards the objective of feasible agribusiness requires a urgent part of water. Exact proof proposes that the expansion in rural creation in India is for the most part because of water system; near three fifths of India’s grain reap originates from inundated land. The land territory under water system extended from 22.6 million hectares in FY 1950 to 59 million hectares in FY 1990.

The fundamental methodology for these water system frameworks concentrates on open interests in surface frameworks, for example, extensive dams, long waterways, and other expansive scale works that require a lot of capital. In the vicinity of 1951 and 1990, almost 1,350 substantial and medium-sized water system works were begun, and around 850 were finished.

1.2.2  PROBLEMS IN IRRIGATION

  •    Existing high cost of investment/finance
  •    Inadequate physical infrastructure to support the sector
  •    Poor farming techniques
  •    Limited access to quality farm inputs
  •    Too much relying on rain
  •    Inadequate production and post harvest technologies.
  •    Lack of awareness by farmers on precision farming methods

1.2.3  OPEN PRECISION FARMING

Precision Agriculture (PA) or satellite cultivating or site particular yield administration  is a cultivating administration idea in light of watching, measuring and reacting to bury and intra-field changeability in products. The objective of accuracy horticulture research is to characterize a choice emotionally supportive network (DSS) for entire homestead administration with the objective of advancing profits for sources of info while protecting assets.

Among these many methodologies is a phytogeomorphological approach which ties multi-year trim development security/qualities to topological landscape properties. The enthusiasm for the phytogeomorphological approach originates from the way that the geomorphology segment ordinarily manages the hydrology of the homestead field.

The act of exactness agribusiness has been empowered by the coming of GPS and GNSS. The rancher’s as well as specialist’s capacity to find their exact position in a field considers the making of maps of the spatial inconstancy of the greatest number of factors as can be measured (e.g. trim yield, territory highlights/geography, natural matter substance, dampness levels, nitrogen levels, pH, EC, Mg, K, and so forth.). Comparable information is gathered by product yield screens mounted on GPS-prepared join collectors, varieties of constant vehicle mountable sensors that measure everything from chlorophyll levels to plant water status, multi-, and satellite symbolism. This information is then utilized by factor rate innovation including seeders, sprayers, and so forth to ideally circulate assets.

Accuracy horticulture has additionally been empowered by moderate unmanned ethereal vehicles like the  Phantom that cost under $1000 and can be worked by amateur pilots. These frameworks, usually referred to as automatons, can be equip with hyper spectral or RGB cameras to catch many pictures of a field that can be handled utilizing photogrammetric strategies to make othrophotos and  maps. Figure-1-Precision-farming-cycle.png

                                    FIG 1.2  PRECISION FARMING CYCLE

Accuracy cultivating ought not be considered as just yield mapping and variable rate compost application and assessed on just a single or the other. Accuracy cultivating advances will influence the whole generation work (and by augmentation, the administration capacity) of the ranch. A short diagram of the segments in accuracy cultivating is introduced in Figure 1.2 and recorded previously.

Accuracy cultivating ought not be considered as just yield mapping and variable rate manure application and assessed on just a single or the other. Accuracy cultivating advancements will influence the whole creation work (and by expansion, the administration capacity) of the homestead. A short diagram of the segments in exactness cultivating is introduced in Figure 1.2 and recorded previously.

Yield monitoring
Quick yield screens are right now accessible from a few makers for every current model of consolidates. They give a harvest yield by time or separation (e.g. consistently or each couple of meters). They likewise track other information, for example, separation and bushels per stack, number of burdens and fields.

Yield mapping
GPS recipients combined with yield screens give spatial directions to the yield screen information. This can be made into yield maps of each field.

Variable rate fertilizer
Variable rate controllers are accessible for granular, fluid and vaporous compost materials. Variable rates can either be physically controlled by the driver or consequently controlled by an on board PC with an electronic remedy delineate.

Weed mapping
A rancher can delineate while consolidating, seeding, splashing or field scouting by utilizing a keypad or secure snared to a GPS recipient and data logger. These events can then be mapped out on a PC and contrasted with yield maps, compost maps and shower maps.

Variable spraying
By knowing weed areas from weed mapping spot control can be executed. Controllers are accessible to electronically turn blasts on and off, and modify the sum (and mix) of herbicide connected.

Topography and boundaries
Utilizing high exactness an extremely precise topographic guide can be made of any field. This is valuable when translating yield maps and weed maps and in addition making arrangements for grassed conduits and field divisions. Field limits, streets, yards, tree stands and wetlands can all be precisely mapped to help in ranch arranging.

Salinity mapping
GPS can be coupled to a saltiness meter sled which is towed behind  crosswise over fields influenced by saltiness. Saltiness mapping is profitable in deciphering yield maps and weed maps and also following the adjustment in saltiness after some time.

Guidance systems
A few makers are as of now creating direction frameworks utilizing high exactness that can precisely position a moving vehicle inside a foot or less. These direction frameworks may trade ordinary gear markers for showering or seeding and might be a profitable field scouting apparatus.
Records and analyses.

Accuracy cultivating may create a blast in the measure of records accessible for ranch administration. Electronic sensors can gather a great deal of information in a brief timeframe. Heaps of plate space is expected to store every one of the information and also the guide representation coming about because of the information. Electronic controllers can likewise be intended to give flags that are recorded electronically. It might be valuable to record the compost rates really put around the application gear, not exactly what ought to have been put down as per a medicine outline. A great deal of new information is produced each year (yields, weeds, and so on). Agriculturists will need to monitor the yearly information to study slants in ripeness, yields, saltiness and various different parameters. This implies a huge database is required with the ability to file, and recover, information for future examinations.

1.3 INTERNET OF THINGS(IOT)

The Internet of things (IoT) is the between systems administration of physical gadgets, vehicles (likewise alluded to as “associated gadgets” ), structures, and different things—installed with hardware, programming, sensors, actuators, and system availability that empower these articles to gather and trade information. In 2013 the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things characterized the IoT as “the foundation of the data society.” The IoT enables articles to be detected or controlled remotely crosswise over existing system framework, making open doors for more straightforward mix of the physical world into PC based frameworks, and bringing about enhanced productivity, exactness and monetary advantage notwithstanding diminished human intercession.

At the point when IoT is increased with sensors and actuators, the innovation turns into a case of the more broad class of digital physical frameworks, which likewise incorporates advancements, for example, brilliant networks, virtual power plants, savvy homes, insightful transportation and shrewd urban communities. Every thing is exceptionally identifiable through its inserted registering framework yet can interoperate inside the current Internet foundation. Specialists evaluate that the IoT will comprise of just about 50 billion protests by 2020.

Normally, IoT is relied upon to offer propelled availability of gadgets, frameworks, and administrations that goes past machine-to-machine (M2M) correspondences and spreads an assortment of conventions, areas, and applications. The interconnection of these installed gadgets (counting keen items), is relied upon to introduce computerization in almost all fields, while likewise empowering propelled applications like a shrewd lattice, and extending to zones, for example, brilliant urban communities.

