Factors that Influence Job Satisfaction: Talent Management and Performance

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CHAPTER ONE – 2900

  1. Introduction and Background

1.1 Introduction : Chartwells, a subsidiary company of Compass Group plc

Starting from the case study of Compass Group plc and more specifically Chartwells Independent as an operating company of Compass Group plc, it is important to highlight early on that the researcher will refer to Compass Group or Chartwells Independent during this project and, for all intents and purposes, the two companies are but one and the same as Chartwells Independent operates as subsidiary company of Compass Group plc and the literature review, it has become clear that job satisfaction and talent management are very important to both the company and the employees. However, the researcher believes that little or no research has yet been made on the correlation of job satisfaction and talent in hospitality in general, more specifically within contract catering industry leaders such as Compass Group plc. There is nevertheless abundant research on job satisfaction and performance in general.

In modern times organisations aim to achieve job satisfaction, talent identification coupled with work performance of their employees, this is now becoming crucial and pivotal for leadership teams to achieve, allowing them to reach objectives, goals and the company’ strategic plans. More recently, given the changes in the management approach team culture and structure, coupled with the growing need to reduce the growing gap in skill within the catering industry, the focus has shifted, concentrating significant energies on identifying how to improve job satisfaction and identify talent within the teams, by doing so the leadership team aims to improve employee performance and loyalty.

The researcher has used as case study Chartwells Independent as the leading provider of catering services to independent education within the UK. Chartwells Independent has approximately 127 contracts in the UK, nevertheless Compass Group plc as the umbrella company operates globally in 55 countries (Compass Group, 2017) and within the education sector worldwide operates under different operating companies such as Flick in the US, Chartwells in Australia and Scolarest in the rest of Europe, Africa and Asia.

The role of the researcher within the company is that of Regional Manager and has been employed at the Company for the past 8 years with an average of 3 years per job role in different divisions. It is therefore feasible that the researcher has a considerable knowledge of the company, it could be argued, therefore, that the researcher has ample knowledge of job satisfaction and talent management within Chartwells Independent. The researcher will, therefore, be able to cover challenges and issues derived by the research of the literature and the organisation.

It could also be argued that the research will be important to the organisation and recommendations will be presented to the leadership team to analyse, learn from and use to prepare the next company’ strategic plan and Human Resources Plan.

“Job satisfaction is quite highly correlated with overall happiness of the employees within an organization, and can be looked at as one of its main components for the work performance of those employees” (Argyle, 1989).

1.2 Chartwells Independent Research Background

The researcher analysed and investigated the job satisfaction effects on the performance of employees within a corporation, the organisation chosen is Chartwells Independent as operating company of Compass Group plc. The researcher based the case study on the Soft Service Providing group which operates in 55 countries throughout the world, the head office is located in Chertsey, UK. Compass Group through its operating companies offers a wide range of services both soft and hard Facilities Management (FM), the range of offers are developed to cater for most corporate needs (Compass Group, 2017).

There are several different ways to identify and define job satisfaction. A large number of studies have been made of the subject of job satisfaction and job related attitudes within organizational behaviour and psychology (Spector, 1997).

An excellent example of a study of the relationship between performance and job satisfaction is given by Herzberg et al. (1959) who based a theory on their study’s results. Their theory attempts to define that management defines jobs in a way to develop individual recognition, achievement and progression. Furnham (2005) added that with the provision of job satisfaction, employees acquire autonomy and responsibility to complete their work and receive feedback on their work. Similarly authors, scholars and researchers describe often how job satisfaction greatly impacts on the worker’s performance in the company.

Within Chartwells Independent customer service and its delivery is a prime driver for the company. Specifically, employee performance and job satisfaction is concern of paramount importance for the company (Compass Group, 2017). Therefore, the related research investigating and analysing how Job satisfaction is affected on the performance of work in the organisation and how this impacts the strategic aim from the company’s perspective. Whilst reviewing the relevant literature, it transpired to the researcher that there are gaps relating to performance/job satisfaction of workers in an organisation, and more specifically within the hospitality and catering industry. To narrow the gaps in the current literature this research will appropriately address these from the perspective of academia.

It is important to outline the fact that the researcher’s objective and project is to ensure that the outcome for the research is appropriate not only from the academic and organizational perspective so it attempts to analyse the effects of work performance and job satisfaction within an organisation like Chartwells Independent.

1.3 Research issue/problem statement

The researcher has based the project by investigating and analysing talent management and job satisfaction of the workforce within an organisation such as Chartwells Independent. The project is based on the current condition and situation of the organisation, it is important to underline the fact that Compass Group has a clear commitment to attract talent, recognize excellent work thus brightening the days of the company’s clients and customers all over the world (Compass Group, 2017).

