Barriers to Implementing ICT in Public Institutions

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CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction
  1.          Scope of Research Area

Corruption is a component of both the chance to ask for/receive bribes and the danger of recognition. It exists in all divisions of society. It harms a nation’s advancement by undermining confidence in broad daylight foundations, increment costs for firms and debilitate both outside and residential ventures.

As indicated by Transparency International’s 2009 report, transparency is a developing test for the business part both in the upcoming and industrialized nations. At the level of the individual firm, it raises exchange costs and presents reputational dangers, and opens up windows for blackmail. Despite division and level of exchanges at which it occurs, lack of transparency hampers improvement in any nation. Large variety of case studies are released by different organizations that were multilateral, implying that ICT can be utilized in varied programs to hasten information dissemination, enhance efficiency of public services, raise accountability and the transparency of authority’s management, facilitate citizen involvement in local governance, and to reduce corruption. Nevertheless, you will find few analytical studies or impact evaluations that support that such gains happen to be delivered in large scale jobs (Bhatnagar and Singh 2010).

A recent publication on fighting corruption (Bhatnagar 2013) understood the significant role of ICT in reducing corruption, but points out that it is not simple to exploit this possibility. The range of e-government needs to be widened to get a transformative function of the authorities toward unified, cohesive, integrated procedures and associations. Considering that the e-governance action in developing countries like Asia, is at a degree that is reasonable, there’s scope to enlarge the deployment of e-governance in Nigeria. It is necessary to realize the total possibility of deploying the delivery of services to enhance transparency in the Nigerian public sectors. It’s just as vital that you know the challenges in exploiting this possibility by identifying the success factors that are critical for broad-scale deployment.

There are lots of ways where the possible advantage of deploying ICT within organizations has been conceptualized. The power of ICT to increase the asymmetry in access to advice and thereof better handle the principal–agent issue (Gurubaxani and Whang 1991) is one advantage. Likewise, enlarging accessibility to providers and markets, efficient processing of trades with all kinds of stakeholders and improving access are other advantages related to any or all sorts of organizations.

In a pilot study conducted by a public health association in India, beneficiaries were offered intelligent cards that maintain their information and permit immediate updating by the field workers upon delivery of something using a hand-held device. The administration info system reviews, created by the workers in the system are centered on beneficiaries saying they’ve received a service instead of a worker saying that service was completed. The neighborhood public health officials are better capable to monitor service delivery, evaluate beneficiary encounter, determine service delivery gaps, and respond quickly to concerns like supply shortages, lack of community engagement, and desires for further training (Otto, 2012). The experiment recorded an increase in service delivery, transparency, efficiency and overall consumer satisfaction. It also acted as a measure to checkmate service delivery providers, like the staff and vendors of the health institution.

Lack of transparency in Nigerian public institutions have eaten deep like a cankerworm, and is almost a norm in the system. It has affected service delivery, revenue generation and development in various negative ways. (Transparency International, 2009)

This paper presents an investigation of case studies that are efficient from developing countries where the advantages have far out-numbered its disadvantages. It also identifies the critical success elements for broad-scale deployment. The paper contains cases on the utilization of ICTs in the management of delivery of public services in health, education, financial management and planning, transportation and provision of food that is subsidized. Instances on digital delivery of government services, for example supplying certifications and licenses to rural inhabitants, which supply entitlements to the poor for wellbeing services, and subsidized food, plant food are also contained. ICT-enabled provision of info to enhance rural income can be covered.

Data acquired from this exploration will be critical in forming the accomplishment of public institutions in developing nations like Nigeria. While ICT is not an enchantment projectile with regards to guaranteeing more noteworthy transparency and decrease corruption, this examination will attempt to demonstrate that it has a huge part to play as an apparatus in various vital regions.  (Åke Grönlund, Rebekah Heacock & David Sasaki, Johan Hellström, Walid Al-Saqaf, 2010)

  1.          Research Motivation

Nigeria has a rich political heritage from colonization to publish autonomy governing that is democratic. The state attained its independence in 1960 and had democracy only for less than a decade before a military takeover; because direction was once held by some leading officers in the government that was present, though the nation eventually attained full democracy in 1999, it nonetheless suffers in the leftovers of the military regimes.

