Differences between IPV4 and IPV6

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Award Title: Computer System Engineering

ABSTRACT

Every other day we realise that there are continuously new technologies advancing in our everyday premise, these new technologies are created for the fundamental reasons of either staying knowledgeable different technologies nothingness or for the principle motivation behind having more technologies later on.

Being able to understand the difference between IPV4 and IPV6 by the end of the project is my aim. Also increasing my knowledge of IPV4 and IPV6 is another aim of mine. I would like to understand the way in which an IP address works in a virtual network.

To see whether there are any differences between the two IP versions I shall carry out tests in terms of performance issues in a local area network.

I will do testing against both protocols to check whether there are any significant contracts in regard to the execution towards Wide area network and if there is more time I will attempt and run few test against the Internet to see how IPv4 and IPv6 can communicate with other online servers. (Jemal  Ali 2016)

CONTENTS TABLE                                                                                   Page No 

SECTION 1 PROJECT REPORT DETAILS

1.1.  Introduction ———————————————————————————————-7

1.2.  Aims and objects —————————————————————————————-8

SECTION 2 MAIN SECTION OF THE REPORT

2.1.   Literature review—————————————————————————————-9

2.2.   IP Address ———————————————————————————————10

2.3.   How an IP address work —————————————————————————–10

2.4.   Type of IP address ————————————————————————————11

2.5.   IPv6   —————————————————————————————————12

2.6.   IPv6 header ——————————————————————————————–13

2.7.   How IPv6 looks —————————————————————————————15

2.8.   IPv6 Classification ———————————————————————————–16

2.9.   Advantages of IPv6 ———————————————————————————-17

2.10.  Disadvantages of IPv6 ——————————————————————————17

2.11.  IPv4 —————————————————————————————————18

2.12.  A Classification IPv4 ——————————————————————————-18

2.13.   Advantages of IPv4 ——————————————————————————–19

2.14.   Disadvantages of Ipv4 —————————————————————————–19

1.15.   Difference between IPv4 and IPv6—————————————————————20

2.16.   Difference between IPv4 header and IPv6 header ———————————————23

2.17.  Run out of IPv4 Address —————————————————————————24

2.18.  How does IPv6 solve this problem —————————————————————24

2.19.  How do IPv4 and IPv6 communicate ————————————————————25

2.20.  Will IPv4 still work———————————————————————————-26

2.21. what are the needs to use IPv6———————————————————————-26

2.22.  Transition of IPv4 to IPv6————————————————————————–27

2.23.   IPv6 migration challenges————————————————————————-29

2.24.  Company should care when moving from IPv4 to IPv6—————————————-30

2.23.  Issues when moving from IPV4 to IPV6 ———————————————————31

Section 3 designing

3.1. Riverbed ————————————————————————————————-32

3.2. How to create project ———————————————————————————-33

3.3.  Methods ————————————————————————————————33

3.4.  Object palette ——————————————————————————————34

3.5.  Network Components ——————————————————————————–35

3.6. wide area network————————————————————————————–36

3.6. Subnet_Branch_England——————————————————————————37

3.7. Subnet_Branch_France ——————————————————————————-37

3.8. Subnet_Branch_Italy———————————————————————————-38

3.8. Choosing appropriation statistics ——————————————————————–49

3.10. Global statistics—————————————————————————————40

3.11. Node Statistics—————————————————————————————-40

3.12.  Link Statistics—————————————————————————————-41

3.13. How to Assign to IPv6 ——————————————————————————42

3.13. How to Assign to IPv4——————————————————————————-42

Section 4 Running a simulation and view results

4.1. How to run simulation ——————————————————————————–43

4.2. Results/Analyses ———————————————————————————–45-54

Section 5   Planning time and Conclusion

5.1. Plan/schedule ——————————————————————————————-55

5.2. Conclusion ———————————————————————————————-56

5.3. References ———————————————————————————————-58

 

 

 

SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION

An IP address is a network that helps two or more computers to communicate each other over a network.  Nowadays there are only two version of an IP address, which are IPV4 and IPV6. These two protocols have better features and larger address spaces.

Ipv6 was published by the Interment Engineering Tasks Force (IETF) and it stands for internet protocol version 6. Ipv6 is a network protocol that enables to send and receive any data or information routeing in a packet form between two nodes in a network. This project will explain the further functionality of IPv6 protocol and will compare to the current version IPv4.