The research supported the identification and the analysis of the workforce’s job satisfaction, the relationship with work performance and the identification of talent within the organisation and how these elements formed the basis of the corporation’s strategic objective and mission statement

‘Everyone in Compass is committed to consistently delivering superior service in the most efficient way, for the shared benefit of our customers, shareholders and employees’ (Compass 2017, Mission Statement).

So, there is need for the identification and analysis of the employee’s job satisfaction and how does this affect their performance in the workplace within Compass and how this interrelates with the company’s strategic objective and that of Chrtwells Independent.

 

1.4 Research aims and objectives

The first and primary aim for the research is the analytical investigation of the factors that influence job satisfaction and how these are closely related to talent management and ultimately to employee’s performance. Therefore, the first and most important aim is –

  • Identify the elements that influence job satisfaction and equally trigger employee dissatisfaction and subsequent leakage
  • To evaluate the mechanism that trigger talent management and the subsequent steps to develop the employee to attain a career path to the employee’s aspiration in line with the organisation’s strategic aim
  • To analyse how job satisfaction can influence performance and employee retention.

1.5 Scope of the research project

The analytical investigation of the research project is to understand what effects job satisfaction have on employee’s workplace performance and talent management in Compass Group. Analysing the data collated via semi structured interviews and a questionnaire survey amongst the staff. The researcher has drawn solid and valid recommendations and conclusion. Based the researcher’s findings there have been a number of relevant conceptual issues that may spark further investigation, analysis and attention and could lead to more in-depth research initiatives in the near future. Nevertheless, it could be argued that the research has stimulated the creation of a number of research scopes on job satisfaction, talent management and ultimately but not uniquely performance in the workplace within the organisation.

1.6 The objectives of the research will be:

  • To identify and critically analyse factors of existing theories together with empirical evidence which can influence job satisfaction of the workforce in the organisation with Chartwells Independent being the subject of this research.
  • To identify the scenarios that trigger job satisfaction of the workforce which coupled with talent recognition create the right elements to enhance employee performance within the Chartwells Independent.
  • To measure the relationship between job satisfaction and work rewards and benefits, how these interact with talent and employee performance by collating information and data within Chartwells Independent.
  • To validate and establish recommendations and conclusions identifying the impact, whether negative or positive in job satisfaction and the relation to workplace employee performance within Chartwells Independent.

1.7 Research questions

The principal of the research query is to investigate and subsequently analyse the effect that job satisfaction in primis and employees’ performance in the workplace in secundis affect talent management. Thus, taken into account the main topical question of the research question, further questions can be formulated, these are in close relation to the aims and objectives of the main research –

a. How is the Human Resource Management (HRM) strategic plan supporting the job satisfaction element of the employees and the support of the talent management strategy?

b. What factors influence the job satisfaction of the workforce within Compass Group?

c. Why is loyalty reduced and is there a relationship between job loyalty, talent management and employee performance?

d. How can the organisation motivate the workforce to reduce leakage, improve job satisfaction and support HRM strategy with a successful talent management policy?

1.8 Limitation of the research project

Inevitably every single project has its limitations and this research has his peculiarities which inevitably can affect the research activities and final report. The researcher found the following limitations:

  1. Limited time: this limitation has somewhat dampened the possible result of the overarching ability to deliver a very precise and accurate outcome. Lacking in available time has added a significant challenge and affected on the gathering and collection of information and data which could have resulted in a very different viewpoint.
  1. Financial availability: although Chartwells Independent has made available to the researcher a significant amount of resources the financial limitations have in some areas limited the overall research project completion. As an example, the lack of available funds, the type of and number of questionnaire and the interviews for the case study were somewhat reduced and not explored to its fullest potential, as the company is a global player in its field it would have been great if the researcher was able to travel more. The company has however reduced the limitations by supporting with making the Human Resources appointment at a convenient time and let the researcher have access to all its UK employees.
  1. Limited experience in interview techniques and survey: the researcher main activity has for years been to manage people and resources with aim to deliver a service to the customers, this has inhibited the opportunity to enhance the skill to manage surveys and interviews. The researcher has however carried out analytical document review which supported the information and data which derived from the interviews and surveys carried out.
  1. Sample size and amounts of information and data: Although the researcher has had agreement to from the company to access all required data it seems as though each sector within the organisation is somewhat regrettably unwilling to fully co-operate.

1.9 Summary

This chapter has outlined a number of concepts and ideas like research background, questions, aims and objectives, theoretical structure, reasons that guided the selection of research topic, the overall limitation of the research project etc. the researcher has tried to cover, the most convenient ways to discuss and argue the highlights of the research subject and areas relating to job satisfaction and talent management and how it affects the employee’s performance within Chartwells Independent. In this chapter the researcher has introduced the topic and how this has produced questions to answer, the research objectives and hypothesis generated in the specific, the research will attempt to identify the gap and make the necessary recommendations.

1.10 Chapter synopsis

Chapter two: In chapter two the researcher will outline the literature review to support the hypothesis and the research objectives within the project and in support of the questions raised. The literature review will be drawn from a variety of sources centred on the previous studies on job satisfaction, talent management and employee performance.