It is necessary to emphasize the public sector in Nigeria as it’s an important portion of the authorities, plus it plays an integral role in the execution of services which are vital to the economical growth of the state. Additionally, it truly is important to take a look at the origins of corruption in the public sector, to assess these problems and shed some light on government official’s participation in corrupt practices against the basic aims in their jobs. The research provides a better comprehension of the Nigerian public sector, its level of corruption and calls for the execution of policies and technology that can reduce corruption by examining all these variables.

Owing enormously to prevalent public needs for the worldwide outcry against corruption along with transparency in government, responsibility is now of serious problem in several nations including Nigeria. Among the critical issues controlling public sector management in Nigeria, as (Addison, 1996) rightly noted, is insufficient responsibility and transparency.

Want of responsibility in the public sector generates opportunities for corruption using its attendant effects. Through corruption, for example, a few are diverting the common wealth of Nigerians, leaving on the country at a loss. In Nigeria, corruption has turned into a lifestyle as a result of culture of responsibility; to the extent it is trite to state that officials are not just corrupt, but corruption is official. The audit report also identified that gigantic fraud happened in earnings computation, selection, and remittance to the government by petroleum companies and sales generating agencies in the united states.

Generally, politicians in Nigeria talk the talk however don’t walk the walk so far as fighting corruption is worried – the direction of the battle against corruption continues to be aesthetic. Maybe democracy as a method of government provides the greatest hope for improving and entrenching public responsibility in a society.

As a result of culture of responsibility, corruption is becoming endemic in Nigeria. Embracing the illustrative – contextual evaluation approach, this paper analyzed the perennial issue of inadequate tradition of public liability in Nigeria. The paper addresses the the process of how better to ensure that public authorities are held responsible for his or her activities as well as inactions by the use of ICT and relative techniques.

It seeks to understand the various barricades in employing and deploying ICT in public institutions and sectors. It also seeks to understand how this would enhance transparency and increase accountability.

  1.          Research Question and Objectives

This research is informed by an underlying assumption that ICT and related technologies can be used as a tool to effectively increase transparency and accountability in the Nigerian public sector. This in turn has a positive effect which are not limited to increase in public service delivery, effectiveness, efficiency and overall development and well-being of the nation. This underlying assumption leads to the following research objectives

  • To identify the various gains, methods and opportunities of ICT as a tool to enhance transparency
  • To explore the internal and external characteristics of ICT tools that various public institutions have employed to enhance transparency, and to understand how it was used.
  • To suggest better ways of applying ICT tools to further enhance transparency in public institutions

The research objectives lead to the following research questions:

  • How have other developing countries utilized ICT to enhance accountability, transparency and development?
  • What are the recommended steps in deploying ICT in public institutions and sectors for effective improvement of transparency and accountability?
    1.          Research Approach

The systematic investigation will employ a mixed approach of both quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Quantitative viewpoints will comprise of the numerical parts of the exploration, for example, cost, while subjective parts of the examination will go for investigating consumer encounters especially as to learning, utilizing and executing ICT advancements to improve enhancement choices. Information accumulation strategies will include: online research materials, surveys, literary works, studies and individual Interviews with public organization operators.

So as to guarantee great quality levels inside the exploration, discoveries will be associated to other related research with a point of building up the relationship between them. This examination will likewise consider parts of individual judgment. (Peltz and Richard, 2002). The exploration will embrace an orderly approach in guaranteeing that the information gathered is precise. The procedure will include; information gathering, information submersion, information decrease, categorizing, handling and lastly information assessment.

  1.          Research Overview and Structure

The structures of the chapters are organized as follows:

Chapter two begins with an overview of ICT followed by a review of literatures by seasoned researchers.

Chapter three

Chapter four

Chapter five

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents an overview of researches applicable to this study. The goal is to provide different statistics from researchers, theories and definitions associated with this research. This chapter will explain further, the fundamental roles ICT play in enhancing transparency and responsibility in developing international locations public establishments.

2.2 A Brief Definition of ICT

Bature (2007) defines information and communication technology as those technologies that provide access to records via telecommunications. It is a record alternate which allows the manner records flows faster and less expensively throughout the planet for choice-making and for improvement (Ahmed, et al, 2006).