“Things,” in the IoT sense, can allude to a wide assortment of gadgets, for example, heart checking inserts, biochip transponders on ranch creatures, electric molluscs in seaside waters, cars with inherent sensors, DNA examination gadgets for natural/sustenance/pathogen observing or field operation gadgets that help firefighters in hunt and safeguard operations. Lawful researchers recommend to take a gander at “Things” as an “inseparable blend of equipment, programming, information and administration”. These gadgets gather valuable information with the assistance of different existing innovations and after that self-governing stream the information between different gadgets. Current market illustrations incorporate home robotization (otherwise called keen home gadgets, for example, the control and mechanization of lighting, warming (like shrewd indoor regulator), ventilation, aerating and cooling (HVAC) frameworks, and machines, for example, washer/dryers, automated vacuums, air purifiers, broilers or iceboxes/coolers that utilization Wi-Fi for remote observing.

And in addition the development of Internet-associated robotization into a plenty of new application zones, IoT is additionally anticipated that would create a lot of information from assorted areas, with the subsequent need for speedy accumulation of the information, and an expansion in the need to list, store, and process such information all the more viably. IoT is one of the stages of today’s Smart City, and Smart Energy Management Systems.

The expression “the Internet of Things” was begat by Kevin Ashton of Procter and Gamble, later MIT’s Auto-ID Canter, in 1999.

 

Internet-of-Things.png

FIG 1.3 INTERNET OF THINGS

1.3.1  IOT IN AGRICULTURE

Smart cultivating is an idea rapidly getting on in the agribusiness. Offering high-exactness edit control, valuable information accumulation, and computerized cultivating strategies, there are unmistakably many points of interest an arranged ranch brings to the table. Of the many focal points IoT conveys to the table, its capacity to improve the scene of current cultivating strategies is completely earth shattering. IoT sensors fit for furnishing ranchers with data about harvest yields, precipitation, bother pervasion, and soil nourishment are priceless to generation and offer exact information which can be utilized to enhance cultivating systems after some time. New equipment, similar to the corn-tending Robot, is gaining ground by matching information gathering programming with apply autonomy to prepare the corn, apply seed cover-products, and gather data keeping in mind the end goal to both augment yields and limit squander.

Another bearing in which brilliant cultivating is going includes seriously controlled indoor developing techniques. The OpenAG Initiative at MIT Media Lab utilizes “individual nourishment PCs” (little indoor cultivating conditions that screen/administrate particular developing situations) and an open source stage to gather and share information. The gathered information is named an “atmosphere formula” which can be downloaded to other individual sustenance PCs and used to recreate atmosphere factors, for example, carbon dioxide, air temperature, stickiness, broke down oxygen, potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, and root-zone temperature. This permits clients extremely exact control to archive, share, or reproduce a particular domain for developing and expels the component of poor climate conditions and human mistake. It could likewise possibly enable ranchers to instigate dry season or other strange conditions delivering attractive attributes in particular harvests that wouldn’t commonly happen in nature. With an eventual fate of effective, information driven, exceedingly exact cultivating techniques, it is unquestionably sheltered to call this kind of cultivating savvy. We can expect IoT will perpetually change the way we develop nourishment.

The cultivating business will turn out to be seemingly more vital than any other time in recent memory in the following couple of decades.

The world should deliver 70% more sustenance in 2050 than it did in 2006 so as to nourish the developing populace of the Earth, as indicated by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. To take care of this demand, ranchers and horticultural organizations are swinging to the Internet of Things for investigation and more prominent creation capacities.

Mechanical development in cultivating is just the same old thing new. Handheld devices were the benchmarks many years back, and after that the Industrial Revolution realized the cotton gin. The 1800s realized grain lifts, concoction composts, and the main gas-fuelled tractor. Quick forward to the late 1900s, when agriculturists begin utilizing satellites to arrange their work.

The IoT is set to push the eventual fate of cultivating to the following level. Efficient horticulture is as of now winding up plainly more typical among ranchers, and cutting edge cultivating is rapidly turning into the standard because of agrarian automatons and sensors.

Underneath, we’ve plot IoT applications in agribusiness and how “Web of Things cultivating” will help agriculturists meet the world’s nourishment requests in the coming years.

Ranchers have as of now started utilizing some innovative cultivating strategies and advancements with a specific end goal to enhance the effectiveness of their everyday work. For instance, sensors put in fields enable agriculturists to acquire nitty gritty maps of both the geology and assets in the zone, and also factors, for example, acridity and temperature of the dirt. They can likewise get to atmosphere estimates to foresee climate designs in the coming days and weeks.

Agriculturists can utilize their cell phones to remotely screen their gear, yields, and domesticated animals, and additionally acquire details on their domesticated animals sustaining and deliver. They can even utilize this innovation to run factual expectations for their products and domesticated animals.

What’s more, automatons have turned into an important device for ranchers to overview their properties and produce edit information.

As a solid illustration, John Deere (one of the greatest names in cultivating gear) has started associating its tractors to the Internet and has made a strategy to show information about agriculturists’ product yields. Like keen autos, the organization is spearheading self-driving tractors, which would free up agriculturists to perform different errands and further increment proficiency.

These systems help make up exactness cultivating or accuracy agribusiness, the way toward utilizing satellite symbolism and other innovation, (for example, sensors) to watch and record information with the objective of enhancing creation yield while limiting expense and safeguarding assets.

Shrewd agribusiness and exactness cultivating are taking off, however they could simply be the forerunners to significantly more noteworthy utilization of innovation in the cultivating scene.

BI Intelligence, Business Insider’s top notch investigate benefit, predicts that IoT gadget establishments in the horticulture world will increment from 30 million in 2015 to 75 million in 2020, for a compound yearly development rate of 20%.

The U.S. as of now leads the world in IoT efficient farming, as it produces 7,340 kgs of oat (e.g. wheat, rice, maize, grain, and so forth.) per hectare (2.5 sections of land) of farmland, contrasted with the worldwide normal of 3,851 kgs of oat for each hectare.

Also, this proficiency ought to just enhance in the coming decades as homesteads turn out to be more associated. On Farm, which makes an associated cultivate IoT stage, anticipates that the normal homestead will create a normal of 4.1 million information focuses every day in 2050, up from 190,000 in 2014.

Besides, On Farm ran a few reviews and found that for the normal homestead, yield ascended by 1.75%, vitality costs dropped $7 to $13 per section of land, and water use for water system fell by 8%.

Given the majority of the potential advantages of these IoT applications in agribusiness, it’s justifiable that ranchers are progressively swinging to rural automatons and satellites for the eventual fate of cultivating.