Chapter three: In chapter three the researcher will outline the methodology followed to achieve the research, its conclusions and recommendation. The methodology will be fundamental to the success of the project and the support of Compass Group will be paramount for its efficiency.

Chapter four: in chapter four the researcher with present the data collated. The data will then be analysed to support the original claim and draw the conclusions and recommendations.

Chapter five: in chapter five the researcher will discuss the results of the research project, this will be done in a structured manner so that it will support the final conclusion and formulate the relevant recommendations.

Chapter six: in chapter six the researcher will draw its conclusions and formulate recommendations, these will then be presented to the leadership team and human resources department of Chartwells Independent with the view to use the research as the base of policy changes within the organisation.

Chapter seven: This final chapter the researcher will outline the personal development plan that is intending to pursue to achieve its personal professional goal. This will be discussed with the human resource team and the leadership team with the view to implement the personal development plan within an agreed timeline.

CHAPTER TWO – 4000 24 july 3pm

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

In this section the researcher will review the current literature on the subject of job satisfaction and motivation and its relation to catering employees explored through Herzberg’s theory on engagement.

  • In the first theme of this chapter the researcher will describe the background of the research based on Chartwells Independent as a subsidiary company of Compass Group Plc.
  • In the second theme of this chapter the researcher will define the reason as to why an organisation has the need to develop a strong and sustainable Human Resource Strategic Plan
  • In the third theme the researcher will discuss the definition of motivation and its importance, the factors that influence motivation such as intrinsic, extrinsic and motivational factors for catering and hospitality employees.
  • The fourth theme will identify and define employee turnover and more specifically amongst employees in the catering industry and within Chartwells Independent as a subsidiary company of Compass Group plc.
  • In the fifth and final theme the researcher will review the relationship that links motivation to employee turnover and identify the elements that constitute the levers that support staff retention and reduce leakage to competitors.

2.1.1. Research Background

A. Overview of the case studied organization (Compass Group plc)

Compass Group plc is a global organisation which provides soft services to a variety of organisations. The operational head office is cited in Chertsey UK, whilst non-operational offices are cited in Birmingham UK. The services range from the provision of vending services to full catering provision, from cleaning services to full Facilities Management, from school catering to fine dining restaurants. The organisation’s vision and mission is:

Our vision

To be a world-class provider of contract foodservice and support services, renowned for our great people, our great service, and our great results.

Our mission

Everyone in Compass is committed to consistently delivering superior service in the most efficient way, for the shared benefit of our customers, shareholders and employees.’ (Compass group, 2017)

The company’s corporate and social responsibility is underpinned by the mission statement which places the relationship with the employees in the foreground of the company’s ethos:

  • ‘We are committed to basing relations with our employees on respect for the dignity of the individual and fair treatment for all.
  • We aim to recruit and promote employees on the basis of their suitability for the job, without discrimination.
  • We aim to foster effective communication to enable all our employees to perform their work effectively. This will include encouraging and helping employees to develop relevant skills to progress their careers.
  • We place the highest priority on the health and safety of our employees and the safety of the environment in which they work.
  • We do not tolerate any form of discrimination or sexual, physical, mental or other harassment of any kind toward our employees, whether from our own staff or others.
  • We operate fair and just remuneration policies.
  • We require any employee with a potential conflict of interest to disclose it to their line manager.
  • We operate in an environment of trust and as such we do not tolerate any fraudulent or dishonest behaviour by our employees either within the Group or in dealing with other stakeholders.’ (Compass Group, Relations with our Employees, 2017).

The researcher wishes to outline that the analysis and the investigation of the effects relating to Talent Management and Job Satisfaction is relevant and pertinent from academic and organisational perspective. And is specific to the attitude and approach of the leadership team towards the teams within Chartwells Independent.

B. Theoretical framework associated with the research

The theoretical framework formulated and associated within the research is vital and aligned to the background for the research. This project is an analysis and investigation of the effects of the satisfaction at work of the employees and their job within Compass Group. Therefore, it ought to be outlined that the link of any previous work relating to talent management and job satisfaction in an organisation such as Compass Group plc. The framework here below should be utilized to analyse and investigate effects of employee’s job satisfaction and talent.

