Properties of Manufactured Lateritic Tiles Using Cement and Pulverized Cow Bones

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06/06/19 Full Dissertations Reference this

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CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Preamble

Pollution which is one of the world’s major problem is introduction or presence of harmful or poisonous substances into the environment. Studies of environmental pollution has greatly increased awareness on countless complex environmental issues that can negatively affect human development. One of the problem is improper disposal of waste materials. In Nigeria, waste is generated at the rate of 0.43 kg/head per day and 60 to 80 per cent of it are organic in nature. Sridhar et al (2014). According to Nigerian observer (2015), Lagos State slaughters about six thousand (6000) cattle per day and due to the time it takes for bones to decay, improper disposal of the bones is causing environmental problem. In order to reduce this environmental menace, several ways to make use of these wastes have been developed in order to turn them to wealth. One of the ways is in the aspect of aesthetics of environment which has been a major trend and it includes interior designing to exterior finishing, various materials are used like expired vehicle tires, plastic bottles, flowers, paints, floor coverings etc.

External floor coverings in Nigeria are majorly made of concrete materials such as interlocking tiles, ceramic tiles, others include carpet grasses, synthetic turfs etc. concrete interlocking tiles are known to be of a good load bearing capacity and have been of a great use in water lodged areas due to its permeability and water absorption capacity, i.e. ability of water to pass through the gaps between the interlocks, Ojuri (2012). The increasing cost of raw materials day by day, created the need to have cheap and affordable products for aesthetics of environment.

The use of bones in creating designs and opaqueness in stoneware has been done for ages. The Chinese uses this in the bone china stoneware, incorporated with other impervious layers of coating materials fused into the stoneware through firing. Also bones are been used as animal feeds due to its high calcium content, they are charred, and mixed with other foods. 

1.2 Concrete Tiles

Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse aggregate bonded together with cement which hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete. When the aggregate is mixed together with the dry cement and water, they form a fluid mass that is easily moulded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix which binds all the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses.

Aggregate consists of large chunks of material in a concrete mix, generally a coarse gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, along with finer materials such as sand. Gopi (2013). The size distribution of the aggregate determines how much binder is required. Aggregate with a very even size distribution has the biggest gaps whereas adding aggregate with smaller particles tends to fill these gaps. The binder must fill the gaps between the aggregate as well as pasting the surfaces of the aggregate together, and is typically the most expensive component. Thus variation in sizes of the aggregate reduces the cost of concrete. An appropriately designed mixture possesses the desired workability for the fresh concrete and the required durability and strength for the hardened concrete. Typically, a mix is about 10 to 15 percent cement, 60 to 75 percent aggregate and 15 to 20 percent water. Entrained air in many concrete mixes may also take up another 5 to 8 percent.

Concrete tile pavers are manufactured using both coarse and fine aggregate mixed with binding agent. The ingredients are put through pressure and vibration courses, which produce a strong, durable concrete that can then be molded into various shapes and designs. During the pressure and vibration courses, color can be added to give a more appealing design feature.

Concrete paving tiles are long-lasting, fire-resistant and easy to clean, yet fragile when exposed to some level of shocks. Concrete paving tiles can serve as a finishing material due to its aesthetic function. They can be used to cover and decorate external ground surfaces, such as swimming pool surroundings, and public areas.

Concrete tiles are heterogeneous; they vary in dimensions, from few centimeters to 40 – 100 cm sided slabs, weight, shape (square, rectangular or other polygonal shapes), color, surface Ohijeagbon (1995). They are generally made of granite dust, cement and sometimes sharp sand is added. Nowadays, they are mainly used in the construction industry. Hence, the performance of the construction industry has a direct impact on the production levels of concrete tiles.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

  1. The need to make economic use of animal bones, and to reduce improper disposal of bones in abattoirs.
  2. The cost of granite and it’s unavailability in urban regions of Nigeria such as Lagos, using animal bones as a substitute in the aggregate will reduce cost of producing the concrete tiles.
  3. The need to develop sustainable methods in concrete paving tile manufacturing, to reduce energy-cost ratio.

1.4 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research is to study the properties (mechanical and physical) of manufactured lateritic tiles using cement and pulverized cow bones and study its properties and qualities.

The objectives are to:

  1. Determine the effect of pulverized cow bones addition on the physical and mechanical properties of the experimental tiles produced.
  2. Determine the appropriate and optimum mixing ratio for the production of experimental tiles.
  3. Determine the properties (physical and mechanical) of tiles manufactured.