One_mikeedit-690156b494d75c7537b6e2c04e7636fa.png

                  FIG 1.3.1 SMART AGRICULTURE AND PRECISION   FARMING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      2 INTERNET OF THINGS BASED APPROACH FOR           OPEN PRECISION FARMING

   

   2.1  PARTS REQUIRED:

1.Senors – DHT 11,3 in 1 pH sensor

2.Wifi module -ESP8266

3.Solenoid valve

4.Thinkspeak platform

5.Blynk android application

6.Thinkspeakview android application

2.2 SENSORS

In the broadest definition, a sensor is an electronic segment, module, or subsystem whose reason for existing is to distinguish occasions or changes in its condition and send the data to different gadgets, much of the time a PC processor. A sensor is constantly utilized with different hardware, regardless of whether as straightforward as a light or as mind boggling as a PC. Sensors are utilized as a part of ordinary protests, for example, touch-delicate lift catches (material sensor) and lights which diminish or light up by touching the base, other than endless uses of which a great many people are never mindful. With advances in micro machinery and simple to-utilize microcontroller stages, the employments of sensors have extended past the conventional fields of temperature, weight or stream measurement, for instance into  sensors. In addition, simple sensors, for example, potentiometers and constrain detecting resistors are still generally utilized. Applications incorporate assembling and hardware, planes and aviation, autos, solution, mechanical technology and numerous different parts of our everyday life.

A sensor’s affectability shows how much the sensor’s yield changes when the information amount being measured changes. For example, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature changes by 1 °C, the affectability is 1 cm/°C (it is essentially the incline Dy/Dx expecting a straight trademark). A few sensors can likewise influence what they measure; for example, a room temperature thermometer embedded into a hot measure of fluid cools the fluid while the fluid warms the thermometer. Sensors are generally intended to small affect what is measured; making the sensor littler frequently enhances this and may present different points of interest. Innovative advance enables an ever increasing number of sensors to be produced on a minute scale as micro sensors utilizing innovation. Much of the time, a micro sensor achieves an altogether higher speed and affectability contrasted and plainly visible methodologies.

A decent sensor complies with the accompanying tenets

• It is delicate to the deliberate property

• It is uncaring to some other property prone to be experienced in its application,

• It does not impact the deliberate property.

Most sensors have a straight exchange work. The affectability is then characterized as the proportion between the yield flag and measured property. For instance, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage yield, the affectability is a consistent with the units [V/K].

The affectability is the slant of the exchange work. Changing over the sensor’s electrical yield (for instance V) to the deliberate units (for instance K) requires partitioning the electrical yield by the incline (or duplicating by its corresponding). Also, a balance is every now and again included or subtracted. For instance – 40 must be added to the yield if 0 V yield relates to – 40 C input.

For a simple sensor flag to be handled, or utilized as a part of computerized hardware, it should be changed over to an advanced flag, utilizing a simple to-computerized converter.

2.3  SENSORS IN AGRICULTURE

Remote Sensors assume a vital part in today’s agribusiness. There is an expanding interest for creation and all the while the endeavours for limiting the natural effect and for sparing costs make the sensor frameworks the best-united instrument. The utilization of sensors screens supplements in the dirt, stickiness, temp, thickness of weeds and all elements influencing the generation are been checked to gain better power

A superior utilization of innovation can likewise decrease the utilization of substance items, for example, manures, herbicides and other contamination items and yield more secure corps. Arrangement of remote sensors in farming is still at its initial stages, applications are fundamentally named: Environmental Monitoring, Precision Agriculture and Traceability Systems (RFID).

Environmental monitoring – This section alludes to handle estimations of condition factors, for example, Weather information, Water quality and so forth that are still rely on upon stationary sensors and data loggers, and records are done physically which requires high work expenses and subject of human blunders.

Precision agriculture –  Wireless sensors have been utilized as a part of accuracy horticulture to screen and gather information of soil water accessibility, soil compaction, soil fruitfulness, leaf temperature, leaf region list, plant water status, nearby atmosphere information, bug illness weed invasion and so on.

Traceability systems (RFID) – There is an expanding interest for wellbeing of nourishment items by observing the items from the field to the shoppers and for security of the hardware and so on. RFID innovation has been embraced as the main innovation for gathering information on item following.

A dynamic nourishment following framework utilizes dynamic RFID labelling for leading ceaseless stock numbers in the field, stockrooms and Point of offer. these RFID labels are constantly refreshing and transmitting the information to the observing framework and in the end their battery runs out and require a substitution.

In such cases Sol Chip’s Everlasting Solar Battery empowers the supply of consistent control over a stretched out day and age to empower the utilization of dynamic RFID without routine upkeep systems.

Soil and Crop Sensing

 Sensors that measure an assortment of basic soil properties in a hurry are being produced. These sensors can be utilized either to control variable rate application hardware continuously or in conjunction with a Global Positioning System (GPS) to create field maps of specific soil properties. Contingent upon the dividing between passes, travel speed, and testing as well as estimation recurrence, the quantity of estimation focuses per section of land fluctuates; in any case, by and large, it is substantially more noteworthy than the thickness of manual matrix examining. The cost of mapping for the most part is decreased too.

Measuring Soil Properties

When pondering a perfect accuracy agribusiness framework, makers imagine a sensor situated in direct contact with, or near, the ground and associated with a “discovery” which breaks down sensor reaction, forms the information, and changes the application rate immediately. They likewise trust that the ongoing data distinguished by the sensor and used to endorse the application rate would advance the general monetary or agronomic impact of the creation input. This approach, be that as it may, does not consider a few challenges met in “this present reality”:

• Most sensors and implement controllers require a specific time for estimation, mix, or potentially modification, which diminishes the reasonable operation speed or estimation thickness.

• Variable rate compost and pesticide tools may require extra data (like yield potential) to create remedy calculations (sets of conditions).

• Currently, there is no site-particular administration medicine calculation turned out to be the most great for all factors required in harvest generation.

As opposed to utilizing constant, in a hurry sensors with controllers, a guide based approach might be more attractive on account of the capacity to gather and dissect information, make the solution, and direct the variable rate application in at least two stages. For this situation, numerous layers of data including yield maps, a computerized height show  and different sorts of symbolism could be pooled together utilizing a global positioning systems(GPS) programming bundle intended to oversee and prepare spatial information. Solution maps can be produced utilizing calculations that include a few information sources and additionally individual experience.

Sensors for Automated Measurements

Researchers and gear producers are attempting to adjust existing lab strategies or create backhanded estimation procedures that could permit in a hurry soil mapping. To date, just a couple sorts of sensors have been explored, including:

  •     Electromagnetic
  •     Optical
  •     Mechanical
  •     Electrochemical
  •     Airflow
  •     Acoustic

Electromagnetic sensors utilize electric circuits to quantify the ability for soil particles to lead or aggregate electrical charge. When utilizing these sensors, the dirt turns out to be a piece of an electromagnetic circuit, and changing nearby conditions quickly influence the flag recorded by an information lumberjack. A few such sensors are financially accessible:

• Mapping electrical conductivity (Veris® 3100, Veris Technologies, Salina, Kansas)

• Mapping transient electromagnetic reaction (EM-38,Geonics Limited, Mississauga, Ontario,  Canada)

• Using electrical reaction to alter variable rate application continuously (Soil Doctor® System, Crop Technology, Inc., Bandera, Texas)

Electromagnetic soil properties, generally, are impacted by soil surface, saltiness, natural matter, and dampness content. At times, other soil properties, for example, lingering nitrates or soil pH can be anticipated utilizing these sensors. A few methodologies for applying electromagnetic sensors have been seen as of late.