It focuses mostly on communication technologies which include the net, Wi-Fi networks, mobile telephones and other conversation mediums. Few decades gone, ICT have supplied society with a good sized array of new communication talents. As an instance, humans can talk in actual-time with others in specific international locations using technologies which includes instantaneous e-messaging, video-conferencing, social networking web sites like Facebook and twitter which permit users from all over the globe to remain in touch and talk on regular basis. Present day ICT created a “worldwide global village”, wherein humans can talk with others the world over as though they had been dwelling next door.

The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC)

INEC was developed in 1998 with a required to organize all political elections in the country, consisting of the registration of citizens and also political celebrations; collation and also publishing of political election outcomes; as well as the management as well as prosecution of all election related issues (COFRN 1999; INEC 2007). Its head office lies in the resources city, Abuja, yet it has a visibility in all 36 states of the federation.

Elections are arranged such that eligible residents are needed to sign up throughout a period reserved for registration prior to the elections. During these durations, individuals are required to report at enrollment units, which are temporary installations established up in houses dependent upon the number of people living there. The units are monitored by INEC staff released from either the head workplace or state workplaces. Temporary staff are also utilized on an ad hoc basis and also educated to give support for the enrollment activities.

Before the intro of a digital voters’ register, people would be asked to offer their name, address, date of birth as well as profession when signing up to elect. Citizens’ cards would then be issued to the registrants and also at the end of the day the lists from each enrollment device would be assembled at the head office. On election days, registered voters would certainly be called for to head to the polling units, established up in a comparable fashion to the enrollment units, where the assembled listing of signed up voters would be shown for accreditation. This process called for verifying that each card holder was signed up on the listing for that polling device. The registrant would after that be released a ballot paper on which to make their mark as well as cast their vote. At the end of the day all the ballot boxes would certainly be carried to safeguard areas, where counting would certainly be done. The outcomes would certainly after that be sent to the headquarters for approval and also posting.

The major shortcoming of this system was that it cannot produce a recyclable register. The problems linked with paper based systems; i.e. the should update information in cases of moving, death and age increments; called for the creation of a brand-new register for every political election. Reports of selecting malpractice were swarming, alleging that survey clerks registered fictitious names to enhance the voting population in a ward or misplaced sections of the register to lower the number. By much the most considerable negligence was multiple enrollments, in which individuals provided to sign up multiple times at either the same or various units. The more citizens’ cards they had, the even more cash they would receive from marketing their ballots. INEC had actually tried to deal with multiple registrations in previous political elections, by tarnishing registrants’ thumbs or first fingers with semi-permanent ink. Although the ink was anticipated to last longer than the registration period as well as thus avoid people from re-presenting for registration, they soon devised methods of rinsing the ink spots.

The Electronic Voters’ Register

In an effort to lower selecting scams, INEC presented an electronic citizens’ register for the 2003 and 2007 political elections to replace the completely paper based procedure. A major purpose of the system was to have a detailed database of eligible voting citizens which would certainly remove the demand for re-registration at subsequent political elections unless the person’s conditions transformed.

In 2003 the new system included the usage of Optical Mark Reader (OMR) kinds. People registered by placing their thumbprints on the types and shading off their individual details together with the matching alphabets. Kinds were after that collected within each ward, checked into the system as well as the OMR software application recorded the shaded sections right into text for storage space in the data source. Biometric confirmation was run within each ward to recognize and invalidate multiple registrants. Owing to the high error rate experienced with this system, INEC replaced the OMR develops with direct information capture of registrants’ information in 2007. These information were inputted directly on to an electronic form consisting of thumbprints and photos, giving an opportunity to confirm precision of the data before the voters’ cards were printed and handed out for on the spot collection. At the end of the registration period, each ward was needed to publish as well as display its checklist of registrants which would certainly be utilized for verification of citizens on election days.

The system was introduced based upon the suggestion of IFES (International Foundation for Election Systems), a non revenue democracy development organization funded mainly by the US federal government and also acquired by INEC (INEC, 2007), IFES has functioned on freedoms in over a hundred countries worldwide (IFES, 2008). The key emphasis of its work in Nigeria is reinforcing the capability of political election management bodies to make certain trustworthiness in political elections and calculated preparation for election monitoring. Therefore, in reaction to the requirements emerging from previous selecting processes, the suggestions of the selecting review group consisted of the reform of the lawful framework for political elections, election conflict resolution and also the system of citizens’ enrollment.