Table 1: Theoretical framework for the purpose of this project “Does Motivation influence Employee Turnover? (a case study based on Compass Group plc)”

Project areas source Research relevance Does Motivation influence Employee Turnover? (a case study based on Compass Group plc)
Nature of organisation, employee equality and fairness organisational commitment. Compass Group, (2017). The research will compare and argue theories and relevant practices of the literatures available and produce recommendations and suggestions of the case study.
Nature of corporate responsibilities, in specific relating to employee performance and job satisfaction within the corporation. Compass Group, (2017). The researcher will identify the corporate responsibilities will evaluate and analyse the relationship to talent and job satisfaction within the corporation and produce valid recommendations and conclusions suitable to the corporation and the academia.
Definition and factors of work performance and job satisfaction the impact on the employee and the relationship to the corporation. Siriota et al. (2005); O’Malley (2000); Herzberg et al. (2006). The literature will support the definitions of work performance and job satisfaction and identifies the influencing factors. The literature will also support the identification and meaning of job satisfaction in relation to the employee’s ability to be identified as talent in an organisation  such as Compass Group.
Measuring the impact of work performance and job satisfaction of the employees of a corporation. Steers et al. (1991); Armstrong (2012);  Armstrong (2015). The literature will identify elements that affect work performance and job satisfaction and its measuring tools, how the corporation in the case study is measuring work performance and job satisfaction of the employee population.

Source: The analysis is based on the chapters 1: Introduction and Background and 2: Critical Literature review.

 

C. Selection of research topic

It is of paramount importance the selection of the topic to research, this will play a principal role in the implementation of the knowledge to understand the research area. It will determine the scope of the research and its limitations. The researcher has recently graduated with Chartered Management Institute L7 (CMI), covering the whole business management concept. The final part of the course focused on Human Resource and it felt pertinent for this research topic on the effects of work performance and the relationship to job satisfaction within a corporation such as Compass Group plc seemed appropriate and, in conversation to the company, very relevant.

Table 2: Reasons for the selection of research topic “Does Motivation influence Employee Turnover? (a case study based on Compass Group plc)”

Rationale Explanation of the rationale for selection
Organisational perspective The researcher has worked for the corporation in the case study, therefore it can be assumed that he is able to identify and evaluate the explore conditions and situations relevant to job satisfaction and talent management from the perspective of employees and leadership team.

The author of this project will produce conclusions and valid recommendations for Compass Group to review and enhance the current employee benefit offer with the aim to improve the organisation’s strategic aim.

Academic perspective Some of the identified gaps within the current literature will be reduced by this research by producing valid conclusions and recommendations. Additionally, some issues or concepts could be the base of further researches.
Individual perspective The researcher will be looking to apply the learning form the research coupled by the recent study in CMI to implement the acquired knowledge with a special focus on human resource management (HRM) to affect the practical application within the corporate strategic plan. Additionally, the project and research will support the researcher’s career by complementing his skill and improving his understanding of HRM.

Source: Analysis purely based on the live experience of the researcher

2.2. Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM)

Prior to the late 1980s Human Resources was referred to as Personnel, the more modern terminology was developed in the mid 1980s, however this saw a further development in the late 1980s early 90s to incorporate the term strategy, this was to delineate a more approachable, interactive, value driven and proactive Human Resource Management (HRM). The predominant force driving the new HRM was its ability to be strategic rather than inflexible, responsive rather than managerial considering the “Human Resource” as assets. Importantly it ought to be underlined that SHRM main role is to stimulate through its competencies performance in the organisation Lin, H.-C., Shih, C.-T., (2008).

More recently, the relevance of human resource management (HRM) and its intrinsic importance within organisations has increased in value within the strategic approach of the corporation proactively creating strategic activities to support employee engagement and ultimately employee performance by consequence supporting the organisation’s profitability and performance Tooksoon (2011). During the early 1990s, researchers argued that philosophies, practices and procedures were becoming more strategic in organisations Becker et al, (2006).

Shuler and Jackson (1987) applied Porter’s “generic strategies” model to SHRM, they applied and demonstrated that the model can be applied to SHRM to fit the reduction of cost, innovation and quality, they argued that the strategy supports the organisation competitive strategy if the organisation’s performance improves.

Beardwell et al. (2004) argued that HRM is a combination of philosophy, practices and procedures that support human resources in organisations. Human resources have become more and more relevant in organisations as it influences employee commitment and job satisfaction levels Lee et al. (1998). Lazear (1986) and Gruber et al. (1994) research demonstrated that training, advancement and pay are not related to employee turnover as these are motivation factors that create engagement and stimulate performance.

It could be argued that the importance of the role of SHRM now covers a significant role in organisations. The importance of SHRM in organisations has now been recognised also as the significant driving force behind new methodologies in the management of the organisation drawing a significant amount of studies in the matter Waiganjo et al., (2012). Nevertheless the very essence of the strategic approach of SHRM does not mean that the focus is centred unto financial performance but the ethos should be to develop a competitive advantage that is unique to the organisation and sustainable in time  However, being strategic does not mean to focus only on the systems and or financial performance rather it is about sustainable competitive advantage that leads to financial as well as non-financial performance Becker, B. E., Huselid, M. A., (2006).

Scholars and researchers sustain that Human Resource (HR) managers are involved in the making of strategies and decisions together with the leadership teams, this then elects the HR managers to transition into strategic partner. The partnership is then able to align the HR strategies into the corporate strategies Andersen, K. K., Cooper, B. K. Zhu, C. J., (2007).