1.5 Justification

Although several waste materials such as egg shell, corn cobs, rice husk, slurries have been used as constituents in the production of concrete paving tiles, bone ash has been used for opacifying stonewares, but pulverized animal bones has not been used as a constituent of concrete tiles. Due to the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) in bones and cement, this may help improve the bonding strength of the composites and also serve as a pozollanic material. Furthermore, the presence of Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O3) in bone will give the tile a better surface finishing. Also bones will act as coarse aggregate in the formation of concrete.

Adaptation and the use of locally sourced materials will make the concrete tile relatively cheaper and make them available thereby creating a large and competitive market.

CHAPTER TWO

 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Use of Bones in Tile Manufacturing

Several efforts has been made on improving the aesthetics of stonewares, the Chinese uses bone ash in glazing some of their ceramic products called bone china. Although in Nigeria, the use of bone in ceramics or concrete has not been a common practice. In Nigeria, works on use of bone ash was done by Temitope et al,(2013)  who developed opacified stoneware ceramic products through experimentation with waste bones from abattoirs in Akure, Nigeria. The result obtained confirms that the use of bone ash as a constituent of ceramic glaze material has the propensity to check glaze running by the action of the Phosphorous pent oxide which produces a stiff melt.

2.2 Impact of Clay and Laterite in Tile Manufacturing

Clay, granite, slurries and some other materials has successfully been used in production of experimental tiles and has proved to exhibit great compressive strength with several mixing ratios stipulated. Ohijeagbon (1995) used clay and cement as a binder, where the use of 15% cement binder was found sufficient for ceramic tile production, with a compaction load of 25KN and clay of 30-40% makes an optimum ceramic tile mix. Furthermore, Ohijeabon et al; (2003) developed clay tiles experimentally using locally available clay materials with Portland cement and silica sand, where they obtained an increase in values of modulus of rupture, compressive strength of the tiles. An increase in percentage of cement added to a maximum of 20% of other aggregates results in equal percentage reduction in silica additions and also a slight reduction in percentage of water absorption of tiles.

Raheem et al (2012), produced and tested interlocking tiles of 250 × 130 ×230 mm and carried out mechanical tests on the 7 days cured tiles, where he obtained 2.13Mpa for 10% cement stabilization. Alamutu (2014), worked on structural wall units, used laterite, sand and Portland cement mixture to produce structural wall units, where he concluded that, the presence of laterite in the mixture increased the water absorption capacity and gives it a smooth surface finishing, and as the percentage of the sand is reduced, the mechanical strength of the tiles was increased, furthermore, a mixture of sand, cement, laterite in the ratio 2:1:2 respectively gave the maximum mechanical strength of the structural wall tiles.

The impact of sustainable replacement of granite particles in manufacturing of interlocking tiles was also examined by Ohijeagbon et al (2012), where an optimum mix of 2:1:1 of granite particles to laterite to silica sand was observed to be the optimum mix ratio, the maximum modulus of rupture and compressive strength were found to be lower than the average strength from the field samples.

Kolawole et al; (2014) carried out research on production of corrugated laterite based ceramic roof tile stabilized with cement, the study aimed on the investigation of water absorption and penetration. The laterite-cement and water ratio was 3:1, Water analysis carried out on the cast samples showed that the sample with 20% cement composition had a better resistance to water absorption and penetration.

Gopi (2013) studied the durability of concrete containing laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement observed that there was a greater water absorption capacity with increasing laterite content.

In order to know the minimum and maximum quantity of cement required to produce concrete mixture with optimum compressive strength, Aguwa (2009) found that the compressive strength of laterite-cement mix increased with increase in cement content up to 20% but decreased at cement contents above 20%. Also it was found that the minimum quantity of cement required to achieve adequate strength was 10% of the weight of laterite.

2.3 Impact of Granite in Concrete Tile Manufacturing

Olusegun et al; (2011) worked on Composite analysis of laterite-granite concrete tiles, where the feasibility of locally sourced laterite and granite for the manufacture of concrete tiles was investigated and analyzed. The processing method used, engaged the chemical reaction and bonding of the oxide compounds of the stones, cement and water. The mixing and compaction produced a loading capacity of 28.56 KN/mm2. It was reported that the unfired tile had a better mechanical properties with a compressive strength and modulus of rupture of 45.92MPa and 114.3 MPa respectively, while the fired tile had a compressive strength and modulus of rupture of 36.36 MPa and 93.28 MPa respectively.

