Prosecuting, Protecting and Preventing Human Trafficking: Comparing Human Trafficking Rates of the Wealthiest Countries

8031 words (32 pages) Full Dissertation in Full Dissertations

06/06/19 Full Dissertations Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Dissertation Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Prosecuting, Protecting and Preventing Human Trafficking 

C:\Users\Jennifer\Downloads\cs_trafficking.jpg

How does the United States Compare with other Nations?

Abstract

Global awareness of human trafficking has increased since the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. The purpose of this study is to compare recorded human trafficking incidences, occurring from 2000 to 2011, among the top fourteen wealthiest countries. Also, the study measures how often those country’s governments followed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s recommended “3P”s model of prosecution, protection, and prevention, in combating domestic human trafficking. Wealthy countries are destination countries for human trafficking victims. For this study, a rational-choice of human trafficking will try to identify and explain the “demand” that drives modern day slavery.

Introduction

Human trafficking is exploiting or abusing someone physically or psychologically for profit. Common words such as modern slavery, new slavery, forced labor; bonded labor and human trafficking are used interchangeably. Definitions vary but the intention is the same, they all reduce human life down to a product that can be bought and sold to service the demands of consumers from around the world. Human trafficking happens in every country. Exploiting persons for profit can occur in someone’s home, within a community, on a farm, on a boat, anywhere there is an opportunity to exploit people for financial gain.

Not one person on this earth goes through a day without benefiting in some way from another human being’s misery. Slavery is not something that happens a long time ago. Slavery touches all of our lives whether we chose to acknowledge it or not. Sugar Plantations in Latin America have a long history of forced labor, due to the difficulties in harvesting sugar cane.Cotton Farming in Uzbekistan utilizes child labor and is used in brands like the GAP and Vitoria’s Secret. Rubber Plantations in Liberia.Cobalt Mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo uses child labor. Cocoa Farms on the Ivory Coast uses forced labor; Nestle Chocolate came out confessing they used cocoa that was harvested by forced labor, but this was after they were flagged by a civil liberties group. Palm Oil Plantations in Indonesia use forced labor and is responsible for supplying the entire word with 25% of its palm oil. Dunkin Donuts and Girl Scout Cookies use palm oil.

The existence of human trafficking on a global scale is horrifying. Trafficking in people is the third largest criminal enterprise operating today, trailing close behind the illegal sale of drugs and firearms (Everts, 2003). This study will reveal what the top fourteen richest countries in the world are doing to combat human trafficking. The research from the literature review will cover a country’s capacity to enforce human trafficking laws, prosecute and convict human traffickers as well as serve and protect human trafficking victims. There seems to be a consensus among scholars, government officials, and human rights activists that there is no way to measure the crime of human trafficking accurately because there is no way to identify the problem of human trafficking accurately (Laczko & Gramegna, 2003).

As the data will reflect, there are documented trafficking crimes with real victims. Created on page 5,  is a summary of types of trafficking most prevalent in this study. The Types of Trafficking Table located below is broken into four geographical stages of trafficking (source, transit, destination and internal). Within these four geographical stages, seven types of human trafficking could have been used (prostitution, forced labor, child prostitution, child labor, domestic servitude, debt bondage and child soldiers). Trafficking types are sorted into four geographical stages where the trafficked person identifies themselves as a victim.

Statement of the Problem

In November 2000, the United Nations adopted the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, which defines human

Trafficking as:

“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the misuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other