2.3. Motivation

2.3.1. Definition of motivation

Conceptually motivation has been defined by variety of authors in several ways.

Robbins and Judge (2007, p.186) argued that the processes affecting an individual’s attainment of a goal are direction, persistence and intensity {Organizational Behaviour}. More so Cole (2002), argued the importance of motivation as a driver that enhances efforts with employees. Stoke (1999) discussed and mentioned how the level of promise contributes to motivation at psychological level. The researcher by consequence can conclude that the definition of motivation is the process that satisfies an employee’s needs and expectations in the workplace. It would therefore make absolute business sense for managers to understand and analyse these needs to motivate the teams.

2.3.2. Motivation and its importance

In their argument, Simons and Enz (1995), identified motivation as an important element that underpins job satisfaction among workers. To improve employee performance and reduce talent leakage it is paramount for organisations to support employee motivation within their organisations so that performance improves amongst employees are reduces employee turnover (Carter, 1997; Honore, 2009). The importance of motivation for both the employee and the organisation has been identified from significant amounts of data (Ganta, 2014; Latham & Pinder, 2005). As an example, motivation team members, will lead to employees to be more positive in their place of work and, as the employees become more empowered the whole team work contribution improves, supporting the organisation’ success and profitability.

Additionally, improved personal motivation supports the achievement of personal objectives and supports the all-important element of job satisfaction and talent selection. To this effect (Siu, Tsang, & Wong, 1997) argument is based on that employees ought to be offered by their employers conditions that will support their needs and morale.

2.3.3. Factors affecting motivation

Motivation factors are based on the theory of expectancy and there are two motivational factors that come into play as rewards, these can be defined as intrinsic and extrinsic. As argued by Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman (1959), internal performance task motivators are defined as intrinsic while extrinsic are those factors that are affected by bonuses, pay, etcetera. It could be argued that the human needs are also influenced by ego, social, cognitive, safety, physiological, self-actualisation, and biological (Honore, 2009; Maslow, 1943).

Arguably extrinsic and intrinsic factors could be as listed here below (Richard & Deci, 2000):

Intrinsic factors

• being appreciated at work;

• feeling of involvement;

• feeling supported with personal issues;

• having an interesting job;

• clear opportunities progression and advancement;

• display loyalty to employees.

Extrinsic factors

• feeling that the working conditions are good;

• disciple with empathy;

• job security;

• pay grade expectations met.

2.3.4. Motivational factors for employees

An excellent study of the needs of employees was conducted by Kovach (1987). In 1946 Kovach observed employees and managers and looked at what sparked the motivation in their workplace. Kovach created a questionnaire for employees to rank from 1 to 10 of the factors that affected their motivation. Whilst the managers’ role was to select the 10 factors to survey the employees. The outcome of the research conducted by Kovach (1987) resulted in finding that the managers were unaware of the factors that motivated the employees.

The top three factors that the employees rated were:

  1. Interesting work,
  2. appreciation of a job well done,
  3. feeling of being in on things.

An additional interesting finding of that study was that wages were not on the top 3 but only the fifth motivator, it could be therefore argued that personal wealth and monetary gain is not often the main motivator. Other researchers based their studies on Kovach’s 10 factors (Charles & Marshall, 1992; Kukanja, 2013; Breiter, Tesone, Van Leeuwen, & Rue, 2002; Carter, 1997; Dipietro, Kline, & Nierop, 2014; Simons & Enz, 1995; Wiley, 1997).

Wiley (1997) conducted a study to understand employees’ motivational factors in the work place. The study was based on 460 employees from several industries types such as insurance, retail, services, utilities, health care, manufacturing and government agencies. Wiley (1997) too used a questionnaire with 10 motivational factors to understand which element triggers motivation in employees in their work. Interestingly the findings resulted in a ranking quite different to Kovach research with the top 5 motivational factors ranked by the employees as:

  1. good wages,
  2. full appreciation for work well done,
  3. job security,
  4. promotion and growth in the organization,
  5. interesting work.

It can be argued now that the top-ranking factor was good wages. Nevertheless, empathic support with personal issues was ranked less important as a motivational factor (Wiley, 1997).

Wiley (1997) looked at previous researches comparing them to his own, these conducted in 1946, 1980 and 1986 contained the same 10 motivation factors. While in 1946, the factor by the manufacturing employees had been the appreciation for well done work (Kovach, 1987), in 1980 and 1986 the results for the manufacturing employees placed the interesting work as their number one factor (Dawson & Dawson, 1991; Kovach, 1987).

Carter (1997) carried out a research in Jamaica which gave him confidence that the motivation for employees in Jamaica was triggered by the same factors that motivated employees in other parts of the western world. The motivation factors which were included were:

  1. being recognized,
  2. being in on things,
  3. personal growth.