This research study revealed 2 major issues with this computerization effort. Initially, there was a high level of illegal activity within the enrollment as well as selecting processes. Hence, countless conflicts had actually to be resolved in election tribunals and also the outcome was knocked by the European Union and also various other global observers, that rated the elections anything yet” reasonable and totally free”. Second, people’ previous experience with electoral processes, paired with uncertainty concerning the abilities of the system and also INEC’s capability to apply it successfully, created skepticism causing reluctance on their component to join the workout. These issues occurred in spite of a number of institutional treatments that were planned to activate assistance for the system.

Institutional Interventions Supporting the Electronic Voters’ Register

This study recognized different establishments promoting the usage and also adoption of the citizen enrollment system and all other tasks related to the political elections. A Joint Donor Basket Fund (JDBF) was established by the United Nations (UN) to establish, fund and apply jobs to improve the civil society’s engagement in the selecting process. The contributors of the basket fund include the Department for International Development (DfID), Canadian International Development Agency, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Development Program (UNDP) as well as the European Union (EU). The main goal of the task is in order to help attain clear and trustworthy political elections that are locally and also internationally identified, by reinforcing as well as promoting the technological and also functional ability of INEC in the conduct of political elections as well as making best use of people’s self-confidence in the results (INEC, 2007).

The key projects sponsored by the UN JDBF include deploying IFES staff to sustain the election managers; voter education efforts that included partnering with IFES and the National Education Research as well as Development Council (NERDC) to generate a voter education and learning handbook for usage in school curricula; production of voter education docudrama for program in conjunction with the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA); training for INEC personnel as well as the authorities and also various other safety and security pressures safeguarding the elections.

The federal government, with its ministries and also INEC, likewise promoted the system by sponsoring media projects, sponsoring pilot enrollment systems in the funding territory as well as demos of the system for the National Assembly as well as the people as a whole, supplying subsidies and also import responsibility breaks for distributors of the systems, as well as provision of miscellaneous funds to moderate trouble situations.

2.3 ICT: as a tool to Improve accountability

According to (Idowu et al, 2003), one major reason the world bank categorized Nigeria as under-developed is due to insufficient provision of ICT infrastructures which include the capacity to hook up to internet and easy access to computers.

Ahiakwo (2000) argued that in order for commercial enterprise activities to prosper in Nigeria, infrastructures such as ICT has to be readily available and accessible without hassle. Nigeria which is known as the giant of Africa is still confronted with poverty and constrained social improvement. If this trend continues to strive, the country will find it hard catching up with the ICT domain and all the benefits it’s bring including development and enhancing transparency in public institutions.

Lately, many countries have enthusiastically embarked on major e-government tasks, using new technology to boost and modernize federal processes and make sure they are better. They also have enabled residents’ empowerment by allowing downward moves of information, from federal government to residents. Also creating the likelihood of upward moves of information from resident to government and allowing horizontal moves of communication flattening hierarchies. (Bailur and Gigler 2014)

Corresponding to (World Bank 2016; Dupuy and Serrat 2014; Zinnbauer 2012) even though many initiatives do not generally and explicitly aim at addressing corruption challenges, there are numerous expected anti-corruption benefits associated with e-government including but not limited to transparency and accountability.

ICT interventions can be broadly categorized into two different kinds being transactional reforms wanting to control and automate authorities’ operations, restrict discretion of officers, increase diagnosis of problem; and transparency reforms that give attention to opening up their state and increasing the move of information from authorities to individuals, making the actions of the state and its agents more obvious to citizens, civil culture and the private sector (Davies and Fumega 2014).

Within their conceptual platform of digital proposal, Peixoto and Fox (2016) expose an additional aspect, linking ICT-enabled opportunities expressing voice and the amount to which open public providers react to expressions of resident tone. They further recognize between various varieties of accountability that may be facilitated by ICT interventions, including “upwards accountability and transparency” – when users provide reviews right to decision makers permitting them to identify and talk about service delivery problems at their discretion – and “downwards accountability” – when companies are held responsible by citizen words and action.