While researching, I discovered that IPv4 only utilizes 32 bits of addressing to various devices to connected to network. IPv4 can bolster around 4.29 billion distinctive IP addresses which may appear a considerable measure yet a great deal of these IP addresses has been assigned by various associations. This is the place IPv6 comes in as it aides uses 128-piece web addresses which are accordingly can bolster a much bigger IP addresses. This is the reason the utilisation of hexadecimal system is required to permit the utilisation of IPv6 where then again IPv4 just uses binary. (Jemal , 2016)

Testing the performance difference between IPV4 and IPV6 is the aim of my project. To show this I shall use graphs to put for my arguments for which IP version is better.

Once the literature sections have been studied the next step is to develop skills to build a network model within the riverbed software, this will be done by getting familiarised with the software and tools within it.

Testing is a significant part of the project. Testing will be ongoing, with the final model being completely tested utilising an appropriate testing strategy. Once testing has been assessed a report will be written expressing the difference in public presentation, security issues and suggestions an organisation may look when utilising the IPv6 convention. Entire parts of the project will be completely assessed with accentuation on what has been determined from the procedure.

 

AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Being able to understand the difference between IPV4 and IPV6 by the end of the project is my aim. Also increasing my knowledge of IPV4 and IPV6 is another aim of mine. I would like to understand the way in which an IP address works in a virtual network.

The following are the main objectives I will be focusing on throughout my project:   

  1. To research IPv4 and IPv6
  2. Compare the differences between IPv4 and IPv6 in terms of performance
  3. To design IPv4 and IPv6 network in Riverbed muddler.

Section 2

Literature review

In this section I am going to research in detail and find out what an IP address is and what are the difference between IPv6 and IPv4 in terms of the performance. Also, talk about the compression between both protocols and answer my academic question. By doing this it will help me to make new learning and comprehension of the progressing examination of my project.

The item which I shall focus on the most is the literature review. This is because it will help me to bring in knowledge of my project and offer an overview of some of the issues in my field which will discover if there are any comparisons between IPv4 and IPv6 protocol, this will help to justify my research questions and help me to understand what I should be looking for when undertaking the requirements of this project.

 

 

WHAT IS AN IP ADDRESS?

To be able to communicate computers and other digital devices between each other, we must use an IP address. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP address allows any type of files to travel across the network, it is basically done by assigning automatically the IP address to any type of devices that are linked to a network. therefore, each device that are connected then can exchange an information each other. By giving a device an Ip address data can travel and go to the correct device.

 

HOW AN IP ADDRESS WORK?

The process wherein we connect devices over a network, the internet is used to send messages. This is done by sending packets as these are the message broken down into a smaller form. For each destination, there is a specific route, the route is determined by the header of the packet which is more commonly known as the IP address.

 

There are three main types of IP address

 

In the beginning of the internet, the INAN (Internet Assigned Number Authority) characterised Five classes of public IP address. However, there are only three main Address classes.

Class A addresses are utilised for massive networks which contain a big amount  of hosts. The high-order bit in a Class A address is always set to zero, which makes the address prefix for all Class A network and addresses Example, 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255. Each Class A network can hold as many as 16,777,216 hosts.

Class B address are utilised for a medium sized network. Each Class B network can hold as many as 65, 534 hosts.

Class C address are utilised for small networks. Each class C network can only hold up to 254 hosts. (Asimnawa54, 2015)

 

WHAT IS IPv6?

Internet protocol Version 6(IPv6) is a new an IP Address version protocol that allows devices to enable data communication with carrying a packet switched over network. Packet switched contains a sending and receiving of data over a network between two devices. IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is a new version Internet address protocol that has been created to support IPv4 with a huge free space address size. According to (Silva, 2014) “The working standard for the IPv6 protocol was published in 1998 by the Engineering Task Force (IETF)”.

As it has been known that IPv4 will be replaced later on with a new IPv6(Internet Protocol Version 6) due to the main reason that IPv6 has a wider range of address space which has 128-bit address size or 34 billion IP address. however, IPv4 uses only 32-bit which is allowing only four billion IP address.

The packet header is another difference. In IPv4 the length of the headers is between 20 to 60 bytes. However, IPv6 has 8 fields and fixed 40 bytes. And ipv6 has many extensions to add to the traffic Extension headers do not deliver a specified order and take a next header field that moves like a mountain range inside the header to join all the extension headersExtension headers are used to find out what protocol is next being used in the packet as well as other functions like destination and Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) options. An extension header also exists where users can specify their own functionality.  This case of extension header is mentioned to a Destination Options header

IPV6 HEADER

Figure 1

http://www.afahc.ro/ro/revista/2016_1/Enache_Alexandru_2016_1.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The table below explains the key fields of IPv6 header

 

Traffic class
  • It is a traffic that tells  the router to know what kind of service should be provided with in the packet
 

Flow label

  1. Bites

 

  • This field is designed for streaming and avoid the re-ordering of data packet.
Payload length

16-bits

 

  • used to inform to routers how much a package of data can it be holds in its payload.
Hope limit

8-bits

 

  • Same as TTL in IPv4. The value of Hop Limit field is decremented by 1 as it passes a link (router/hop).
  • When the field reaches 0 the packet is discarded.
Next header

8-bits

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • In IPv6, the Fixed Header contains only allowed information of data, by avoiding that information could be not needed or not to be use.
  • Further headers can be used if needed for that information.
Source Address
  • This source of address identifies the original source of packets
Destination address
  • This this also identifies destination of the packet

Table 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOW IPV6 LOOKS?