             Table 1. Types of Trafficking Statistics, 2000 – 2011
Rank Type Stage Frequency Percent
1 Prostitution Destination 1101 7.84%
2 Prostitution Source 1057 7.52%
3 Forced Labor Destination 928 6.61%
4 Prostitution Transit 903 6.43%
5 Prostitution Internal 875 6.23%
6 Forced Labor Source 873 6.21%
7 Child Prostitution Source 831 5.92%
8 Child Prostitution Internal 765 5.45%
9 Child Prostitution Destination 727 5.18%
10 Forced Labor Internal 711 5.06%
11 Forced Labor Transit 665 4.73%
12 Child Labor Source 650 4.63%
13 Child Prostitution Transit 642 4.57%
14 Child Labor Internal 614 4.37%
15 Child Labor Destination 602 4.29%
16 Child Labor Transit 448 3.19%
17 Domestic Servitude Internal 433 3.08%
18 Domestic Servitude Destination 346 2.46%
19 Domestic Servitude Source 273 1.94%
20 Debt Bondage Destination 137 0.98%
21 Child Soldiers Internal 107 0.76%
22 Domestic Servitude Transit 93 0.66%
23 Debt Bondage Source 89 0.63%
24 Debt Bondage Internal 70 0.50%
25 Child Soldiers Source 55 0.39%
26 Debt Bondage Transit 24 0.17%
27 Child Soldiers Destination 18 0.13%
28 Child Soldiers Transit 10 0.07%
N=1,587

forms of exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitudes, or the removal of organs”.

Most studies published, focus on source countries. There is limited information on destination countries. There is no transparency in the global supply chain. There are no Awareness Programs educating consumers about foods harvested or products made in unregulated areas of the world. Social norms, government corruption, overpopulation, and poverty all contribute to the problem of human trafficking.

Need for the Study

Human trafficking is a global challenge. For many countries across Europe, the crime of human trafficking is the governments’ most urgent and primary concern, yet there is still limited data collection and statistics on the subject (Laczko & Gramegna, 2003). The International Organization for Migration in Geneva studied this phenomenon nationally in 1998. The IOM found that twelve of the twenty-five countries surveyed could not produce any data on cases of trafficking in women. The following European Union countries included in this study are Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Portugal, Great Britain, and Northern Ireland. The following central and eastern European countries included in this survey were, Bulgaria, The Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. Further, out of these twenty-five countries, they could produce only seven cases of trafficking children (Galiana, 2000). Eleven countries supplied data on the number of convictions for trafficking offenses with a combined less than one hundred cases. Germany, Finland, Denmark, Austria, and the Netherlands are the only two countries that have data on human trafficking (Laczko & Gramegna, 2003).

Purpose of the Study

The goal of this study is to discover possible patterns correlations with wealthy countries, consumer countries and the global demand that drive the human trafficking market. Most research collects information on the poorest countries the source countries of human trafficking victims. The focus of this investigation is to look at the world’s wealthiest countries, and their contributions or hindrances to the trafficking economy recorded human trafficking incidences, occurring from 2000 to 2011. The study measures how often those country’s governments followed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s recommended “3P”s model of prosecution, protection, and prevention, in combating domestic human trafficking.

Most research on trafficking sees developing countries, source countries for data on human trafficking. It is easy to see how such a vulnerable population would be easy prey for traffickers. Most of the source country studies become merely a confirmation of what is already known. More needs to be discovered about destination countries. This study looks at the target countries of human trafficking victims. Human trafficking is a demand industry; the data and literature used will focus on the richest countries in the world instead of the poorest. The nations included in the sample are globally ranked by their highest gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita. By using consumer countries as the focal point, the research may reveal another perspective on the crime human trafficking and how consumers contribute to slavery whether they are aware of it or not.

Bouche, Farrell, and Wittmer (2016) theorize that public opinion might influence public policy. To test this theory, they surveyed 2000 us residents (Bouche et al., 2016). The study was designed to evaluate public opinion, specifically the U.S. population, on human trafficking. The first half of the survey measured the respondent’s knowledge and feelings about human trafficking. The second part attempted to identify factors that would change the way they thought about the issue. The research team contracted GfK Knowledge Networks to administer a probability-based online survey to an address-based sampling of 2000 US residents (Bouche et al., 2016).