There are plenty of examples over the growing world of how ICT interventions have been used as anti-corruption tools to meet these goals. They could be federal or civil contemporary society led and become broadly categorized into (Dupuy and Serrat 2014): transparency sites – platforms offering well-timed publication of key authorities documents online;

  • open up data sites – platforms offering free usage of data collections in machine-readable platforms;
  • service automation – programs that replace discretionary decision making by general public representatives with auditable software operations;
  • online services – websites that allow people to self-serve for general population service;
  • online information programs allowing individuals to file information demands;
  • crowd sourced confirming – systems that allow individuals to report problem or grievances and publicly show data on information and movements;
  • online problem reporting – systems that allow individuals to report problem or grievances;

automatic payment systems that allows payment of salaries, areas and other benefits directly to bank accounts of workers and concern reporting – systems that allow residents to report issues with public services. Aside from service automation, almost all of these interventions relate with transparency and accountability reforms.

The range and ambition of general public ICT initiatives are really broad and also have been applied in many industries traditionally susceptible to corruption. While fees and government deals are areas where e-government has been regarded as a clear and successful means to fix problems in many countries (Bertot et al. 2010), generally, countries have spent less in e-procurement than in more technical budget or treasury systems (World Bank 2016).

There’s also many opportunities to use ICTs to modernize and increase the quality of individual’s source of information including (HR) management systems, service delivery and reduce opportunities for maltreatment in many countries including a growing country, such such as Nigeria (Davies and Fumega 2014). Social media and ICTs can be used for social mobilization and citizen empowerment, with some internet and Facebook penetration having a big and negative effect on problem (Jha and Sarangi 2014).

While there are types of ICT tools and interventions in delicate and conflict-affected countries, such interventions remain a new way and a subject that has only just lately surfaced in analytical books. There exists therefore little information on the specific obstacles associated with using new solutions in fragile adjustments (Schouten 2013).

2.4 The effectiveness of ICT as a tool to fight corruption and improve accountability.

According to (Zinnbauer 2012), the expectations from the probable of ICTs to handle corruption stand as opposed to a now limited and blended evidence bottom part.

There is certainly positive information confirming an advantageous probable of new technology to reduce problem. Some studies empirically concur that e- federal government, ICT development and internet penetration are adversely correlated with problem (Shrivastava and Bhattacherjee 2014; and Elbahnasawi 2014), recommending a causal romance between problem and e-government. There’s also types of the positive impact that some ICT interventions experienced on the perception of corruption, including the well documented Seoul Metropolitan Government’s Online Procedures Enhancement for civil applications (OPEN) system (Kim, Kim & Lee 2009).

However, other studies and lessons from technology adoption indicate high hazards of inability or inefficacy (Zinnbauer 2012). Based on the World Bank 2016 World Development Statement, digital technologies experienced varying impacts. While they experienced a clear effect on dealing with too little transparency and information, they are less effective in resolving federal government failures associated with hire- seeking and in conditioning the bonuses of federal government bureaucrats and companies to perform. Automating authority procedures has prevailed partly, with a higher inability rate of the often sophisticated and costly systems. In countries with advanced e-government systems even, their use remains low surprisingly, as much citizens prefer traditional means of interacting with the federal government such as by phone or mail.

Citizen reviews systems have reduced problems such as petty problem or poor services in the Dominican Republic, Nigeria and Pakistan, but are just effective when residents have a motivation to provide reviews and the assistance are simple enough to monitor when or if the governments’ have the capability to react to this response.

While there are good examples where digital technology has helped reduce absenteeism, they have got not significantly advanced service agency management in authorities’ bureaucracies (World Bank, 2016).

An assessment of empirical proof linking ICT-enabled tone systems and institutional responsiveness claim that while ICT websites have been relevant in increasing insurance policy manufacturers’ and older professionals’ capacity to answer; and can make a huge difference where older managers already are focused on using reviews to bolster their capacity to answer.

However, these circumstances claim that while ICT websites have been relevant in increasing plan producers’ and mature professionals’ capacity to react, most websites have yet to impact their willingness to take action. Where such determination is absent, the question is how ICT websites can permit the collective actions of all, creating a need to give citizen tone of voice some bite (Peixoto and Fox 2016).

The introduction of e-governance and ICT might not exactly be equally effective on all types of corruption also. Evidence from Bangladesh indicates that such approaches can succeed to handle petty corruption involving street-level bureaucrats, but less so for dealing with grand corruption involving more impressive range officials (Baniamin 2014).