Kuma (2012) used laterite soil with quarry dust with 43R grade cement as binder, the ratio of 1:2:2 of cement to laterite and quarry dust respectively, was observed to be the best mixing ratio, the ratio also was found suitable in the use of sand, laterite and cement.

2.4 Agricultural Products and Tile Manufacturing

The fact that some agricultural wastes and their ashes contain some chemical compounds such as pozollans which has a binding characteristics as Portland cement, has made the use of some agricultural wastes such as banana leaves, bamboo leaves and bagasse ash relevant in the building industry. Adegoke et al; (2015) carried out a research on development of an improved concrete roman tile alternative roofing system using waste raw materials (paper & saw dust) as additives. The study was aimed at achieving a reduced weight and cost compared to the convectional standard concrete roman tile, a weight of 4.2kg was achieved compared to 5kg of the standard tile. The basic materials used were Portland cement, sharp sand, smooth sand, paper and saw dust. In which the mixture in the ratio of 1 (cement):3/2 (smooth sand):3/2(sharp sand) was found to be the best mix. Ajao (2016) who used carbonized agro residue which is corn cobs in producing paving tiles, had a flexural strength ranging from 14.95MPa to 10.10MPa and a compressive strength between 14.64MPa to 10.52MPa. Which was quite lower than that obtained from Olusegun et al (2011) where granite was used as a coarse aggregate.

Rice Husk as an agro-waste has also been useful as partial substitute to cement in the production of tiles due to its advantage of having light weight, pozzolanic characteristics and presence of silica in its ash. Akuto (2015), observed that at 10% replacement of cement with rice husk ash, the highest compressive strength, was 1.66N/mm2.

Okonkwo et al (2012), accessed the impact of egg shell ash on strength properties of cement-stabilized lateritic soil, where constant cement contents of 6% and 8% were added to the lateritic soil with variations in eggshell ash content of 0% to 10% at 2% intervals. All proportions of cement and eggshell ash contents were measured in percentages by weight of the dry soil. The increase in eggshell ash content increased the optimum moisture content but reduced the maximum dry density of the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures. Also the increase in eggshell ash content considerably increased the strength properties of the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures up to 35%.

Palm kernel shell as coarse aggregate in concrete manufacturing was researched by Owolabi (2012) where the ratio 1:4 of palm kernel shells to laterite had 15% increase in strength than the conventional concrete mixture of cement and granite, but the use of kernel shell as replacement of stone aggregate resulted in 50% reduction of the strength of concrete.

CHAPTER THREE

 METHODOLOGY

3.1         Production Processes

In order to successfully attain the aim of this research, availability and cost of materials were the major criteria considered before choosing the materials to be used in production of tiles. The production process employs the chemical bonding and reaction of oxides of laterite, animal bones and cement. The use of casting method as mode of production in which the tile is formed by forcing raw materials into mold and compacting it with a punch was also employed.

The production of lateritic paving tiles consists of four main stages:

  1. Preparation of raw materials
  2. Casting
  3. Curing
  4. Testing

3.1.1     Preparation of raw materials

This discusses the methods and approach used in preparation of materials used in the manufacturing of the experimental concrete tiles.

3.1.2 Collection and pulverization of cow bones

The bones which majorly consist of femurs, scapulars and rib bones of cow were procured from Ipata abattoir in Ilorin washed and sundried for 4 weeks, in order to remove the organic matter in the marrows of the bones, after which they were crushed and pulverized using laboratory ball mill. The particles was sieved with sieve of different sizes ranging from 4750-75μm.

3.1.3 Laterite preparation

The laterite was excavated in a borrow pit close to university of Ilorin teaching hospital Ilorin, the physical properties analysis of laterite determined were color, specific gravity, and moisture content, moisture as received, sieve analyses, plastic limit, liquid limit & plasticity index. The laboratory tests carried on laterite soil were done in accordance with (BS 1377 1975).

3.1.4  Physical observation of laterite color

Observing the soil sample physically, the laterite is reddish brown in color which is usually what is observed as the normal color of laterites within Ilorin metropolis. Alamutu (2014).