 

Optical sensors utilize light reflectance to portray soil. These sensors can re-enact the human eye when taking a gander at soil and also measure close infrared, mid-infrared, or spellbound light reflectance. Vehicle-based optical sensors utilize an indistinguishable guideline strategy from remote detecting. To date, different business sellers give remote detecting administrations that permit estimation of exposed soil reflectance utilizing a satellite or plane stage. Fetched, timing, mists, and overwhelming plant build-up cover are real issues restricting the utilization of exposed soil symbolism from these stages.

Short proximity, subsurface, vehicle-based optical sensors can possibly be utilized in a hurry, in a path like electromagnetic sensors, and can give more data about single information focuses since reflectance can be effectively measured in more than one bit of the range at once. A few specialists have created optical sensors to foresee dirt, natural matter, and dampness content.

Mechanical sensors can be utilized to gauge soil mechanical resistance (frequently identified with compaction).These sensors utilize a component that infiltrates or slices through the dirt and records the compel measured by strain gages or load cells. A few scientists have created models that demonstrate the attainability of ceaseless mapping of soil resistance; in any case, none of these gadgets is financially accessible. The draft sensors or “footing control” framework on tractors utilizes a comparative innovation to control the three-point hitch in a hurry.

Electrochemical sensors could give the most vital sort of data required for accuracy agribusiness — soil supplement levels and pH. At the point when soil tests are sent to a dirt testing lab, an arrangement of institutionalized lab systems is performed. These methods include test arrangement and estimation. A few estimations (particularly assurance of pH) are performed utilizing a particle specific cathode (with glass or polymer film or particle touchy field impact transistor). These cathodes recognize the movement of particular particles (nitrate, potassium, or hydrogen if there should arise an occurrence of pH). A few scientists are attempting to adjust existing soil arrangement and estimation systems to basically lead a research centre test in a hurry. The qualities acquired may not be as exact as a research centre test, but rather the high inspecting thickness may build the general exactness of the subsequent soil supplement or pH maps.

Airflow  sensors were utilized to gauge soil air penetrability in a hurry. The weight required to press a given volume of air into the dirt at settled profundity was contrasted with a few soil properties. Tests indicated potential for recognizing different soil sorts, dampness levels, and soil structure/compaction.

Acoustic sensors have been researched to decide soil surface by measuring the adjustment in commotion level because of the collaboration of an apparatus with soil particles. A low flag to-commotion proportion did not enable this innovation to create.

Sensor Data Usage

Albeit different vehicle-based soil sensors are being worked on, just electromagnetic sensors are industrially accessible and broadly utilized. In a perfect world, makers might want to work sensors that give contributions to existing remedy calculations. Rather, economically accessible sensors give estimations, for example, electrical conductivity (EC) that can’t be utilized specifically since the supreme esteem relies on upon various physical and compound soil properties, for example, surface, natural matter, saltiness, dampness content, and so forth.

Then again, electromagnetic sensors give significant data about soil contrasts and likenesses, which makes it conceivable to isolate the field into littler and moderately steady territories alluded to as administration zones.

 image 2                                              FIG 2.2 SENSOR USAGE DATA

For instance, such zones could be characterized by different soil sorts in a field. Truth be told, electrical conductivity maps generally can better uncover limits of certain dirt sorts than soil study maps (utilized for rustic property charge appraisal). Diverse inconsistencies, for example, disintegrated slopes or ponding additionally can be effortlessly distinguished on an electrical conductivity outline. The accompanying figure analyzes a dirt study and an electrical conductivity delineate a similar field demonstrating a few contrasts in limits.

Yield maps additionally habitually relate to electrical conductivity maps, as demonstrated as follows. In many examples, such similitudes can be clarified through contrasts in soil. As a rule, the electrical conductivity maps may demonstrate territories where promote investigation is expected to clarify yield contrasts. Both yield potential and supplement accessibility maps may have a comparable example as soil surface as well as natural matter substance maps. Regularly these examples likewise can be uncovered through an electrical conductivity delineate.

Subsequently, it appears to be sensible to use in a hurry mapping of electromagnetic soil properties as one layer of information to find the heterogeneity (contrasts) of soil inside a field (like utilizing uncovered soil symbolism). Zones with comparative electrical conductivity and a generally stable yield may get a uniform treatment that can be recommended in light of less soil tests in the zones on the electrical conductivity delineate.

As new in a hurry soil sensors are produced, distinctive continuous and guide based variable rate soil medications might be financially connected to considerably littler field regions, decreasing the impact of soil fluctuation inside every administration zone.

2.4 DHT-11 SENSOR

     1. Introduction

 This DHT11 Temperature and Humidity Sensor highlights a temperature and mugginess sensor complex with an aligned advanced flag yield. By utilizing the elite advanced flag obtaining strategy and temperature and stickiness detecting innovation, it guarantees high unwavering quality and great long haul security.

This sensor incorporates a resistive-sort mugginess estimation part and a NTC temperature estimation segment, and interfaces with a superior 8-bit microcontroller, offering phenomenal quality, quick reaction, hostile to obstruction capacity and cost-adequacy.

Each DHT11 component is entirely aligned in the research facility that is amazingly exact on mugginess adjustment. The adjustment coefficients are put away as projects in the OTP memory, which are utilized by the sensor’s inward flag distinguishing process. The single-wire serial interface makes framework mix snappy and simple.

Its little size, low power utilization and up-to-20 meter flag transmission settling on it the best decision for different applications, including those most requesting ones. The part is 4-stick single column stick bundle. It is helpful to associate and extraordinary bundles can be given by clients’ demand.

5-PCS-LOT-Single-Bus-DHT11-Digital-Temperature-and-Humidity-Sensor-DHT11-Probe-090345.jpg

                                           FIG 2.3 DHT-11 SENSOR

 

2. Technical Specifications:

Overview:

 Item Measurement Humidity Temperature Resolution Package
  Range Accuracy Accuracy    
DHT11 20-90%RH ±5%RH ±2℃ 1 4 Pin Single
  0-50 ℃ Row

Detailed Specifications:

Parameters Conditions Minimum Typical Maximum
Humidity
Resolution 1%RH 1%RH 1%RH
8 Bit
Repeatability ±1%RH
Accuracy 25℃ ±4%RH
0-50℃ ±5%RH
Interchange ability Fully Interchangeable
Measurement 0℃ 30%RH 90%RH
Range
25℃ 20%RH 90%RH
50℃ 20%RH 80%RH
Response Time 1/e(63%)25℃, 6 S 10 S 15 S
(Seconds) 1m/s Air
Hysteresis ±1%RH
Long-Term Typical ±1%RH/year
Stability
Temperature
Resolution 1℃ 1℃ 1℃
8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit
Repeatability ±1℃
Accuracy ±1℃ ±2℃
Measurement 0℃ 50℃
Range
Response Time 1/e(63%) 6 S 30 S
(Seconds)
 

 

                               TABLE 2.1  TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF DHT-11  

6. Electrical Characteristics

VDD=5V, T = 25℃ (unless otherwise stated)

Conditions Minimum Typical Maximum
Power Supply DC 3V 5V 5.5V
Current Measuring 0.5mA 2.5mA
Supply
Average 0.2mA 1mA
Standby 100uA 150uA
Sampling Second 1
period

Note: Sampling period at intervals should be no less than 1 second.