To represent IPv6 we use the hexadecimal format (16 numbers) (0 9) and  (a, b, c, d, e, f). IPv6 Address is nothing like IPv4 Address. IPv6 has 128 bits and 8 portions. Each One portion followed by a double dot and Each portion going to represent 16 bits. Each the binary number going to represent 4 bits. The first 64 bits called global prefix and the rest called interface ID. The prefix is one of the pieces of the address that confirms which bits have fixed values or replicate the subnet identifier. The interface ID must be unique within the subnet to be able to identify an interface of a particular node.

Whenever we have a continuous zero portion they could be written as the double-colon. More than one Double-colon is not allowed in the same IP address because the device will not be going to accept the portions.

Example of IPv6 address:

FE80:CD00: 0000:0CDE: 1257:0000:211E:729C

Completely different when we compare to IPv4 address. as you can see the example above, theIPv6 address is written in hexadecimal 128 bits long and separated by colons. If this were a real IPv6 address, any leading zero within a section could be suppressed. The result would look like this:

FE80:CD00:0: CDE: 1257:0:211E:729C

As you can see, suppressing leading zeros goes a long way toward shortening the address.

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT ARE THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF IPv6?

IPv6 supports three types of address:

Unicast

unicast is used for communication between one host to another host. You can identify unicast by the first three bits of address 001 and you will know that is the unicast address.

In unicast IPv6 address there are three types:

Global unicast – its same as public IPv4 address and it’s routable on the IPv6 internet. Routable is if an IP address assigned to a device and the device will carry to a router and it will carry on to another router which means the router protocol will understand the address and they carry this address information alone with them.

Unique local address – is the default ipv6 address, on every ipv6 enable interface and its non-routable in the global of IPv6 internet. Non-routable means this address is not identified by routeing protocols.

Link-local address – its same as private IP address. Private IP address can be used on the LAN. computers use the link-local address to communicate with neighbouring nodes on the same link.

Multicast is an address that identifies multiple interfaces. Besides, it’s an application address that is utilised for communicating one-to-many, with delivery to multiple interfaces.

An anycast address is similar to a multicast address, it is used for one-to-one of many communication that can receive multiple interfaces but receives single interface.

 

 

 

 

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF IPv6?

The main advantage of IPv6 is, it has enough amount of address space available so that an organisation can create more useful subnets. In addition, the IPv6 specification also mandates multicasting capability so that computer can send data to multiple recipients at the same time as well as some new security supplies. IPv6 also support the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) protocol, which empowers cell phones to switch amongst systems and get wandering notice paying little mind to physical area. (Bgrevert, 2012)

With IPv6 version protocol as we can have far more subnets so setting up VPNs and integrating offices will be much easier and have more devices than ipv6. This is done on standard IPV6 and contains no extra settings or NATS in between, As I have mentioned it above IPv6 offers us a very large address space so that we can use it. When the traffic travels between two locations we can still get the real end point addresses and set up securely correctly.. It will also take some time until we all fully grasp all the benefits and think the IPv6 way. (Bgre-vert, 2012)

 

WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF IPv6

As the size of IP address increases, it is going to be hard to remember the long IP address. with IPv6 machines won’t be able to communicate directly. Address space is so large makes port scanning unworkable. It also makes security and accounting checking unfeasible. (Bgrevert, 2012)

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT IS IPV4?

IPv4 stands for Internet Protocol Version 4. It is the 4th  version development of the internet protocol.

IPv4 protocol is the basic technology that allows us to connect our devices to the web server. For instance, any devices that access to the internet, it has a numerical IP address e.g. (66.249.64.74). the numerical IP address used for sending data from one device to another device through to the web. And this because computers would not be able to send data or communicating each other without an IP address.

IPv4 is also known to provide a fair amount of small address spaces compared to IPV6 meaning that this type of ip address will run out of variations for new devices.  Having unique ip address is very important because any ip address with the same ip address of another device will cause confusion of where the traffic should go resulting in the wrong device receiving data. That is why most IT professions started developing studies on the idea of developing the new IPv6 architecture. (Parr,2017)

WHAT ARE THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF IPV4?