Survey analysis results show that even though ninety percent of respondents know that human trafficking is a form of slavery, still Ninety-two percent of respondents believe trafficking victims are usually female. In addition, seventy-one percent believed smuggling and trafficking were the same things (Bouche et al., 2016). Nearly two-thirds of those polled believe trafficking involves illegal immigrants, and fifty-nine percent think that for a human to be, trafficked, they would need to travel across a state line or national border. Also, they had respondents view a fact-based public service announcement about trafficking and emotion based public service announcement. The difference between the participant’s responses was not significant (Bouche et al., 2016).

Recent, legislature shows that efforts are being made by the United States, albeit slowly, to prosecute, p protect and prevent human trafficking. In October 2000, Congress created U visa and T visa for nonimmigrant status by passing the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (VTVPA). U-Visas are issued to nonimmigrant victims of mental or physical abuse who are willing to cooperate with law enforcement’s investigation of their assault. Secondly, the issuance of T-Visa’s is to nonimmigrant victims of human trafficking willing to cooperate with law enforcement. In certain situations, victims of forced labor may be able to apply for these visas as w ell (US Citizenship and Immigration Services).

The End Modern Slavery Initiative Act of 2015, which was introduced to Congress in February 2015 Senator Corker (R) of Tennessee, is very different from the United Kingdom’s Modern Slavery Bill introduced to Parliament in June 2014. The United States Bill promotes the eradication of modern-day slavery through subsidizing country’s and companies that have/had forced slave labor to encourage them to stop exploiting humans (Library of Congress, 2016). The United Kingdom’s Modern Slavery Bill is in sharp contrast to the United States version of the Modern slave act. The United Kingdom’s act is well thought out, complex, levels of punishments and fines, multi tiers as well as considerations for the care and advocacy of trafficking victims (Business and Human Rights Resource Centre, 2016). The United States has none of this. They are going to form foreign alliances and starts groups and pay corrupt countries and companies not to enslave people.

Background and Literature Review 

Slavery began with the with the first civilization. Tribes enslaved other tribes to gain resources. Kingdoms and Empires spread out, conquering pillaging, plundering, enslaving. American’s history of slavery began in the South before 1860.  America’s founders were slave owners.  This slavery is referred to as the old slavery.

Transition to New Slavery

The word, slavery, has become interchangeable with modern slavery, new slavery, forced labor; bonded labor and human trafficking. Definitions may vary, but the connotation is the same. Human trafficking force another person either physically or psychologically financial gain.

According to Bales (1999), two significant shifts in the physical world that separated old slavery from new slavery. The first crucial shift was the Baby Boom of 1945, just following the end of World War II. The world’s population tripled going from two billion to six billion inhabitants. The second vital shift happened shortly after the population explosion, modernization, new emerging countries, and industrialization created a period of rapid economic growth and social changes. New slavery and old slavery are much different in many key aspects primarily because The overabundance of potential slaves in today’s society is what separates old slavery from new slavery. In the human trafficking market, it is cheaper to replace a trafficked worker than it is to preserve them. The criterion for enslavement today does not concern color, tribe, or religion. Traffickers look for weakness, gullibility, and deprivation. Slavery exists today, but it is called human trafficking, forced labor, modern slavery, and new slavery.

The largest concentration of bonded laborers, fifteen to twenty million, is in countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Bonded labor or debt bondage occurs when vulnerable people offer themselves into slavery as security against a loan or possibly, to pay off a debt inherited from a deceased family member. The second largest concentration of slavery is located in Southeast Asia, Northern and Western Africa and parts of South America. (Bales, 1999).

The agricultural industry is responsible for the majority of forced labor around the world. In developing nations, sugars, grains, foods harvested by forced labor are imported directly to destination countries (Bales, 1999). Currently, the rebuilding of areas like Iraq and Afghanistan, increase the risk that those contractors will use forced labor to maximize their profits while performing government contracts in these countries. To date, there are over twenty thousand private contractors in Iraq, making them the second largest force, which amounts to fifteen percent of United States forces on the ground (Starks, 2008).