             TABLE 2.2 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DHT11

 

2.5  3 IN 1 PH SENSOR

 

Introduction :

pH levels are critical in soils, water system water and splash tank arrangements. Soil and water pH is the absolute most imperative angle in deciding supplement accessibility to crops. pH levels in splash tanks decide the viability of pesticides. This multi-reason meter to help give a solid developing condition to all plants. It tests for soil alkalinity acidity, soil moisture, and daylight.

A pH Meter is a gadget utilized for potentiometrically measuring the pH, which is either the fixation or the action of hydrogen particles, of a aqueous solution. It for the most part has a glass electrode in addition to a calomel reference electrode, or a blend terminal. pH meters are generally used to gauge the pH of fluids, however some special probes are used to calculate the pH of semi-solid substances. 3in1 Moisture PH Light Meter for Hydroponic Plant Soil Ideal apparatus for both indoor and garden plants mind Please clean the electrode after each utilization 1 X 3 IN 1 PH LIGHT METER FOR PLANT SOIL FEATURES.

With this 3 in 1 soil meter you can check in your garden, vegetable garden, yard and pruned plants whether the soil is reasonable for a specific plant. Utilize the gadget to quantify developing conditions for a wide range of plants inside and outside. You can likewise check the humidity in the soil, the temperature and intensity of daylight utilizing this ground meter.

This 3 in 1 pH soil meter  particularly can be used in yard mind in deciding the soil conditions in various regions of your garden and finding the right grass seed and manure. Awful spots in the grass can be brought about by poor sewage (wet soil, test the moisture), excessively or too little acidity (test the pH), or the wrong light level (test light and utilize proper seed blend (sun/shade).

Features:

  •    3 IN 1 moisture light & PH meter Soil analyzer meter.
  •    No battery required, simple and convenient to use
  •    Simply insert probe of the meter into the soil, switch to the setting you want to measure and read the scale
  •    Probe length:21cm
  •    100% brand new and high quality
  •    Ideal tool for both indoor and garden plants care
  •    Please clean the electrode after each use
  •    Weight: 57g
  •    Size:28.2 x 4.8 x 3.6cm
  •    Colour: Green
  •    For outdoor & indoor plants, gardens & grass lawn.
  •    Take the guess work out of your daily garden watering light and moisture.
  •    Save water, energy and keep your plants, lawn, flower in top condition.
  •    Measures moisture at root level.
  •    Prevents over and under watering
  •    Scientifically accurate.
  •    Easy to use, just insert and read.

NOTE:

  •    No battery required, simple and convenient to use
  • Simply insert the meter into the soil, switch to the setting you want to measure and read the      scale.
  •    To avoid damaging the electrode, please clean the electrode after each use.

Specification:

  •    Meter: 5 x 8 x 3.5cm [2 x 3.2 x 1.5″]
  •    Probe length: 21cm [8″]
  •    Bronze probe diameter: 4.8mm
  •    silver probe diameter: 5.1mm
  •    Distance between probes: 1.2cm
  •    Colour: Green
  •    Item size: 330*100*30mm
  •    Net weight: 87g
    Package weight: 99g
    100% brand new and high quality
  •    Package Content:
    1 x 3 in 1 Moisture / PH / Light Meter Soil Garden Tester

Applications :

2.6  Wi-Fi Module – ESP8266 :

Description:

The ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module is an independent SOC with coordinated TCP/IP protocol stack that can give any microcontroller access to your Wi-Fi network. The ESP8266 is able to do either facilitating an application or offloading all Wi-Fi networking capacities from another application processor. Each ESP8266 module comes pre-customized with an AT command set firmware, which means, you can essentially attach this to your Arduino gadget and get about as much Wi-Fi-ability as a Wi-Fi Shield offers . The ESP8266 module is an extremely cost effective board with an immense, and continually growing, community.

This module has a sufficiently effective on-board processing and capacity ability that enables it to be coordinated with the sensors and other application specific gadgets through its GPIOs with negligible advancement in advance and insignificant stacking during runtime. Its high level of on-chip integration takes into account negligible external  hardware, including the front-end module, is intended to involve insignificant PCB area. The ESP8266 underpins  for  applications and Bluetooth concurrence interfaces, it contains a self-adjusted RF allowing it to work under every operating condition, and requires no outside RF parts.

There is a practically boundless  fountain of information available for the ESP8266, all of which has been given by astounding community support. In the Documents area beneath you will find ,many resources to help you in utilizing the ESP8266, even guidelines on how to change this module into an IoT solution

Note: The ESP8266 Module is not capable of 5-3V logic shifting and will require an external Logic Level Converter. Please do not power it directly from your 5V dev board.

This new version of the ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module has increased the flash disk size from 512k to 1MB.

Features:

  •    802.11 b/g/n
  •    Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP
  •    Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack
  •    Integrated TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network
  •    Integrated PLLs, regulators, DCXO and power management units
  •    +19.5dBm output power in 802.11b mode
  •    Power down leakage current of <10uA
  •    1MB Flash Memory
  •    Integrated low power 32-bit CPU could be used as application processor
  •    SDIO 1.1 / 2.0, SPI, UART
  •    STBC, 1×1 MIMO, 2×1 MIMO
  •    A-MPDU & A-MSDU aggregation & 0.4ms guard interval
  •    Wake up and transmit packets in < 2ms
  •    Standby power consumption of < 1.0mW (DTIM3)

Documents:

  •    NURDspace Wiki (Schematic, Datasheet, & More!)
  •    Instructables Tutorial
  •    ESP8266 Community Forum
  •    AT Command Set
  •    GitHub (ESP8266)
  •    GitHub (GCC-Xtensa)
  •    Graphical Datasheet

Image result for esp 8266

FIG : 2.5 WI-FI MODULE ESP8266

2.7  SOLENOID VALVE

A solenoid valve is an electromechanically worked valve. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the stream is switched on or off; in case  of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Numerous solenoid valves can be put together on a manifold.

Solenoid valves are the most every now and again utilized control components in fluids. Their tasks are to stop, release, measurement, convey or blend fluids. They are found in numerous application areas. Solenoids offer quick and safe switching, high reliability, long administration life, great medium compatibility of the materials utilized, low control power and compact design.