In an ipv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of the three ways.

Unicast is (one to one communication), it is a normal address which can be assigned to any devices. it can be a router, computer or switches.

The broadcast is (one to all communication) – the last IP address of the range. it can be used broadcasting within the network.

Multicast is (one to a group)– it’s a process of sending an application from one host to a selected group of hosts. For example, live TV, video conferencing.

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF IPv4?

IPv4 address is very simple and easier to read and remember than IPv6 address. it also requires less memory, Connectionless protocol and best effort based. IPv4 has better supported than the new IPv6 version. It also Creates virtual layer over diversified devices. (Wazir, 2017)

WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF IPv4?

The disadvantages of the old version IPv4 is that it has limited address space. On these days as we have too many devices coming out every year, IP4 won’t be able to handle and to give enough IP Address.

 WHAT ARE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IPv4 AND IPv6?

IP service Ipv4 Ipv6
Deployed 1981 1999
Addressing range 32-bit network address translation 128-bit, multiple scopes
Packet size 567 bytes required, fragmentation optional 1280 bytes required without fragmentation
Address configuration DHCP Stateless, tasteful(DHCPv6)
Security IPsec IPsec-mandated works end-to-end
Mobility Mobile IP Mobile IP with optimised routeing
Quality of service Differentiated service, integrated service Differentiated service, integrated service
IP multicast Heavy application use Heavy application and protocol stack uses
Packet fragmentation Routers and sending hosts Sending hosts only
Packet header Does not identify packet flow for QoS handling

Includes a checksum

Includes options
up to 40 bytes

Contains Flow Label field that specifies packet flow for QoS handling

Does not include a checksum

Extension headers used for optional data

ICMP Messaging mostly Messaging and protocol functions

Table 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Any computer networks will likely be using IPv4 packets. IPv4 protocol uses 32bit sources and destination address fields. Because of the growth worldwide, we are out of IP address. however, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has already published IPv6.

The most important difference between the two version protocols is, the IPv6 address fields are 128 bits. That means it will fix the world IP address availability problems. While IPv4 has only 32 bits. An IPv4 example address is 14:35:60:78. An IPv6 examples address is 1234:5678:9abc:def0. The IPv6 representation also allows double colons (: 🙂 to represent a string of zero entries so 1234:0:9abc: 0:0:0: 0:0: defo could be 123:09abc: defo.

Packets for both IPv4 and IPv6 are  variable and can be up to 64 kilobytes.The problem is that the protocols can be used over a number transports that may have other limits. This is normally specified by the maximum transmission unit (MTU). Both protocols have a minimum MTU requirement. IPv4 have 576 bytes and 1280 bytes for IPv6.

The capacity of address space is one of the reasons the migrate to IPv6 but there is also more difference that gives IPv6 better advantage. For example, according to network Engineering “the header checksum fields have been eliminated because transport reliability has gone up and its overhead was unnecessary”. The checksum is a way of or sort of telling or determining that the package hasn’t be damaged in some way along in the transmission. The reason why checksum and fragmentation are not in ipv6 is because, if we don’t have to do the checksum and don’t have to worry about fragment packets we can make our router a lot more efficient, they can process packet much quicker now, because they don’t have to do this calculation anymore. What Fragmentation does is, it takes the huge package and break it into a small part and send it over the network where it belongs and can deliver. It is also possible for IPv4 and IPv6 subnets to exchange traffic but there are some issues that vary depending upon the network configuration and the type of network traffic.

 

 

 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IPv4 HEADER AND IPv6 HEADER?

Figure 2                                http://www.afahc.ro/ro/revista/2016_1/Enache_Alexandru_2016_1.pdf

As you can see the figure 1 above, IPv4 and IPv6 header structure yet let’s think about both structures one next to the other so we can have a greater amount of a comprehension of the contrasts between IPv4 and IPv6. From the above figure2

It shows the similarities and the  main differences between ipv4 and ipv6few things have been changed, immediately it ought to be evident by taking a look at the image that the IPv4 header structure looks more entangled than the IPv6 header structure because of the reason that IPv4 header structure has 14 fields and the length of the header is between 20 to 60 bytes and IPv6 header has only 8 fields to look and fixed at 40 bytes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHY WE RUNNING OUT OF IPv4 ADDRESSES?

“We’ve been using ever since RFC was published in 1981. At the time computers were big, expensive, and rare. IPv4 had provision for 4 billion IP address, which seemed like an enormous number compared to the number of computers.” (Silverman and Posts, 2017)

Now, these days IPv4 almost running out any device connected to a network needs an ip address so the traffic can go to the correct device. Once we are run out of IP address, we won’t be able to add any more nodes to the network.  IPv4 uses only 32bits. This means it won’t be able to handle more than 2^32 IP addresses which are around 4 billion. This seems like a lot, but now this day as the world population is over 7 billion there will not be enough space address. however, IPv6 is out and it provided us with a huge amount of space address that we use. (Parr, 2017)

HOW DOES IPv6 SOLVE THIS PROBLEM?