Unlike sex trafficking, which often involves interaction with seedy establishments and characters, labor business operators, homeowners, and farm owners perpetuate trafficking. It is hard to provoke moral outrage at an ordinary member of the community. Moreover, the most likely victims of forced labor are illegally in the country. Law enforcement commonly regards illegals as criminals rather than human trafficking victims (Zhang, 2012).

Rational Choice Theory

This study is important because it focuses on destination countries, the buyers of products and services, not the source countries where the victims originate. Demand for a product or service is what drives an economy. (Wheaton, E. et al. 2010). This paper puts the focus on the role destination countries play in the proliferation of human trafficking.

The crime of human trafficking can best be explained using the rational choice theory (Cornish &Clarke, 1986). Traffickers are rational beings who choose to commit a crime after weighing the costs, benefits, and risk. The theory of rational choice states that criminal behavior, like non-criminal conduct, is not influenced or determined by an individual’s biology, psychological state, or environment (Cornish & Clarke, 1986; Kubrin et al., 2009). Rational choice theory is both offender and offense specific and differentiates between crime, as an event, and criminality, as a personal trait , which would explain the participation of professional criminals, as well as, otherwise law-abiding citizens in the exploitation of humans for sex and labor (Cornish & Clarke, 1986; Kubrin et al., 2009).

Rational choice theory examines criminals’ choice of time and place of the crime and target locations. When searching for a target, traffickers may only select street children or runaways knowing that no one will miss them. Traffickers will target vulnerable, naive, impoverished, neglected, people who may have been victims of childhood sexual or physical abuse.

The human trafficking market may dictate where trafficking victims go; into brothels, near army barracks or near a construction site for a large-scale project that is construction site just starting up. The concept of time is less of an issue when it comes to trafficking for sexual exploitation; it is, however, important when it comes to trafficking for labor exploitation. The need for seasonal workers at particular times of the year may generate demand for cheap labor (Becker, 1968).

The term “derived demand” is reliant upon a consumer’s demand for a good or service. Derived demand can be direct or indirect. An example of direct demand would be landscapers or domestic help. Indirectly derived demand occurs when trafficked laborers are part of a value chain; an example would be the production of a silicon chip, they incorporated into the manufacture of a cell phone. The cell phones are lawfully manufactured, but there is little monitoring or regulation for subsidiary companies, and mega corporations make decisions on bottom line not on whether the subsidiary companies actively recruit forced labor (IACT, 2012).

Implications for Research

Human trafficking, as well as illegal weapons and drugs trafficking, reflect the links that exist between criminal networks. The same infrastructure is used to transport these different commodities. The same trade routes and the same financial resources used for trafficking. By acquiring, a better understanding of the financial complexities involved in the economics of trafficking it may help combat human trafficking (Everts, 2003).

The implication for the present research should show the need for further studies. Corporations need to be held responsible for their lack of transparency in the global supply chain. Economists have predicted that within the next ten years, human trafficking will surpass illegal drug and arms trafficking (Wheaton et al., 2010).

Research Design and Methodology 

There are two parts to the research question. The first part, how do the United States compare against similar nations in reporting trafficking incidences.  Thes second research question is, “How consistently do the sampled country’s governments follow the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s recommended “3P”s model of prosecution, protection, and prevention, in combating domestic human trafficking?

Present Research

Frank’s (2013), the primary source of data came from the US Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons (TIP) annual report. The data collection covered an eleven-year span, from 2000 to 2011.

The research of the sampling frame, secondary data collection. The primary source of data comes from the U.S.  Department of States Trafficking in Persons (TIP) reports from the years 2000 to 2011. The original dataset used in Frank’s (2013) study covered one hundred seventy-nine countries with a sample size of one thousand five hundred seventy-eight reported trafficking cases. The total sample size for my analysis is 136 reported trafficking cases and includes adult victims of sexual exploitation and forced labor trafficking categorized by the geographical stage the victims were documented in (source, transit, destination and internal). I chose the fourteen wealthiest countries –the United States ranked ninth in the list. I am providing a grade and percentage table of the top fourteen countries, their ranking, GDP and a summary percentage of trafficking incidences each of this country contributed to the total reported trafficking incidences (prostitution, forced labor, child prostitution, child labor, domestic servitude, debt bondage, and child soldier) from the year 2000 to  the year 2011.