Other than the plunger-sort actuator which is utilized most as often as possible, pivoted-armature actuators and rocker actuators are utilized

 

OPERATION

There are numerous valve design varieties. Common valves can have many ports and liquid ways. A 2-route valve, for instance, has 2 ports; if the valve is open, then the two ports are connected and fluid may stream between the ports; if the valve is shut then ports are isolated. On the off chance that the valve is open when the solenoid is not energized, then the valve is named normally open (N.O.). Likewise, if the valve is shut when the solenoid is not energized, then the valve is named normally closed(N.C).There are additionally 3-way and more confused designs. A 3-way valve has 3 ports; it interfaces one port to both of the two different ports (normally a supply port and a exhaust port).

Solenoid valves are additionally described by how they work. A small solenoid can produce a restricted constrain. On the off chance that that force is adequate to open and close the valve, then an immediate acting solenoid valve is conceivable. An appropriate connection between the required solenoid constrain Fs, the liquid pressure P, and the orifice region A for an immediate acting solenoid value is

Fs = PA = Pπd²/4

{\displaystyle F_{s}=PA=P\pi d^{2}/4}Where d is the orifice diameter. A typical solenoid force might be 15 N (3.4 lbf). An application might be a low pressure (e.g., 10 psi (69 kPa)) gas with a small orifice diameter (e.g., 3⁄8 in (9.5 mm) for an orifice area of 0.11 in2 (7.1×10−5 m2) and approximate force of 1.1 lbf (4.9 N)).

The solenoid valve with input air line used to activate a bigger rack and pinion actuator which controls the water pipe valve.

At the point when high pressures and extensive orifices are experienced, then high forces are required. To create those forces, an inside steered solenoid valve design might be conceivable. In such a design, the line pressure is utilized to create the high valve forces; a small solenoid controls how the line pressure is utilized. Inside steered valves are utilized as a part of dishwashers and water system frameworks where the fluid is water, the pressure may be 80 pounds for each square inch (550 kPa) and the orifice diameter across may be 3⁄4 in (19 mm).

In some solenoid valves the solenoid acts directly  on the main valve. Others utilize a small, total solenoid valve, known as a pilot, to impel a larger valve. While the second sort is really a solenoid valve consolidated with a pneumatically incited valve, they are sold and bundled as a solitary unit alluded to as a solenoid valve. steered valves require substantially less energy to control, however they are observably slower. piloted solenoids usually needs full power at all times to open and remain open, where an immediate acting solenoid may just need full power for a brief time frame to open it, and just low energy to hold it.

An immediate acting solenoid valve regularly works in 5 to 10 milliseconds. The operation time of a steered valve relies on upon its size; ordinary qualities are 15 to 150 milliseconds. Power consumption and supply requirements of the solenoid vary with application, being primarily determined by fluid pressure and  line diameter. For  example,  a popular 3/4″ 150 psi sprinkler valve, intended for 24 VAC (50 – 60 Hz) residential systems, has a momentary inrush of 7.2 VA, and a holding power requirement of 4.6 VA. Comparatively, an industrial 1/2″ 10000 psi valve, intended for 12, 24, or 120 VAC systems in high pressure fluid and cryogenic applications, has an inrush of 300 VA and a holding power of 22 VA. Neither valve lists a minimum pressure required to remain closed in the un-powered state.

Internally piloted

While there are different design variations, the following is a detailed breakdown of an ordinary solenoid valve design.

A solenoid valve has two primary parts the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn, opens or shuts the valve mechanically. An immediate acting valve has just a small flow circuit, appeared inside segment E of this diagram (this area is mentioned as a pilot valve). In this example, diaphragm piloted valve multiplies  this little pilot flow, by utilizing it to control the move through a considerably bigger hole.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Solenoid_Valve.svg/360px-Solenoid_Valve.svg.png
Solenoid valves may utilize metal seals or elastic seals, and may likewise have electrical interfaces to take into  simple control. A spring might be utilized to hold the valve opened(typically open) or shut (regularly shut) while the valve is not initiated.

FIG 2.6 WORKING OF SOLENOID VALVE

A- Input side
B- Diaphragm
C- Pressure chamber
D- Pressure relief passage

E- Electro Mechanical Solenoid

F- Output side

The diagram to the right demonstrates the outline of a basic valve, controlling the flow of water in this case. At the top figure is the valve in its shut state. The water under pressure enters at A. B is a elastic diaphragm or more it is a weak spring driving it down. The diaphragm has a pinhole through its middle which permits a little measure of water to move through it. This water fills the cavity C on the other side of the diaphragm so that pressure is equivalent on both sides of the diaphragm, however the compressed spring supplies a net downward power. The spring is feeble and is only able to close the inlet since water pressure is levelled on both sides of the diaphragm.

Once the diaphragm shuts the valve, the weight on the outlet side of its bottom is diminished, and the greater pressure  above holds it considerably more immovably shut. Accordingly, the spring is insignificant to holding the valve shut.

The above all works because the small drain passage D was blocked by a pin which is the armature of the solenoid E and which is pushed down by a spring. If current is passed through the solenoid, the pin is withdrawn via magnetic force, and the water in chamber C drains out the passage D faster than the pinhole can refill it. The  pressure in chamber C drops and the approaching pressure lifts the diaphragm, accordingly opening the principle valve. Water now flow directly from A to F.

when the solenoid is again deactivated and the passage D is shut once more, the spring needs very little force to push the diaphragm down again and the main valve closes. Practically speaking there is frequently no separate spring; the elastomeric diaphragm is moulded with the goal that it functions on its own spring, preferring to be in the shut shape.

From this explanation it can be seen that this sort of valve depends on a differential of pressure between input and output as the pressure at the input must always be greater than the pressure at the output for it to work. Should the pressure at the output, for any reason, rise above that of the input then the valve would open regardless of the state of the solenoid and pilot valve.

2.8  THINGSPEAK

According to its developers, “ThingSpeak is an open source Internet of Things (IoT) application and API to store and retrieve data from things using the HTTP protocol over the Internet or via a Local Area Network. ThingSpeak enables the creation of sensor logging applications, location tracking applications, and a social network of things with status updates”.

ThingSpeak was originally launched by ioBridge in 2010 as a service in support of IoT applications.

ThingSpeak has integrated support from the numerical computing software MATLAB from MathWorks. Allowing ThingSpeak users to analyze and visualize uploaded data using Matlab without requiring the purchase of a Matlab license from Mathworks.

ThingSpeak has a close relationship with Mathworks, Inc. In fact, all of the ThingSpeak documentation is incorporated into the Mathworks’ Matlab documentation site and even enabling registered Mathworks user accounts as valid login credentials on the ThingSpeak website.

The terms of service and privacy policy of ThingSpeak.com are between the agreeing user and Mathworks, Inc.

2.9  BLYNK ANDROID APPLICATION

Blynk was designed for the Internet of Things. It can control hardware remotely, it can show sensor information, it can store information, visualize it and do numerous other  things.

There are three major components in the platform:

  •     Blynk App – allows to you create amazing interfaces for your projects using various widgets we provide.
  •     Blynk Server – responsible for all the communications between the smartphone and hardware. You can use our Blynk Cloud or run your private Blynk server locally. It’s open-source, could easily handle thousands of devices and can even be launched on a Raspberry Pi.
  •     Blynk Libraries – for all the popular hardware platforms – enable communication with the server and process all the incoming and outcoming commands.