3.1.5 Specific gravity

This is the ratio between the mass of dry solids and the mass of distilled water displaced by the soil particles. The specific gravity of the soil samples used for this investigation was obtained using a pycnometer (jar) according to ASTM (2002) D 854-00 in the laboratory using the following procedure

  1. Weight (W1) of empty density bottle was measured with a balance,
  2. Density bottle will be filled with the dry soil sample to reach one-third of its volume and then measured as W2·
  3. Distilled water is added to the soil in the density bottle and air removed by shaking it until no air bubble comes out of the bottle.
  4.  Distilled water is added again to reach the brim of the bottle and stopper replaced.
  5.  The weight of the mixture of soil and distilled water in the bottle is measured, W3.
  6. The weight of the bottle and distilled water was also measured, W4·

The specific gravity, G will be obtained as:

Fig. 3.3. Flexural strength testing of paving tiles

Fig. 3.4. Paving tiles at failure under loading

3.8.2 Compressive strength test

The test specimen was loaded into computerized universal testing machine. The load was slowly and carefully applied centrally on the tile specimens until the first sign of crack is observed and the load was then recorded. The compressive strength of each tile specimen was calculated by (Ajao 2016). The machine used for the test is Universal Testing Machine (UTM) M500-100AT, machine number 0500-10080 at test speed 5mm/min.

σ = PCAC

(3.12)

Where;

Pc = maximum load on the specimen at failure,

Ac = calculated cross-sectional area of the specimen; and

σ = compressive strength of the test specimen.

3.8.3 Brinell hardness test

According to Zoltan et al (2015), hardness can be defined as the least value of pressure under a spherical indenter necessary to produce a permanent set at the center of the area of contact. The machine used for this was the universal testing machine M500-100AT, machine number 0500-10080 at test speed of 10mm/min, force 100kgf and the indenter of 10mm diameter. The test samples were loaded into the machine, a hardened, polished steel ball is pressed into the surface of the tested material at a specified loading rate, maximum load and time specified above.

The hardness was tested at three different points on the specimen, and the average was considered. The tests were conducted at the National Centre for Agriculture Mechanization (NCAM). Brinell hardness can be obtained as such. Zoltan et al (2015):

H.B = 2FDπ(D-D2-d2

(3.13)

Where H.B is Brinell hardness value in (N/mm2)

F is loading force

D is diameter of steel ball (mm)

d is diameter of residua input (mm)

CHAPTER FOUR

 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1  Physical Properties of Laterite and Silica Sand

Table 4.1 shows the physical properties of Laterite, silica sand and pulverized bones that were investigated. The physical properties investigated include colour, specific gravity, moisture content, sieve analysis, plastic limit, liquid limit and plasticity index. The physical properties of the clay material and sand used for the production of tiles were observed to have influence on the final appearance and properties of the produced tiles.

Table 4.1. Physical properties of materials for preparation of paving tiles

Physical Properties Lateritic Soil Silica Sand Pulverized Animal Bones
Color Reddish Brown Light Brown Whitish Ash
Specific Gravity 2.50 2.60 1.83
Moisture Content (%) 24.67 32.72 38.1
Maximum mass retained on sieve (%) 23.2 27.2 92.8
Mesh size of occurence 1000µm 500µm 4750µm
Liquid limit (%) 39.3
Plastic limit (%) 25
Plasticity index (%) 14.3

Table 4.2. Sieve Analysis of Laterite used for Experimental Paving Tiles

BS Sieve Size (mm) Mass Retained (g) Mass passing (g) Percentage Retained (%)
4.75 189 811 18.9
4.00 20 791 2
2.36 137 654 13.7
1.00 232 422 23.2
0.50 193 229 19.3
0.30 115 114 11.5
0.25 10 104 1
0.15 55 49 5.5
0.075 34 15 3.4
Pan 15 0 1.5

Table 4.3. Sieve Analysis of Silica Sand used for Experimental Paving Tiles

BS Sieve Size (mm) Mass Retained (g) Mass passing (g) Percentage Retained (%)
4.75 35 965 3.5
4.00 18 947 1.8
2.36 103 844 10.3
1.00 184 660 18.4
0.50 272 388 27.2
0.30 212 176 21.2
0.25 30 146 3
0.15 106 40 10.6
0.075 31 9 3.1
Pan 9 0 0.9