This particular research had been changed from the original Kovach’s motivational factors. Nevertheless, the leadership team ranked wages, job security, and work conditions as the top 3 motivator factors for their employees. As these factors were different from what the employees ranked as the top factors, clearly highlighting the fact that that even the Jamaican managers were unaware of what really motivated their employees. As noted by Delgleish (2008) the fact of not understanding what triggers motivation in their workers creates difficulties for Jamaica’s managers to motivate the workers effectively.

In the far east Siu et al. (1997) researched how Hong Kong’s hotel employees were motivated utilising Kovach’s system, because it is one of the most extensively used surveys, many researchers used this as a base for their research to understand the basis of motivation for workers employed by a variety of industries. The research was carried out on 1,245 hotel employees from 64 different establishments and were asked to rank the 10 job motivators. This extensive study included workers from different departments: food and beverage, maintenance, housekeeping, public relations, human resources, front office, marketing and sales, security and financial control.

The study concluded that the top 3 motivation factors for the Hong Kong hotel

employees were:

  1. opportunities for advancement,
  2. loyalty to employees,
  3. good wages.

The result recognised that the staff had a significant occupation development anxiety. The research found little differences were identified, the cross-department trends seem to be relatively similar.

Therefore, managers may want to take the differences into account when creating plans affecting motivational factors. The recommendation is for the leadership team to take into account what employees wish for to complete their functions. It could be argued that leaders within the catering industry ought to understand the employees needs not only surrounding pay but respect for their role and person (Siu et al., 1997).

Motivation factors in Caribbean employees have been analysed by Charles and Marshall (1992) to understand the differences amongst staff in various locations. The main focus was on the motivation and demographic factors, the quorum of the research was predominantly graduate females and the outcome demonstrated that the main driver was better wages, working conditions and recognition in the workplace. Some workers of a higher age group selected the security in the workplace and their main motivator, interestingly for people with a greater level of education placed the “help with personal problems” at a lower level.

The research also highlighted that middle management can influence employees in a positive or negative manner on their perception of job satisfaction. The outcome of the research produced as a recommendation that managers be developed on their ability to manage human resources so that they can positively influence motivation in their teams.

Simons and Enz (1995) centred their research within the hospitality industry overall, however the primary objective was to understand differences and similarities amongst industrial employees and hotel workers. The research also wanted to understand what was the top employee wish from their workplace. The research was done on employees of 12 hotels structures in Canada and United States and used the motivational factors ranking as a tried and widely tested system, this had previously already been used on employees within the industrial sector (Kovach, 1987). The hotel workers ranked good pay as their top factor and professional progress straight after. Interestingly the conclusion of the research found that the ranking of Kovach motivational factors was not dissimilar to the previous studies carried out by other researchers (Charles & Marshall, 1992; Simon & Enz, 1995; Siu et al., 1997), in fact all the previous study proved the good pay rates are the most important factor amongst workers. A different study in Slovenia Kukanja (2013) sampled 191 catering staff form restaurants, bars and coffee shops, the outcome of the research again outlined that pay was ranked first followed by flexibility in working times, training was ranked very low by this group of workers.

Another research was carried out by Breiter et al. (2002) utilising Kovach motivational factors on 239 employees of a hotel in the south of the United States to understand their perception and factors that motivate them. Despite not all of the employees participated the study was validated by the 165 that responded, the top three factors that resulted by the research were good rate of pay, security in the workplace and good working conditions. In this research, it was highlighted that males ranked security in the workplace higher than females, equally females ranked pay higher than males. Older employees regarded appreciation more important than younger colleagues and finally extrinsic factors were ranked more important than intrinsic ones.

Dipietro et al. (2014) researched hotel employees in Aruba with the aim to understand the level of satisfaction amongst the staff in a variety of jobs to support the leadership team in the development of policies to support the job satisfaction of the employees. The test was carried out on 175 staff members from different hotels and different departments ranging from maintenance to reception, from the restaurant to the management team. Again, the researcher based the ranking on Kovach (1987) 10 motivational factors. On this occasion, good pay ranked behind the top factor which was “appreciation of a job well done”, while working conditions was ranked as third (Dipietro at al., 2014). This result was in distinct contrast to previous studies where security in the work place is a driving factor to staff members (Simons & Enz, 1995; Charles & Marshall, 1992), in fact in Aruba where the government protects employment policies (Dipietro et al., 2014) job security was scored at the lowest point.

2.3.5. factors affecting motivation and demographic variables

Past literature researched the motivation factors that affected employees in demographic groups (dipietro et al., 2014, Kukania 2013; Wong et al., 1999). Dipietro et al. (2014) argues that the younger staff members generally are less happy with job security and their career progression.

Arguably, Wiley’s (1997) research found that the differences between age groups are so marginal to be negligible. On the other hand, the research that Wong et al. (1999) carried out demonstrated that employees from 16 to 35 years of age believed that development and job progression is highly important, within that group however, reducing the age range to 16 to 25, the most important factor resulted in carrying out an in interesting job.