IPv6 solve the shortage of space by using the 128-bit address with a huge amount of address space which is 340 undecillion addresses. that is 340 trillion trillion possible IP address.

With IPv6 there is always advantage at that we can make sure the internet traffic gets the corrects destination without any stopped or delayed.  The integrity and authenticity of each IPV6 packet are ensured by having extra extensions  through encryption and techniques aimed at preventing packet spoofing or sniffing. IPv6 also more organized routeing, more efficient packet processing, directed data flows, simplified network configuration and no more NAT comparing to IPV4.

HOW DO IPv4 AND IPv6 COMMUNICATE?

To understand how IPv4 and IPv6 communicate over the Internet, Data is transferred via network packets; however, this is where IPv4 and IPv6 separate. IPv6 requires a different 16 format (0 -9) and (a, b, c, d, e, f).  in order to transfer network packets.

Unfortunately, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses cannot transmit data to each other directly; they require another gateway to communicate.

Fortunately, IPv6 addresses can efficiency route data across the Internet due in part to the increase of subnets or decimal placeholders representing numerical values.

A situation where an IPv4 device that  tries communicating to an IPv6 address is possible but requires 3rd party proxy otherwise it would not connect.Most websites, however, use  either IPv4 or IPv6 (since IPv6 is so voluminous, there’s really obtainable in giving devices and websites both).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WILL IPv4 STILL WORK?

Of course, Yes, IPv4 will still Work. It will not be released anytime soon. Both protocols are not directly compatible. However, researchers realised that they couldn’t switch off IPv4 version and changed it to IPv6 while most of the companies are still depending on it. Using Network hardware and software isn’t just about flipping a switch to change protocols. Every application needs to be updated in order to work with IPv6 address. Nevertheless, on that point, there is a process called Dual stack. This process built with IPv6 devices and allows both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol to run at the same time, together with each other. (Bradley, 2017)

WHAT ARE THE NEEDS TO USE IPv6?

IPv6 compatible operating System: any company’s Operating system’s software must fit for utilizing IPv6. All modern devices are capbale to use IPV6 but thet must be set up.. For example, windows, vista and newer version of windows as well as an advanced version of Mac OS X and Linux.

Routers with IPv6 support: Make sure to check to router’s specification detail to see if it supports IPv6.

Enabled ISP with IPv6: company’s ISP (Internet service provider) must have an IPv6 protocol for setting up. Even if the company have modern software and hardware, ISP must be provide an IPv6 version connection.

End-to-End security likewise required for some clients that do not have the address space or battling with a NAT implementation. hardware or applications reach the end of their lifecycle and must be replaced.

WHAT ARE THE TRANSITION OF IPv4 TO IPv6?

The main reason for switching from IPv4 to IPV6 is to be able to get more IP address storage.

There are three strategies while we are transition of IPv4 To IPv6;

Dual stack – to be able to switch from IPv4 to IPv6 we need to make sure that all the hosts must have a dual stack until all the networks migrated to IPv6. Dual stack is a network that allows enabling IPv4 and IPv6 to nodes and its technique that has built to help to run both protocols at the same time.

 Figure 3

https://www.slideshare.net/IftikharWazir?utm_campaign=profiletracking&utm_medium=sssite&utm_source=ssslideview

Tunnelling strategy is used when two nodes want to communicate while using IPv6, the packet address must travel through a region using ipv4. For them to communicate the IPV6 data packet is encapsulated in ipv4 packet and then leaves the packet when the IPV4 region ends.

Figure 4

https://www.slideshare.net/IftikharWazir?utm_campaign=profiletracking&utm_medium=sssite&utm_source=ssslideview

Header Translation is needed when much of the internet has moved into the new version IPv6 while some systems still using the old version of IPv4. at the point when a sender needs to utilize an IPv6 address, however, the receivers do not comprehend the address so in this circumstance Tunnelling won’t work in the light of the fact that the packet must come with an IPV4 address to be able comprehended by the receiver. in this way, for this situation, the header format must be complelty changed through a header interpretation.

Figure 5

https://www.slideshare.net/IftikharWazir?utm_campaign=profiletracking&utm_medium=sssite&utm_source=ssslideview

WHAT ARE THE IPv6 Migration Challenges?