Table 4.4. Sieve Analysis of Pulverized Bones used for experimental paving Tiles

BS Sieve Size (mm) Mass Retained (g) Mass passing (g) Percentage Retained (%)
4.75 925 75 92.5
4.00 3 72 0.3
2.36 29 43 2.9
1.00 38 5 3.8
0.50 4 1 0.4
0.30 1 0 0.1
0.25 0 0 0
0.15 0 0 0
0.075 0 0 0
Pan 0 0 0

Fig. 4.1 Graph showing the grain size distribution

Fig. 4.2 Graph showing the relationship between Water content of Laterite with number of blows using the attenberg test

4.2  Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles

Tables 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7 below shows the results of the effect of both the physical and mechanical properties for various mixture of aggregate materials of Laterite and Pulverized Cow Bones and 20%, 15% and 10% cement content respectively.

Table 4.5: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Laterite and Pulverized Cow Bones with 20% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength

(MPa)

Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones(%) Laterite (%)
30 50 1.72 8.49 8.5 4.56 1.23 303.29
20 60 1.74 8.2 8.72 4.05 0.61 277.30
10 70 1.75 8.62 8.70 4.03 0.36 263.76
5 75 1.77 10.60 10.75 3.44 0.2 254.73

Table 4.6: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Laterite and Pulverized Cow Bones with 15% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Laterite (%)
30 55 1.70 8.99 9.01 3.027 0.844 251.31
20 65 1.73 7.95 8.77 3.857 0.56 195.01
10 75 1.74 9.72 9.98 3.68 0.21 195
5 80 1.76 9.95 10.05 3.09 0.18 185.98

Table 4.7: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Laterite and Pulverized Cow Bones with 10% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Laterite (%)
30 60 1.68 10.60 10.75 1.532 0.569 138.71
20 70 1.72 9.97 10.58 2.61 0.53 144.3
10 80 1.73 10.83 12.28 3.23 0.12 126.25
5 85 1.75 12.81 13.39 3.04 0.09 117.23

Tables 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10 below shows the results of the effect of physical and mechanical properties for various mixture of aggregate materials of Sharp Sand and Pulverized Bones and 20%, 15% and 10% cement content respectively.

Table 4.8: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Sharp Sand and Pulverized Cow Bones with 20% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Sharp Sand (%)
30 50 1.77 3.38 3.59 4.163 0.95 641.987
20 60 1.83 2.88 3.02 3.01 0.91 556.66
10 70 1.95 2.80 2.98 2.257 0.84 549.76
5 75 2.04 2.37 2.45 1.30 0.78 371.33

Table 4.9: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Sharp Sand and Pulverized Cow Bones with 15% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Sharp Sand (%)
30 55 1.85 3.27 3.58 3.928 0.893 545.96
20 65 1.86 2.57 2.62 2.68 0.85 505.42
10 75 1.92 2.28 2.04 1.89 0.73 332.35
5 80 2.08 1.32 1.36 1.09 0.65 262.04

Table 4.10: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Sharp Sand and Pulverized Cow Bones with 10% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Sharp Sand (%)
30 60 1.65 3.16 3.20 1.235 0.124 102.67
20 70 1.72 1.81 1.90 0.918 0.122 98.67
10 80 1.82 1.79 1.82 0.527 0.094 55.67
5 85 1.92 1.37 1.45 0.23 0.091 55.94

Tables 4.11, 4.12 and 4.13 below shows the results of the physical and mechanical properties for various mixture of aggregate materials of Laterite, Sharp Sand and Pulverized Bones and 20%, 15% and 10% cement content respectively.

Table 4.11: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Laterite, Sharp Sand and Pulverized Cow Bones with 20% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Sharp Sand (%) Laterite (%)
30 10 40 2.445 3.01 3.53 5.049 1.833 926.85
20 35 25 2.535 2.75 2.98 5.049 1.788 833.31
10 50 20 2.615 2.6 2.88 3.41 1.75 764.56
5 55 20 2.653 2.5 2.78 2.42 1.70 657.37

Table 4.12: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Laterite, Sharp Sand and Pulverized Cow Bones with 15% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Sharp Sand (%) Laterite (%)
30 20 35 2.423 3.93 4.20 5.048 1.209 983.95
20 30 35 2.498 3.40 4.38 5.044 1.089 970.41
10 40 35 2.573 3.88 4.42 3.038 0.9 839.15
5 50 30 2.615 3.34 3.82 2.40 0.86 824.6

Table 4.13: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles of Laterite, Sharp Sand and Pulverized Cow Bones with 10% Cement content.