There are four geographical phases for victims of human trafficking, source countries, transit countries, destination countries and internal countries. Source countries provide the “supply” of people. Transit countries are countries that are easiest for traffickers to move humans through without detection. Destination countries are the demand countries. They are the countries with the power and the money. Internal countries refer to the enslavement of a nation’s citizens. Although there are, many forms of trafficking, this study focuses on prostitution and forced labor trafficking in a sample size of one hundred thirty-six adults; ethnicity, age, and gender are all unknown variables (Frank, 2013). The focus will be on the progress these countries’ governments have made in prosecuting, protecting and preventing human trafficking over an eleven-year span. Using data collected over a span of time gives a clearer overview, of trends and patterns. By measuring key indicators of trafficking patterns, governments may be able to develop effective policies.

The purpose of this study is to compare recorded human trafficking incidences, occurring from 2000 to 2011, amongst the top fourteen wealthiest countries in the world. The first section of the report covers the types of trafficking, prostitution, forced labor, child prostitution, child labor, debt bondage, and domestic servitude and child soldiers. Trafficking types are sorted by four geographical stages beginning with the source country, transit country, destination country, and internal country. The second half of the study concentrates on countries response to reported trafficking cases, such as providing training and support for law enforcement, provide victims easy access to basic living requirements, protection from further harm and supportive services to ensure victim’s successful acclimation back into the community.

Frank (2013) attempts to capture and identify key indicators associated with human trafficking. By using a large dataset and providing a comprehensive overview, trends and patterns are identified easily. Data collection for this research study is strictly archival, relying on secondary data collected for the US Department‘s annual TIP report. The way a country or territory gets included on the TIP report is to have evidence that there are significant numbers, over 100, of reported trafficking incidences.

The Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report, published by the US Department of State categorizes nations into three tiers, based on their government’s level of compliance with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA). The TVPA touts the success of their 3P’s paradigm of prosecution, protection, and prevention in the war on human trafficking. Tier 1 countries fully meet the TVPA’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Tier 2 and Tier 2/ Watch List countries do not fully meet the TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to improve. Tier 3 countries do not fully meet the TVPA’s minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. Additionally, Tier -99 countries have indications of human trafficking but are unable to be placed on a tier due to extenuating circumstances.

Table 2.  Country, GDP, and frequency

Global Finance Gross Domestic   Reported  
Economic Product Country Incidences %
Rank (PPP) per capita    ( f )  
1 € 146,011.85 Qatar 11 8.09%
7 € 67,201.88 United Arab Emirates 11 8.09%
8 € 57,676.79 Hong Kong 11 8.09%
10 € 56,815.63 Switzerland 11 8.09%
11 € 56,253.43 Saudi Arabia 11 8.09%
12 € 52,830.01 Bahrain 11 8.09%
13 € 48,797.89 The Netherlands 11 8.09%
3 € 84,821.40 Singapore 10 7.35%
9 € 57,045.46 United States 10 7.35%
5 € 71,600.96 Kuwait 9 6.62%
6 € 67,619.10 Norway 9 6.62%
4 € 80,335.27 Brunei Darussalam 8 5.88%
2 € 94,167.01 Luxembourg 7 5.15%
14 € 48,786.91 Ireland 6 4.41%
N = 136

From the collected data, Frank created key tags called, Human Trafficking Indicators. These Human Trafficking Indicators (HTI) identify human trafficking patterns from all four geographical areas of the trafficking process, source, transit, destination and internal. The research also collected and tracked government’s anti-trafficking efforts, such as legislation, enforcement, and victim services and included information from one hundred and seventy-nine countries. Understanding types of trafficking, populations, stages regions, a rank and percentage table was compiled of type’s pf trafficking covered in the dataset used or this paper.