There are some challenges that need to look at when migrating IPv6:

Hardware and software compatibility

For example; when companies trying to move from IPv4 to IPv6, they must check that the Existing equipment can handle ipv6 such as routers, switches and computers they must be able to support IPv6 so that they can carry on using IPv6 protocol.

IPv6 address Interface: Administrators must understand this changes in case multiple addresses are ever required on an interface.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT ARE THE REASON A COMPANY SHOULD CARE OR MAKE TO SWITCH TO IPv6?

Inevitability

The main fact is that most companies know that to add more hosts and users, ipv4 will run out of space while IPV6 will provide a large amount of more available ip address.so, companies should be changing to IPv6 so that they are prepared when the expected day comes that IPv4 is no longer supported. Implementation IPv6 sooner rather than later will allow the companies to operate with the peace of mind that the loss of IPv4 won’t impact their businesses.

Security

IPv4 has become extremely outdated was never to be secure while IPv6 has been built with security. The fact is IPv4 know has known vulnerabilities allowing hackers to attack systems. While IPV6 was built with security in mind.What the security does in IPv6 is it encrypts traffic and check packet integrity to provide VPN-like protection for the standard internet traffic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT ARE THE ISSUES COULD HAVE A COMPANY WHEN MOVING FROM IPv4 TO IPv6?

First, we need to know what IP address is. IP address stands for Internet Protocol address. It is a group of numbers separated by full stops that identify a computer on the internet. Packets of data send across the Net include the destination address. For example, when we are sending an email or watching an online video, any number of computers, switches, routers and other devices analyse the IP address on these packets and forward them along to the final destination.

A company could have issue when moving from IPv4 to IPv6. The issues what will happen if a company with IPv6 go to an IPv4- the only website, the error message will pop up. This type of warning also known as “404” message, comes from the web server of an existing domain no longer hosts that page has been looking for. However, if a company with IPv4 only goes to the IPv6 site, there won’t be a problem. Because IPv6 has “dual-Stack” configuration. Dual -Stack contains all the software needed for communication with both IPv4 and IPv6 network.

If the switch to IPv6 is not made by the organisation, it could also make slow the web program. Computers also will have a harder time to communicate with each other, making the ability to offer services like skype difficult.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION 3 ARTEFACT

This guide shows step by step how to create a network in riverbed modeller Academic edition software. Below all the print-screen shows the results of my project.

RIVERBED MODELER

Riverbed modeller Academic edition is software that I have used to build my network. This software is used for building and communicating protocols and network equipment, it also allows to choose the appropriate statistics and running a simulation and viewing results.

Figure 6

HOW TO CREATE A PROJECT

Figure 7 shows how to start creating a project. There is two places where you can name your project name and scenario name.

Figure 7

Method

The method contained in a selection of subnet, IP32 cloud, firewall, file server, email server, HTTP server, database server, Ethernet workstations, Ethernet switches, and a router. These all component represents Wide Area Network in three different countries. In this case, all nodes and server are connected to the switch via Ethernet 100baseT. Each country has two routers that is connected to the switch and to the Wide Area Network. The three countries are connected to each other, using the PPP – DS3 link connecting the three subnets. After I connect each other all of the component methods I have mentioned, I am setting up the application using Application definition to set which application do I need to apply in this project. In this case, I need to apply file, HTTP, database and Email in my scenario.

Object palette

Object palette provides us to choose the component we want to select for out project.

Figure 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Network components

1.    This section explains the following network components used in my network models on Riverbed.

2.    Profile Config enables you to create profiles for users.

3.    The Ethernet _ workstation node model is the workstation which always connected with client-server applications. This node only allows you to connect one at a time first come first serve.

4.    Router type BN_ASN_4s_e4_f2_fe4_sl12_tr4 object

5.    The Ethernet _server model signifies a server node with server applications running on top of TCP and UDP.

6.    The 100BaseT link: – is a link that runs at 100mbps between the router and hosts.

7.    PPP-DS3 duplex link: – will be used to Link both router.

8. Application config  allows to create the application to used need to be used

 

WAN (wide area network)

The object of designing my project is to show the performance between IPv6 and IPv4 network protocol. The three branches are in England, France and Italy while the head branch is in London. All the servers running in England Branch.

Figure 9 displays that the internet connection is connected to each Subnet via PPP_DS3 link and Application Config and Profile Config which I have created. Each of subnets has their own PCs and the servers are placed only in England as it will be shown on figure 10,11 and 12.

Figure 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subnet_ Branch _England  

All the servers are placed in England as you can see the print screen below. Servers and workstation are connected to switch via a 100BaseT link. router and firewall are also connected to the switch via to 100BaseT link. The main router in England is also connected to the subnets networks by the internet connection of WAN.