Sample Composition Bulk density (g/cm3) Water absorption (%) Drying Shrinkage (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Brinell Hardness (MPa)
Pulverize Cow Bones (%) Sharp Sand (%) Laterite (%)
30 30 30 2.40 3.93 4.19 3.084 0.262 519.75
20 25 45 2.46 5.52 5.95 3.047 0.122 464.10
10 30 50 2.53 5.85 6.21 3.36 0.049 391.73
5 45 40 2.578 4.17 4.45 2.38 0.081 291.82

4.3 Physical Properties of Experimental Tiles

4.3.1 Color

The experimental tiles were grouped in to three categories based on the sample material composition, Tiles with laterite, cement and pulverized cow bones which is of category A, were observed to be brick red in color irrespective of the percentage of cement added. Tiles of category B which is of sharp sand, cement and pulverized bones were observed to be grey in color irrespective of the amount of cement used. These colors are known to be the original color of the base material which is of higher percentage than other constituents of the tiles. Category C is of a mixture of laterite, sharp sand, cement and PCB and was observed to be greyish in color as the sharp sand content is increasing, but tiles in this category with higher laterite content of 40% and above were observed to have a brown color.

4.3.2 Bulk density

Fig. 4.3. Bulk Density of Laterite and Pulverized Cow Bones sample composition


Fig. 4.4 Bulk Density of Sharp Sand and Pulverized cow Bones.

Fig. 4.5 Bulk Density of Laterite, Sharp Sand and Pulverized Cow Bones

From Figure 4.3, the bulk density was observed to increase as the volume of laterite in the composition of each sample tile increased, sample compositions with 20% cement were also observed to have a higher bulk density as a result of higher bonding strength and hardenability developed among the particles of the sample tile as observed by (Ajao 2016). Similarly, Fig. 4.4 shows an increase in bulk density as sharp sand increases in the composition of materials of tiles, with tiles of 20% and 15% cement content having close value of bulk density due to the light weight of PCB. In Fig. 4.5 where the use of laterite, sharp sand, PCB and cement were used, the tiles with 20% cement composition had the highest bulk density due to high level of sharp sand in each composition, and the strong bonding forces between the particles of the tiles.

4.3.3 Water absorption

Fig. 4.6 Water Absorption percentage of laterite and pulverized cow bone composition

Fig. 4.7 Water Absorption percentage of Sharp Sand and pulverized cow bone composition

Fig. 4.8 Water absorption capacity of laterite, sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

From Fig.4.6 and Fig. 4.8 experimental tiles with 10% cement composition were observed to have more capacity to absorb water due to high amount of laterite in the composition, causing high porosity, reduced hardenability of the surfaces of the tiles. Whereas in Fig. 4.8, the composition of tiles having 30% PCB has the 20% cement content composition of it to absorb more water, due to the lower amount of laterite in it, compared to other compositions. From Fig. 4.7. 20% cement composition of tiles, were observed to have more water absorption percentage, due to a higher amount of sharp sand in the composition and as a result of lower affinity of sharp sand for water compared to laterite.

4.3.4 Drying shrinkage

Fig. 4.9. Drying shrinkage percentage of laterite, and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.10. Drying shrinkage percentage of sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.11. Drying shrinkage percentage of laterite, sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

The drying shrinkage, which was observed after the specimen were oven dried to a constant mass, was observed to follow same trend pattern as that of the water absorption tests, which was also observed in (Ajao 2016), however the percentage of shrinkage is slightly higher than that of the water absorbed, which is in agreement with Ohijeagbon (2012).

4.4 Mechanical Properties of Experimental Tiles

4.4.1 Brinell hardness

Fig. 4.12 Brinell hardness of laterite and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.13 Brinell hardness of sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.14 Brinell hardness of laterite, sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

From Fig. 4.12 to 4.13, experimental tiles with 20% cement composition was observed to have a higher hardness, which is as a result of higher bonding strength of the cement, with other materials. For same percentage composition of category A and category B samples, category A experimental tiles were observed to have a better hardness due to the plasticity of laterite  From Fig 4.14 the 15% cement content tiles were observed to have higher hardness due to better distribution of laterite and sharp sand in the mixture.