This research paper focuses on trafficking activity within the top wealthiest nations. The goal of this study is to look at the impact destination countries has on sex and labor trafficking markets.

Data

The research sampling frame, secondary data collection. The primary source of data comes from the U.S.  Department of States Trafficking in Persons (TIP) reports from the years 2000 to 2011. The original dataset used in Frank’s (2013) study covered one hundred seventy-nine countries with a sample size of one thousand five hundred seventy-eight reported trafficking cases. The total sample size for my analysis is 136 reported trafficking cases and includes adult victims of sexual exploitation and forced labor trafficking categorized by the geographical stage the victims were documented in (source, transit, destination and internal). I chose the fourteen wealthiest countries –the United States ranked ninth in the list. I am providing a rank and percentage table of the top fourteen countries, their ranking, GDP and a summary percentage of trafficking incidences each of this country contributed to the total reported trafficking incidences (prostitution, forced labor, child prostitution, child labor, domestic servitude, debt bondage, and child soldier) from the year 2000 to  the year 2011.

There are four geographical phases for victims of human trafficking, source countries, transit countries, destination countries and internal countries. Source countries provide the “supply” of people. Transit countries are countries that are easiest for traffickers to move humans through without detection. Destination countries are the demand countries. They are the countries with the power and the money. Internal countries refer to the enslavement of a nation’s citizens. Although there are, many forms of trafficking, this study focuses on prostitution and forced labor trafficking in a sample size of one hundred thirty-six adults; ethnicity, age, and gender are all unknown variables (Frank, 2013). The focus will be on the progress these countries’ governments have made in prosecuting, protecting and preventing human trafficking over an eleven-year span. Using data collected over a span of time gives a clearer overview, of trends and patterns. By measuring key indicators of trafficking patterns, governments may be able to develop effective policies.

Variables

The US Department of State TIP report, the year 2000 to the year 2011 were used by Frank(

For this research study a sample, size least of at least 100 observations is required to properly run a statistical analysis. This study requires 12-14 independent variables, and at least two dependent variables be utilized. Thirteen independent variables either nominal and scale and two dependent variables scale measure were chosen for SPSS analyses.  In preparation for running analysis, sample datasets were cleaned up to provide the best output possible. The 13 independent variable and two dependent variables were variable were chosen based on literature review and empirical research presented in this paper.

The first two indecent variables forced prostitution and forced labor for the source stage of trafficking are important they measure how many victims were trafficked out of destination countries. The second two independent variables forced prostitution and forced labor for the transit stage of trafficking are important they measure how many victims were trafficked through of destination countries.

the next four independent variables forced prostitution and forced labor for the destination stage of trafficking are important they measure how many victims were trafficked to destination countries and variables forced prostitution and forced labor for the internal stage of trafficking are important, since the focus is on destination countries this looks at how many victims are entering and staying in the destination countries. The following three independent variables relate to the criminal justice system. They are the creation of laws prohibiting trafficking, enforcement of trafficking laws, and convictions relating to human trafficking violations. The last two variables relate to victims; are there services provide to victims that are not through non-governmental organizations and is there a procedure to identify human trafficking victims.

Ther are two dependent variables that are important in measuring the progress countries’ are taking in the protection of trafficking victims and the prevention of further human trafficking. When looked at about reported trafficking we can see which countries are actively attempting to make the minimum effort to protect victims of human trafficking and in preventing the occurrence of further trafficking victims.

Analysis Procedures

The first step of any analysis procedure is to develop a research question. The research question has to be theoretical, but it had to be operational. The more specific the question is, the easier the remainder of the analysis procedure will be. The research question developed organically from performing a literature review and comparing datasets as well as study source info, i.e. scholarly, governmental, activist organization. Each source of writings has their agenda there for although literature reviews. Balancing types of sources seemed to be a bit of a challenge. This paper uses secondary data analysis acquired through said literature review.