                                 Figure 10

Subnet _branch_France

Figure 11 displays only router, switch, firewall, and workstations. The main router is also connected to subnets network by WAN.

Figure 11

Subnet_Branch_Italy

All the servers, workstations, routers and firewall are connected to switch as you can see on the print-screen below (figure 12). Servers and workstation are connected to switch via a 100BaseT link. router and firewall are also connected to the switch via to 100BaseT link. The main router in Italy is also connected to subnets networks by the WAN.

Figure 1

 

Choosing appropriation statistics to my network project.

The main purpose of running any experiment or investigation is to obtain the useful result. To generate this information, you need to select the statistics that you would like to collect after completing the simulation run. As you can see on the print- screen blow, I have selected the chosen statistics.

To choose and select the statistics, the following steps will show how to do;

1.    Right click on the project free space and select choose individual DES Statistics

2.    This will open the chose statistics window as you can see the print- screen below where you can select the statistics that are of interest for your simulation.

3.    Note that the statistics are grouped as global statistics (for all nodes in the network), node statistics (per node), and link statistic (per link).

4.    Each statistic also has the description to the right when it’s selected.

5.    After that, the profiled has been defined by using Profile definitions to set which profile is required for application. In this case, there has been a need to apply file, HTTP, database and e-mail. In free space right click and choose individual DES statistics, then pick which parameter does your analysis in your scenario, in this case DB was selected for entry (response time(sec), traffic received(packets/sec), traffic sent(packets/sec)), Db Query(response time(sec), traffic received(packets/sec), traffic sent(packets/sec)),, Email(download response time(sec)), traffic received (packets/sec), traffic sent(packets/sec)), Ftp(download response time(sec)), traffic received (packets/sec), traffic sent(packets/sec)), Http(page response time (sec), traffic received (packets/sec), traffic sent(packets/sec).

Global Statistics (for all nodes in the network)

Global Statistics (for all nodes in the network)

Figure 13

Node Statistics (per node)

Figure 14

Link Statistics (per link)

Figure 15

How to Assign to IPV6 

This print-scree (figure 16) below shows how the network. It has been designed and assigned to IPv6 by clicking on the protocol.

Protocols>IPv6> Auto-Assign IPv6 Addresses

 Figre 16

How to assging to IPv4

This print-scree (figure 17) below shows how the network I have designed assigned to IPv4 by clicking on the protocol.

Protocols >IPv4>Auto-Assign IPv4 Addresses.

 Figre 17

SECTION 4 TESTING AND RESULT

Running a simulation and view results

After making all the links on the nodes all collection the appropriate statistics, the scenario is now ready for running a discrete event simulation in modeller takes all the links in place into account and models the behaviour during the process. The selected statistics are collected and saved for viewing after the run.

To run the simulation;

1.    Click on the DES> Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation

2.    The run window will open where you can configure settings such as simulation duration.

3.    Click on the run once all the settings are in place

4.    After the simulation completes you, may obtain the results from the DES>Result>View Results. This will show the results print-screen shown below as you can see all the print-screens below showing the comparison be-tween IPv4 and IPv6 network protocol.

This print-screen (figure 18) below allows to choose the duration time in seconds, hours, and days also allows 1000 the values per statistics. In the project, I have chosen 0.5 hours.

Figure 18

Result/analyses

 

Ftp Traffic Sent (packets/sec)

Figure 19 shows that the FTP traffic sent for IPv4 and IPv6 over the network. The traffic sent for the IPv4 over the network is 0.53 packets at the time of simulation is 8minuts. It can also be seen that the traffic sent for IPv6 over the network increase 0.55 packets at the time of simulation is 8 minutes. Traffic Sent (packets/sec) is the average number of packets assigned by the server to the client per second.

Figure 19

 

 

 

 

 

Ftp Download Response Time

In figure.20 it is shown that the average FTP download response for the IPv6 is higher compared to IPv4. The Response time is measured from the time a client application sends a request to the server until it receives the response packet.

  Figure 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ftp Traffic received (packets/sec) 

In figure 21, the comparison based on version IPv4 and IPv6 can be seen that the traffic received for IPv4 and IPv6 over the network, IPv6 has higher traffic received and the average Ftp Traffic received in IPv6 and IPv4.

Figure 21

Email Download Response Time

Figure 22, shows the Email Download Response Time. The reason for running this test was to evaluate the performance of two protocols when a client connected over a wired network are transmitting data. In this instance, the IPV4 and IPV6 protocol were used as a basis for this wired network.