Now imagine: every time you press a Button in the Blynk app, the message travels to space the Blynk Cloud, where it magically finds its way to your hardware. It works the same in the opposite direction and everything happens in a blynk of an eye.

http://docs.blynk.cc/images/architecture.png

FIG 2.8  BLYNK INTERFACE

 

Features

  •     Similar API & UI for all supported hardware & devices
  •     Connection to the cloud using:
  •     Ethernet
  •     Wi-Fi
  •     Bluetooth and BLE
  •     USB (Serial)
  •     Set of easy-to-use Widgets
  •     Direct pin manipulation with no code writing
  •     Easy to integrate and add new functionality using virtual pins
  •     History data monitoring via History Graph widget
  •     Device-to-Device communication using Bridge Widget
  •     Sending emails, tweets, push notifications, etc.
  •     new features are constantly added!

You can find example sketches covering basic Blynk Features. They are included in the library. All the sketches are designed to be easily combined with each other

What do i do with Blynk?

1. Hardware.

An Arduino, Raspberry Pi, are a similar development kit.

Blynk works over the Internet. This implies that the equipment you pick ought to have the capacity to interface with the web. some of the boards, as Arduino Uno will require an Ethernet or Wi-Fi Shield to communicate, others are internet enabled like the ESP8266, Raspberri Pi with Wi-Fi dongle, Particle Photon or Spark Fun Blynk Board. Yet, regardless of the possibility that you don’t have a shield, you can associate it over USB to your tablet or desktop (it’s more confused for newbie’s, however we got you secured). What’s cool, is that the list of hardware that works with Blynk is huge and will continue developing.

2. A Smartphone.

The Blynk App is a well designed interface builder. It works on both iOS and Android

2.10  THINGVIEW ANDROID APPLICATION

     DESCRIPTION

Thing View empowers you to picture your ThingSpeak channels in a simple way, simply enter the channel ID and you are ready to go.

For open channels the application will respect your windows settings: shading, timescale, graph sort and number of results. The current version supports line and column charts, the spline graphs are shown as line charts.

For private channels, the information will be shown utilizing the default settings, as there is no real way to peruse the private windows settings with the programming interface key only.

ThingSpeak is an open source “internet of Things” stage to store and recover information from things utilizing HTTP over web. With ThingSpeak you can create sensor logging applications, location tracking applications, and a social network  of things with status updates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                    3. METHODOLOGY

3.1 FINDING THE RIGHT HARDWARE

As our project is mainly based on Internet of  things(IoT),we need to find suitable hardware for the required application. And our main objective is to used by lame men and it should be cost efficient. As we surfed through the internet. We found certain  IoT enabled devices.

unnamed.png

                                                 Table  3.1 IOT enabled devices

As a result we found Esp01 and Esp12 in the above table we found it is cost efficient and had all the specifications compared to the high priced devices

Now we are in the stage to chose either Esp01 or Esp12.The digital pins in Esp01 is very limited and restricts us to interface limited number of sensors and we had to use Arduino UNO  wherein on the other hand Esp12 is equipped with microcontroller unit and it can interface many sensors. So we finally choose Esp12E as our base hardware

3.2   FINDING THE APPROPRIATE CLOUD PLATFORM

After finding the hardware our next job is to find the open source data platform for the internet of things(IoT) ,surfing through the internet we found three main open source data for the internet of things(IoT).

  •     The things.io
  •     Beebotte
  •     Thingspeak

Now we are left with these three open source data platform for the internet of things.  Our main priority is to be freeware and user friendly interface so that everyone can easily view it. And our 2nd motto is to display the data in real time through the internet .

These two matched by the thingspeak. Finally we decided to work with thingspeak.

The thingspeak also provide certain features like

  •     real-time data collection and storage and alerts
  •     device communication
  •     open  API

3.3  HANDS ON WITH THE HARDWARE AND PROGRAMMING

First we got the es8266 12e and started programming with the Arduino IDE.  To program with it we need to install separate usb driver. After installing the driver it is connected to the computer and ready to program with the Arduino IDE.
Our first experiment with the esp8266 12e is to Blink an led through the internet . For this we started to look upon the application that control the esp8266 online . Finally we landed up with the Blynk app. It can connect to the internet and we can access our esp8266 12E.

Screenshot_20170425-234557.png

FIG 3.3 a CONFIGURING THE BLYNK APPLICATION-1

in the blynk app we need to create separate workspace and we need to choose the buttons from the stack. To turn on the led we need buttons. so we choose the buttons from the menu and placed in the workspace.

Screenshot_20170425-234614.png

FIG 3.3 b CONFIGURING THE BLYNK APPLICATION-2

 

Screenshot_20170425-234810.png
Tapping the button will allow us to enter the separate pop up menu . In these popup menu we need to choose the one of the data pin which needs to go high when the button is tapped . after configuring the button we need to move to the hardware side and flash the code into the esp8266 12e. after flashing with the code the blynk enabled phone and the esp8266 are connected to the internet. this configurations are done through the code.

              FIG 3.3 c CONFIGURING THE BLYNK APPLICATION-3

 

Now open the blynk app and hit the play button on the right hand top corner . the setup is ready . Now you press the button which is on off . It works approximately and the led connected to the esp turned on or off accordingly.

3.4  UPLOADING THE DATA TO THINGSPEAK

To upload the data from the sensor which is connected to the esp8266 12E  to the thingspeak to view it in real time

for this we planned to upload the temperature  and humidity values to the thingspeak which is viewed anywhere through the internet

Capture1.PNG

FIG 3.4 a CONFIGURING IOT PLATFORM-1

To configure a thingspeak we followed  the steps given below

  •     go to the url www.thingspeak.com
  •     sign up to create a new account with the thingspeak
  •     verify the account
  •     log in to the thingspeak account
  • After logging  into the thingspeak account , now we need to create a new  channel to  display  the temperature and humidity value which needs two  felids.
  •     now click channels on the top of the menu
  •     click new channel
  • In that new channel dialogue box enter the name to the channel and choose two fields and finally click save channel
  •     On the channel settings it will show the channel API key
  •     copy the API key and it to be used in the program to upload the data

 

Capture2.PNG

                     FIG  3.4 b CONFIGURING THE IOT PLATFORM -2

 

Configuring the esp8266 and the connections

  •     Open Arduino IDE and install the required drivers and library files.
  •     Install DHT11 library
  •     And program on the Arduino IDE and flash it on the esp8266
  •     Make sure all the pin connections
  • now connect the esp8266 to the available wifi which we programmed on the Arduino  IDE
  •     After flashing the code the esp8266 is ready to send the data to the thingspeak
  •     Now open the thingspeak
  • In my channel menu we can see the channel displaying the temperature and humidity in separate fields in real time

we  have chosen the DHT11 sensor because it is the only one module to display the both temperature and humidity in single chip And it is relatively cheaper then the  other sensors

Capture5.PNG

                          FIG 3.4 c CONFIGURING THE IOT PLATFORM -3

3.5  CONTROLLING THE DEVICE WITH IOT

Now we planned to control the water flowing through the IOT

As discussed earlier we are using the BLYNK app to control the water flow.