According to (Zinnbauer 2012), there is actually ample proof that functionalities and impact are less predetermined by technical properties than by contextual factors and circumstances while (Bertot et al. 2010) argued that several contextual factors are essential to consider for effectively responding to problem through e-governance, including technology literacy, with the necessity to provide training to permit broad involvement in e-government services, technology penetration, technology access and functions of government agencies, as well as public and technology readiness of residents.

Beyond the technology itself, legal frameworks, organizational procedures, leadership and advertising campaign strategies may all be necessary suits of digital tools to be able to secure effective change (Davies and Fumega 2014).

Other key factors that can impact the potency of such interventions are the types of e-governance, the construction of the functional system, and its degree of maturity (Baniamin 2014).

But although it is important to handle these technological problems to promote general gain, the technology itself is merely one area of the task for addressing problem with ICTs. A solid determinant of the success of e-government assignments is the approval of the effort by government officers as well as issues of execution, culture and education, as well as residents’ readiness to make use of ICTs, amongst others (Bertot et al. 2010).

Transparency alone can only just be a starting place for addressing problem. Change requires individuals, communities and companies that can gain access to and react to the given information. Therefore, the potential of ICTs to handle corruption depends both on citizens’ usage of technology, with a threat of leaving those unconnected behind where access is not universal (World Bank 2016) as well as on citizen engagement in an area context (Davies and Fugemera 2014).

Many factors have an impact on how citizens can indulge through technology to provide responses or report problem to federal government or act after information provided by authorities. Context things in this respect, and ICTs that functioned in one framework may not achieve the same results in another type of environment (Davies and Fugemera 2014).

The occurrence or absence of certain elements can help lower barriers to uptake and engagement. Specifically, the media and transparency-oriented NGOs can raise the potential of ICTs for anti- corruption purposes. Multimedia campaigns, skilled NGOs and intermediaries can amplify, translate and seem sensible of information, guaranteeing increased outreach and impact. A specific theory of change and a thorough anti-corruption strategy, alongside the addition of offline tools to attain as much users as is possible, are essential for ICT initiatives to accomplish real impact (Davies and Fumega 2014).

2.5  A few ICT tools to enhance accountability and transparency.

e-Governance

E-governance is gathering popularity as an instrument for improved open public service delivery and reduced problem in expanding countries.

Circumstance studies and statistical analyses reveal that ICTs can help address problem by streamlining and automating federal government operations, restricting discretion of officers and the necessity for citizen connections with gatekeepers for key services, improving monitoring of public officials and by boosting the effectiveness of internal and managerial control over corrupt behavior.

It could also boost accountability and transparency by disseminating a larger quantity and an increased quality of information throughout the market, which incites residents and businesses to question arbitrary decisions and unreasonable techniques. Thus, e-government may eliminate many opportunities for problem possibly. That is corroborated by lots of case studies and empirical research that link ICT development, e-government and reduced amount of corruption (Shrivastava and Bhattacherjee 2014; Elbahnasawi 2014).

According to (World Bank 2016), e-government is not really a metallic bullet for responding to corruption. Actually, despite significant investment in it lately in many countries, various estimations indicate that lots of e-government projects are unsuccessful: about 30% of the tasks are total failures, with the job abandoned before conclusion and less than 20% are believed successes. In some full cases, even if e-government assignments are applied efficiently, they could actually aggravate final results and offer new opportunities for problem, as, without proper regulatory safeguards set up, automation makes it better to perpetrate scams and corrupt routines, also to erase documents or totally avoid acquiring them, in that way eroding transparency systems.

(Prasad and Shivarajan, 2015) by using a transaction-cost economics platform, established that computerisation initiatives that reduce doubt and property specificity of federal government services lead to reduced perceptions of corruption. A survey of 101 managers of multi-national and domestic enterprises in India, supports these hypotheses.

(Bailur and Gigler, 2014) argues that while ICTs cannot ensure empowerment, they could grow politics, social and monetary freedom, given the required relevant socio-cultural, technological, political and financial conditions. Of assuming that more technology causes more political engagement instead, other factors essential for empowerment have to be taken into account in addition to technology before predicting citizen engagement, including long-term and historical patterns of engagement, personal and group dynamics, and political, social, financial and financial conditions. The paper concludes that ICTs do permit citizen empowerment by: enabling downward flows of information, from government to citizens; creating the opportunity of upward moves of information, from people to government, necessary to up to date decision making; and allowing horizontal moves of communication and flattening hierarchies.