Figure 22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Email traffic received (packets/sec)

In Figure 23, it shows the comparison of Email traffic received (packets/sec) between IPv4 and IPv6. Packets received is the rate at which packets are received on the network interface

     Figure 23

Workstation is connected to their respective routers observe similar results. They are graphically represented in fig.7 and 8 workstations connected to IPv6 networks has better throughput utilisation as compared to the workstations connected directly to IPv4 networks as ca be seen in the print-screen.

Point -to-point- queuing (sec)                

     Figure 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

Point -to-point- utilization

    Figure 25

Point- to-point throughput(packets/sec)

Throughput Performance: The throughput is the amount of data packet received by the target node and it is measured in bits per second.

Figure 26, 27 and 28 down below shows the point-to-point throughput difference between IPv4 and IPv6. the throughput measured is the forward movement of traffic on the Point-to-point link for the internet cloud to subnet branches.

Figure 26                  

 

 

 

 

Figure 27                                            

Figure 28

DB query traffic received (packets/sec)

 

The comparison based on IP version IPv4 and IPv6 will be based on Fig 29. IPv6 has higher traffic received compared with IPv4. IPv6 has 5.4 packets/Sec and IPv4 has 4 packets/Sec. So, that means IPv6 is better. Traffic receiver (packets/Sec) calculates the number of packets by getting the throughput of packets sent from the client to the server.

   Figure 29

 

SECTION 5 PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 

Plan/Schedule

I enjoyed working on the project by following the strict guidelines of the proposed plan even it appears to be much made at times. Nevertheless, at the time there was a little hard when artefact has been designed at the start of practical section. It was difficult to search in google how networks can be designed in Riverbed modeller. Every bit I continued exploring and demanding people who possess expert knowledge of networks, I had well understood and managed to design my project.

Figure 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION 

Simulation is running over riverbed Modeller tool. There are many types of key performance indicators, (delay, packet drop, Response Time, Traffic Received, Traffic sent, point-to-point utilisation and point-to-point throughput) have been considered.

The project evaluated evaluated the Ftp download respond time, Ftp traffic received, Ftp traffic sent, email traffic received, email traffic sent, point-to-point throughput, point-to-point utilisation and etc. on IPv4/IPv6 networks. my Two network scenarios called IPv4 network and IPv6 network have been simulated. The simulation has been carried out by using riverbed modeller.

The simulation results show that the IPv6 have the greatest Traffic Received while in the same time have greatest response time and traffic sent than IPv4. However, IPV4 have the lowest Traffic Received compare to IPV6, while in the same time have less response time & lower packet drop.

The IPv6 has a higher Delay than IPv4because IPv6 has a larger header field. IPv4 has a smaller header field and the packet frame. Also, jitter played a role for example the IPV6 had less jitter in comparison to the IPV4. For the future, it would be better to refrain from IPV4 due to the spaces in the address so the IPV6 doesn’t have spaces mean this is less or no Jitter. In addition to there wasn’t a real major difference in jitter between the two IP protocols.

IPv4 has been served us a grateful for a long time despite it has limitations address space which is already happening that this old version is running out. Anyhow, there has been good news that IPv6 has come out in 2012 with a huge space of IP ad-dress and it will solve those problems by changing the strategy for allocating addresses, making improvements to ease the routeing of packets, and making it easier to configure a machine when it first joins the network.

 

 

 

References

  1.                Address, Ip. 4 (2016) IPv6 migration: 10 reasons to get moving.
  2.                Asimnawa54. (2015) Slideshare. Net.IPv4
  3.                Bedell, C. (2011) IPv6 migration guide: Essential knowledge for a smooth transition.
  4.                Bgrevert. (2012, 03).blogspot.com. Retrieved from IPv6 advantages and disavantages
  5.                Bradley, T. (2017). IPv6: Five Things You Should Know.
  6.                Bradley, T. (2012) IPv6: Five things you should know.
  7.                Lawson, S. (2011) 10 things to know about the move to IPv6.
  8.                Marks, P. (2013) Are you using IPv6 yet? Should you even care?
  9.                Pachori, S. (2013,). slideshare.net. Retrieved from IPv4 vs IPv6 Comparison
  10.            Parr, B. (2017) IPv4 & IPv6: A short guide.
  11.            Shankland, S. and 0000, 23 + (2011) Moving to IPv6: Now for the hard part (FAQ).
  12.            Silvia, H(2014) IPv6 3rd Edition (book)
  13.            Silverman, J. and Posts, V. all (2016) What’s wrong with IPv4 and why we are moving to IPv6.
  14.            Spector, L. (2017). When We Run Out of IP Addresses.
  15. Wazir,L. (2017). Presentation of ipv4 disadvantage,ipv6 advantage and transation from …. [online] Slideshare.net.
  16.            Wong, W. (2012) What’s the difference between IPv4 and IPv6?

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