Components used

  •    ESP8266 12E
  •    12V Relay
  •    SL100 Transistor
  •    diode
  •    solenoid valve

We Performed the steps given below

  •    Take the esp8266
  •    Flash the code in to the esp8266 using Arduino ide
  •    Connect to the circuit

Output for the above process

  •    The esp connected to the local wifi
  •    Open the blynk app
  •    If we touch the turn on button ON the blynk app
  • The relay switches and the solenoid valve is charged and it allow the water to pass through or stop or vice versa

3.6  REACT AUTOMATICALLY TO CERTAIN CONDITIONS USING  THINGSPEAK

  •    Open thingspeak
  •    Click the app menu
  •    You can find the REACT option on the dialogue box
  •    Click new react
  •    Enter the name for the new react as hot
  •    Choose which channel to start the analysis and perform the action
  •    Choose condition type as numeric because we analysing the temperature value
  •    Set test frequency as the DATA ON INSERTION
  •    Now choose the condition as “greater than the value 34”
  •    Choose action as the thing tweet
  •    In the then tweet box type “it is so hot please turn on the water”
  •    Choose each time condition is met
  •    And finally save the react

On doing the above process we can get the notification from the tweeter when  temperature is above 30 degree Celsius

3.7  DISPLAYING THE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY GRAPH ON THE PHONE USING ANDRIOD APPLICATION

Suppose we are not near the computer to view these data. To our convenience  we need to see these values in real time whenever we needed the android app

the app name is THINGVIEW

  •    Open the thing view app
  •    Give the channel name
  •    Enter the channel ID
  •    Click save

As a result we can see the values of the temperature and humidity in  real time   through the internet

 

3.8  ASSEMBLING THE WHOLE SETUP

As discussed earlier now we going to integrate all these components as a single thing and make them work seamlessly. In this project we going to prepare two box, one box consist of esp8266 and a sensors, another box consist of controlling the solenoid valve.

Working:  The sensors like temperature and humidity are placed near the crops in which it sense the data and send it to the esp8266. The esp8266 analysis the data and upload to the thingspeak

The box which consist of esp8266 and sensors is powered by a battery. The battery used here is 6V battery and it is capable of esp8266 without any disturbance. When the battery is drained it automatically recharges.

Now the thingspeak receives the data from the esp8266 and show the data values in real time graph in the channel of the thingspeak

We can monitor them whenever we want. Now the thingspeak starts analyze whenever we want. Now the thingspeak starts analyzing the data which is uploaded

The thingspeak is capable of react to the certain conditions. When the temperature is higher than the given specified value, it send a tweet notification via twitter. Make sure that we follow that profile on the twitter and also ensure that turn on the notification for that profile

Suppose when the temperature reaches the specified value in the thingspeak. The thingspeak send a tweet notification once.

After seeing this notification it’s our responsibility to turn on the water supply to make the area cool as possible

The box which consist of controlling the water flow was powered by the 12V DC Source. In our homes if the battery was available, we can connect to that box to make that work without any disturbance.

WhatsApp Image 2017-04-25 at 11.43.06 PM.jpeg

FIG 3.8 WIFI CONTROLLED WATER VALVE

To turn on the water we need to open the BLYNK app and click the on button. When we clicked the ON button the water flows in to the field without any delay. Now the area gets cooled as much as possible. Now the temperature becomes the slowest value in which the crops can survive easily. At this moment the thing speak sends a tweet notification in which to stop the water flow.Whenever we saw that tweet notification it’s our responsibility to turn off the water flow through the BLYNK app

It is the controlled process of water flowing into the top floor garden. It is very suitable for the kitchen garden and small fields.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                   4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

4.1 CONCLUSIONS

As a result it is measured that up to 45% of water is saved. And from this product we can water our desired plant without any disturbance no matter where you are. The only common thing is internet.

4.2 FUTURE SCOPE

The internet should be 24/7 to make this circuit works. If there is a failure in internet we can’t do anything. It is one of the drawback. If UPS is available in the area we going to install these devices, it is no doubt that we can make them work under power loss conditions. This experiment will water the plants in certain region if the area is very high than 3sq.ft. We need to incorporate more sensors as we want. In this we used a single temperature and humidity chip, Which is replicated and in order to be used in the high fields. As we go further this system can be made automated and we can reduce the human intervention in watering the plants. Similarly we can add certain functions to this product in which it can supply the nutrient too. As days progress we can see this in future. This might be called as the smart farming .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. REFERENCES

1. Joaquín Gutiérrez, Juan Francisco Villa-Medina, Alejandra Nieto-Garibay and Miguel Ángel  Porta-Gándara

   “Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network and GPRS module”

   IEEE Transactions On Instrumentation And Measurement, vol. 63, no. 1, January, 2014

2. Stefanos A. Nikolidakis, Dionisis Kandris, Dimitrios D. and Vergadoschristos Douligeris A

  “Energy Efficient Automated Control Of Irrigation In Agriculture By Using Wireless Sensor Networks, Computers And Electronics In Agriculture”

     pp. 0168-1699, 2015, Elsevier B.V

3. Venkata Naga and Rohit Gunturi

   “Micro Controller Based Automatic Plant Irrigation System”

   International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, vol. 2, no. 4, April, 2013

4. D. K. Fisher and H. A. Kebede

   “A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status”

   Comput. Electron. Agricult., vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 168-173, Oct., 2010

5. S. Li, J. Cui and Z. Li

“Wireless Sensor Network for Precise Agriculture Monitoring”

Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, March 28–29, 2011, Shenzhen, China

6. K. Honda, A. Shrestha and A. Witayangkurn

  “Fieldservers and Sensor Service Grid as Real-time Monitoring Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks”

    Sensors, vol. 9, pp. 2363-2370, 2009

7. I. Mampentzidou, E. Karapistoli and A.A. Economide

  “Basic Guidelines for Deploying Wireless Sensor Networks in Agriculture”

    Fourth International Workshop on Mobile Computing and Networking Technologies, pp. 864-  869, 2012

8. G. Yuan, Y. Luo, X. Sun and D. Tang

“Evaluation of a crop water stress index for detecting water stress in winter wheat in the North China Plain”

   Agricult. Water Manag., vol. 64, no. l, pp. 29-40, Jan., 2004

9. Kshitij Shinghal, Arti Noor, Neelam Srivastava and Raghuvir Singh

   “intelligent humidity sensor for wireless sensor network agricultural application”

    International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN), vol. 3, no. 1, February, 2011

10. A. Kumar, K. Kamal, T. Vadamala and S. Mathavan

    “Smart Irrigation Using Low-cost Moisture Sensors And Xbee-based Communication”

     IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference, 2014

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