Utilizing the ICT development index as the way of measuring ICT development, and corruption understanding index as a way of measuring country-level corruption, (Shrivastava and Bhattacherjee, 2014) conducted an evaluation of 98 countries for the entire year 2010 and the results demonstrates ICT development is adversely related to corruption, which, is negatively related to government effectiveness and economical efficiency.

(Elbahnasawi, 2014) show you that e-government is a robust tool in minimizing corruption – via telecommunication facilities and the range and quality of online services – which is strengthened by higher internet adoption. The relationship results between internet and e-government adoption suggest both as complements in anti-corruption programs. Furthermore, e-government reinforces the influence of police on corruption reduction. The human being capacity element of e-government will not appear to have an impact on corruption under any standards. (Elbahnasawi, 2014) conclude that e-government reduces corruption by extending the usage of information and increasing the amount of corruption recognition, which boosts transparency and boosts accountability.

With ICTs, civil culture plays a growing role in governance, promoting transparency and accountability to handle corruption. Development agencies can strengthen civil society-led, ICT-driven anti-corruption initiatives by funding programs and projects that foster institutional environments conducive to participation in public areas affairs, promote mobilization and cooperation, and develop capacities. (Dupuy and Serrat, 2014)

(Abu-Shanab, Al-Zoubi and harb, 2013) explored Jordanians’ perceptions towards e-government and anti- corruption, assessing how e-government is regarded as an anti-corruption tool, by using a survey of 390 respondents, where three major dimensions that donate to fighting administrative corruption were explored, including public performance efficiency, transparency citizen and strategy satisfaction with open public services. Results emphasizes the value of most items. Specifically, e-government was perceived highly in conditions of its potential to reduce cost and time of service, facilitate easy information gain access to, convenient service, and faster and quality service. Alternatively, Jordanians considered weaker links with factors like: transparency and objectivity, better recruitment process, objective system to judge employees’ performance, provision of budget expenditure and information control systems.

Alternatively, (Bertot, Grimes and jaeger, 2010) concludes that technology development might not exactly be the principal matter for impact, as a variety of countries with differing technology system have created numerous procurement, traffic monitoring, anti-corruption and other systems to make a culture of transparency. Instead, technology literacy and gain access to sometimes appears as instrumental, with the necessity to provide training, and take part in usability, operation and availability evaluation to guarantee the broadest capability to take part in e-government services. Critical success factors include: 1) a culture of transparency embedded within the governance system; and 2) a transparency “readiness” factor – that is, factors on the floor such as technology penetration, technology access and capacities of government agencies, and sociable and technology readiness of residents.

As arranged by other authors, (Kim, 2013) explained that e-government could be a powerful tool to suppress corruption in federal government despite guideline of legislation being the most effective predictor of anti-corruption and a fundamental precondition of a clean federal. E-government allows residents to get access to federal government information and services and reduces needless interventions and arbitrary behavior of government officers. Findings also point out that if digital administration is strengthened with high-quality community bureaucracies comprising competent public real estate agents, anti-corruption initiatives could lower the corruption degrees of general public affairs effectively.

Conclusion

In conclusion, e-governance has gained acceptance lately worldwide. Numerous countries have resorted to information marketing communications technology (ICTs) to modernize, increase efficiency and improve open public service delivery. As another advantage, ICTs are also likely to reduce problem by promoting transparency, opening authorities’ data to general population scrutiny, and by automating federal government techniques, restricting discretion of officers and limiting individuals’ relationship with gatekeepers to gain access to key services.

Despite these high anticipations and substantial investment funds in e- nationwide authorities, proof impact is blended and limited and there’s a higher rate of failing of e- federal government jobs, scheduled to contextual factors as well as the sort of the ICT interventions. This paper has a summary of recent books on the role of ICTs and authorities to combat problem in key federal functions such as procurement, taxation, real human resource management, wide open data and service delivery. In addition, it explores the probable of ICTs and sociable media for individuals’ mobilization and empowerment.

It is without doubt that ICT is an effective tool to combat corruption in service delivery and also enhance accountability across all areas of service delivery. However, it is also noteworthy to understand that ICT itself is not a silver bullet on it’s own. For ICT to be effective, it requires the input of individuals, processes and other vital checks, else it becomes a tool that in itself promotes corruption and hides transparency.

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