4.4.2 Flexural strength


Fig. 4.15 Flexural strength of laterite and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.16 Flexural strength of sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.17 Flexural strength of laterite, sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

From Fig. 4.15, laterite having higher plasticity index than other materials has displayed the characteristics in which, there is decrease in flexural strength as the percentage of laterite increases, but with the values of every cement composition being close, compared to category A and B.  In Fig. 4.16 and 4.17, the 10% cement content of tiles were observed to have a lower value of flexural strength compared to the 10% of that of Fig. 4.15 of the same proportion. This is due to the texture of materials which affects the bonding of materials and the lack of good bonding strength among the particles of the tiles.

4.4.3 Compressive strength

Fig. 4.18 Compressive strength of laterite, and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.19 Compressive strength of sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.20 Compressive strength of laterite, sharp sand and pulverized cow bones composition of experimental tiles.

Fig. 4.18 shows a distinctive outcome of compressive strength of laterite combined with PCB under different cement composition of 10%, 15% and 20%. 10% cement composition of the tiles were observed to decrease in compressive strength with a decrease of PCB percentage and with higher laterite content, which shows that there was little bonding of the materials. Also there was decrease in compressive strength with an increase in laterite composition for the 15% and 20% cement addition.

Fig. 4.19 shows a decrease in the compressive strength with increase in sharp sand content. This occurred due to the lack of proper bonding caused by voids in between the particles of the sand. While Fig. 4.20 shows a close compressive strength between tiles of 15% and 20% cement addition, which is as a result in little differences among the percentage compositions of laterite, sharp sand used in the casting of the experimental tiles.

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

From the results obtained in various experimental designs, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. The capacity of lateritic based tiles to absorb water is same as its ability to loose water i.e. the increase in laterite content causes an increase in water absorption capacity and drying shrinkage. This was also observed in Ohijeagbon et al (2012).
  2. The bulk density of experimental tiles was greatly affected by the presence of sharp sand, in which the higher the percentage content, bulk density increases.
  3. The Brinell hardness of lateritic tiles were observed to be higher than that obtained from the use of sharp sand as a base material which is as a result of the grain shapes and texture of sharp sand.
  4. The maximum compressive and flexural strength were found to be 5.05MPa and 1.83MPa respectively. Resulting in an optimum ratio of 4:1:3 of laterite to pulverized cow bones to sharp sand with a 20% cement content respectively, compared to owolabi (2012) who used palm kernel shells, which is also an agricultural waste and obtained a compressive strength of 4.7MPa and an optimum mixing ratio of 1:4 of kernel shells to laterite respectively and compressive strength of plain laterite of 4MPa after 28 days of curing.
  5. When the compressive and flexural strength of the experimental tiles were compared with the results of Ohijeagbon et al (2012), which had the maximum value of 7.27Mpa and 1.3MPa for compressive strength and modulus of rupture respectively with water to cement ratio of 1.33 and 20% cement content, and the average samples from field reported by Adewoye (2011) of 12.86MPa, which could be used on light traffic driveways,  The experimental tiles which is of lower flexural and compressive strength can be used for access road paving, and non-driveways applications.
  6. The use of the pulverized cow bone reinforced tiles could be used in buildings due to its conformity with the Nigerian industrial standard NIS:87:2004 which recommends a compressive strength of 2.5MPa and 1.8MPa for load bearing and non-load bearing blocks respectively.
  7. The impact of the use of pulverized cow bones was observed as there was better strength of experimental tiles in terms of compressibility, flexural and brinell hardness as the PCB percentage content was increased.

5.2 Recommendations

The aim of achieving the use of pulverized cow bones in manufacturing of paving tiles has produced tiles of considerable strength, and found feasible, however, further studies could be carried out on the:

  1. Effect of curing age on the mechanical properties of the tiles.
  2. Abrasive properties of the experimental tiles
  3. Also the chemical reactions involved in the mixture at the nano-particle level.

REFERENCES

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  10.  ASTM D4643-17, Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock by Microwave Oven Heating, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org
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Gopi V, (2013), Durability of concrete containing laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement, Research project Report, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia, Pp 18.

  1. Kolawole F. O., Adeniji S. A., Idowu A. T., Owoseni T. A., Ngasoh O. F.  and Soboyejo W.O.  (2014), production of corrugated laterite based ceramic roof tile stabilized with cement, International Journal of Engineering and Technology Volume 4 No. 3
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