Older employees showed that social security is of great importance according to Kukanja (2013) and younger groups of employees ranked flexible working hours as their first choice. Kukanja (2013) concluded his research by demonstrating that younger and older employees react to different motivation stimulus.

As argued by Simons and Enz (1995) in their research ‘motivating hotel employees’, good pay was the highest-ranking element for both younger and older employees. That said however, the older group ranked job security and working condition as a higher priority. The younger employee group ranked development and interesting work straight after good pay as their greatest motivational factors. From this research, therefore, it could be argued that the leadership team ought to make a difference to the factors that motivate the younger employees from the older ones creating age targeted incentives to engage with the worker and supply them with the right level of job satisfaction in accordance to their age group (Simons & Enz, 1995).

Dipietro et al. (2014) discussed how men and women are motivated and stated that men are less engaged by “interesting work” and “appreciation for a job well done”. Wiley (1997) instead argued that the male working population placed more emphasis on interesting work, whilst female workers were more drawn by appreciation for the work done. Wong et al. (1999) had a different view stating that female workers favoured as the top ranking for them job motivational and the feeling of involvement, followed by interesting work, being appreciated and good working conditions. Furthermore, in Kukanja (2013) work it is clear that women workers believed that money is the most important motivational factor.

Wong et al. (1999) research argues that single staff preferred to carry out interesting work, getting involved, personal development and advancement and appreciation for their work. Equally staff member of non-single status preferred to strike the right work life balance where the family was prime need. It could therefore be argued that motivation factors would be less important to this group of employees.

In conclusion, it can be argued that there are a number of important differences amongst past researches and that given the wide possible variations due to gender, age, education level, demographic, intercultural mix and length of service it is virtually impossible to generalise. That said, however, some element of ranking could be suggested based on job roles, like advancement seem to be more important for the top-level positions, whilst, interesting work ranked very high with sales teams together with being involved. Notably Wong et al., (1999) argues that employees within the catering industry seem to prefer interesting work and being involved as opposed to development and pay.

Wong et al. (1999) observed that employees with greater education believed that a variety of job related elements are far more important than those with a relatively lower level of education. There seemed to be hardly any difference between extrinsic factors such as good rates of pay and security of work while graduate and post-graduate workers preferred the remaining eight factors and ranked them as more important.

Kukanja (2013) stated training, development and career were the most important factors amongst the experienced and educated employees.

2.4. Motivation Theories

The principal driving element on the subject of motivation is to understand what forces manage and control behaviour in humans. Theories have been developed to understand what triggers and motivates people and what type of rewards affect the perception of satisfaction in people and enhance their performance. Analoui (2000: 324) identified this as, “the content theories have identified needs, incentives and the work itself as important factors that contribute towards job satisfaction and focus on the inner drivers of human behaviour”. Therefore, these are identifiable as a “static” theory because “it incorporates only one or a few points in time and are either past-or present-time oriented.” (Luthans, 1995: 149). It could be argued therefore that these theories cannot be used successfully to predict human behaviour. That said however, these can be utilised in identifying the elements and factors that motivate individuals in their workplace.

Despite a large number of theories have been developed over time by a variety of theorists on the subject of motivation. In this chapter the researcher will be analysing the three most well-known theories on motivation. The theorists are Maslow and the “Need Hierarchy”, Herzeberg and his “Two Factor Theory” and finally Alderfer who developed the ERG Theory.

2.4.1. Maslow’s Theory “Hierarchy of Needs”

Maslow’s theory called “Hierarchy of Needs” is widely recognised as the most influential theory on motivation and human behaviour and was the first theory that attempted to put in relation human needs with human behaviour (Kreitner et al., 1999). The theory assumes that needs affects each person’s behaviour until the needs are fulfilled (Steers et al., 1996). It could be argued therefore, that the key motivator of humans the desire to fulfil the need. Maslow’s theory arranges the needs in a hierarchical pyramidal order. Therefore, when one of the needs is fulfilled it temporarily loses its effect as motivating element, the human will then move to the next level need and will focus to satisfy this (Hilgert and Leonard, 1995; Luthans, 1995).

Some theorists however disagreed with Maslow’s theory declaring that there is no clear evidence to support that human needs can be categorised, Steers et al. (1996: 15) declared that the proposed theory is not supported by the evidence produced by Maslow.

2.4.2. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Herzberg developed the two-factor theory in 1959 over time it has become one of the best well known management theories. The study was the result of semi structured interviews from an organisation in Pittsburgh. Herzberg interview strategy was to ask two simple questions the first was when the employee felt good and when they felt bad about their job (Herzberg et al., 1959).

Based on the answers Herzberg created two categories he called “Hygiene” and “Motivators”. The theory was based on the argument that hygiene factors are those extrinsic factors predominantly describing negative elements such as company policies, working conditions, pay structure, security of the workplace etcetera, these however do not necessarily represent dissatisfaction but support the status of satisfaction unless its value falls below an acceptable level. Carrel argued that, hygiene factors tend not to deliver opportunities of employee achievement and or increased responsibility (Carrel et al., 2000).

On the positive side of the equation however, are “motivators”, these represent responsibility, advancement, opportunities of growth, professional recognition and personal achievement (Steers et al., 1996). According to Herzberg, the absence of the “motivators” will not automatically turn into dissatisfaction, as opposed to the total absence of the “Hygiene Factors”, but in a so called “Neutral State” (Herzberg et al., 1959). It can be concluded therefore that both factors must be present and fulfilled to achieve job satisfaction and improved performance. Herzberg argued that the absence of satisfaction will not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction but to a status of zero satisfaction, likewise the lack of dissatisfaction will not necessarily lead to satisfaction but to zero dissatisfaction. (Herzberg et al., 1959). Below is a representation of Herzberg theory opposed to the traditional model.

Arguably there have been some researchers who disagreed with Herzberg’s theory and its definition of the factors stating that the two are independent and do not support the impact on motivation or performance. Many scholars asserted that elements of the hygiene factors could be motivators and equally some motivators could function as elements of satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Brenner et al., 1971; Brown and Humphreys, 1995; Ewen, 1964; Ewen et al., 1966; Friedlander, 1963; Friedlander, 1964; Graen and Hulin, 1966; Hulin and Smith, 1967; Lahiri and Srivastva, 1967; Lindsay et al., 1967; Lock and Whiting, 1974; Ruthankoon and Ogunlana, 2003; Usugami and Park, 2006; Wernimont, 1966;). Finally, the theorist Brenner questioned the validity of the method utilising as measure a semi-structured interview as not being sufficient to deliver the required result, Brenner et al. (1971)

2.4.3. ERG Theory

Maslow’s theory was revisited by Clayton P. Alderfer (1972) the American psychologist reviewed and expanded Maslow‟s theory. For all intents and purposes the reformulated theory could be regarded as a variation of Maslow’s theory. Clayton however, developed his theory specially to explain organisational work behaviours (Steers et al., 1996). Alderfer however argued, that Maslow’s need categories should be realigned to only three and he reviewed these as “Existence”, Relatedness” and “Growth” the acronym of which is ERG (Hume, 1998).

The three needs are detailed as:

Insistence: this is the base need encompassing all the material and physical needs for humans to sustain themselves like eating, drinking and other needs within the workplace like rate of pay, job security and added benefits (Schneider and Alderfer, 1973).

Relatedness: this is relevant to the interaction with colleagues, managers and workers. The important factor of this need is that it cannot exist on its own but it needs to be shared with others to be fulfilled as this is the relationship need with others of the theory (Schneider and Alderfer, 1973).

Growth: this final element is represented by personal achievement and therefore growth to attain one’s own potential (Steers et al., 1996).

 

2.4.4. Job satisfaction and its definition

The definition of employee satisfaction was defined by Locke (1969) as ‘the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one’s job values’ (Locke, 1969, p. 316). More recently, Spector (1997) defined Job Satisfaction as ‘is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the element which people tend to like (satisfaction) or indeed dislike (dissatisfaction) in their job-roles. Generally, this is referred to job satisfaction is an attitudinal variable’ (Spector, 1997, p. 2).

Davis et al. (1985) argue that job satisfaction is in fact not made of one single element but a combination of feelings both positive and/or negative which employees develop towards their employers and work. It is necessary here to clarify that whilst working in an organisation, the employee carries its basic needs and desires together with the experience, these expectations are the basis which if fulfilled represent job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is therefore clearly linked to the employee’s behaviour at work (Davis et al.,1985).

Kaliski (2007) states that job satisfaction is the employee’s sense and need of achievement and professional success. Generally speaking, job satisfaction is linked to performance and productivity together with personal status and employee benefits. Job satisfaction can be explained as a simple equation, job satisfaction equates to a job one enjoys doing, caring to do it well and knowing that one is then rewarded for its efforts. Job satisfaction instils enthusiasm and happiness in the employee’s work. Recognition, promotion and improved economic status are all elements that are closely linked to job satisfaction thus achievement of personal goals leading to the feeling of fulfilment (Kaliski,2007).

Armstrong (2006) states that job satisfactions is the feeling and attitude employees have about their work. Usually good and positive attitude in the workplace is synonymous to job satisfaction. As opposed to job satisfaction a negative attitude towards the employee workplace is generally an indication of job dissatisfaction (Armstrong, 2006).

Job satisfaction can be represented as a range and the perception can vary from extreme satisfaction to the opposite of extreme dissatisfaction. Employees can also have attitudes relating to other aspects of their work like who they work with, what type of work they carry out and their line manager and or subordinates together with their pay scale (George et al., 2008).

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