Other considerations for choosing the best empirical research and dataset are sample size, number of dependent and independent variables and the variable’s level of measurement.

For this specific research sample, size needs to be at least 100 observations. This study requires that 12-14 independent variables and at least two dependent variables be utilized. Thirteen independent variables either nominal and scale and two dependent variables scale measure were chosen for SPSS analyses. In preparation for running analysis, sample datasets may need to be cleaned up to provide the best output possible. Fortunately, this research study’s data set was not missing and input and did not require and additional tightening.

Zero-order correlation matrices are used as the starting point in the analysis of causal structure inherent to the data. Discover relationships among variables by running a zero-order correlation analysis. A correlation is a measure of the association between two variables. A correlation of zero means there is no relationship between the two variables. If the correlation coefficient is a negative means, the two variables work against each other. If it is a positive number, that indicates the variable move together. The second two analyses was an ordinary least-squares regression aim is to use after there is a significant correlation to find the appropriate linear model to predict dependent variable either scale or ordinal, from one or more independent variables, either scale or ordinal. The final analysis performed was a logistic regression the goal is to create a model to predict the dependent variable categorical 2 or more categories are given one or more independent variable either categorical or numerical/scale). The last two steps in this analysis procedure are reviewing results of SPSS analyses performed and provide conclusion and recommendations based on analysis results.

The first test performed was a zero-order correlation to identify dependence of variables and identify effects one variable has on another. The second analysis was an ordinary least squares regression measuring the minimum progress made by countries based on TIP standards. The last analysis completed was a logistic regression based on information provided to make a prediction about countries making minimum progress in protection and prevention in the future.

Results

The present research is attempting to study specific factors that may affect the progress and the prevention of human trafficking in the wealthiest countries of the world.

The goal is to see if there are further and more significant correlations and relationships beyond current research to reveal gaps in the study and observation relating to victims of human trafficking.

The beginning of the analyses will take place with the results of the zero-order correlations (Table 2) Also before the strength of relationships, and cause and effects are considered the levels of association need to be evaluated. What these results, we will then analyze the multiple regression outcomes. The results of both logistic regression and ordinary least square will reflect in Table 3 and Table 4, which will be discussed at the end.

Zero-Order Correlation

The bivariate analysis used in this study is a zero-order correlation. The current results of the correlation focus on the associations between trafficking patterns, criminal justice prevention and intervention and victim services.

The first significant correlation in this analysis was the negative correlation  forced destination labor had in relation to whether the criminal justice e systems had a procedure for identifying human trafficking victims which were statistically significant ( p ≤ .01, R2 = .224), and minimum progress made in protection trafficking victims( p ≤ .01, R2 = .254).

There were also significant relation between independent variables forced source and forced  source labor( p ≤ .01, R2 = .975)., forced transit prostitution ( p ≤ .01, R2 = .559).and forced transit labor( p ≤ .01, R2 = .597).,, as well as, forced internal prostitution( p ≤ .01, R2 = .408).and forced internal labor( p ≤ .01, R2 = .440).. There was moderate significance between forced source prostitution and the two dependent variables minimum progress in protection ( p ≤ .05, R2 = .198).and minimum progress in prevention. ( p ≤ .05, R2 = .176).

There was a significant correlation between forced transit prostitution and forced transit labor ( p ≤ .01, R2 = .799 ).There was moderate correlation between government enforcement of trafficking laws and forced transit prostitution( p ≤ .05, R2 = .217)., forced destination prostitution( p ≤ .05, R2 = .191). and forced internal prostitution ( p ≤ .05, R2 = .179).

The first dependent variable minimum progress in protection had a significant negative correlation with forced destination labor (p ≤ .01, R2 = -.242), In contrast, minimum progress in protection had a significantly positive correlation with forced transit  prostitution( p ≤ .01, R2 = .242),   and forced internal prostitution( p ≤ .01, R2 = .231), government’s enforcement of trafficking laws( p ≤ .01, R2 = .289 and convictions of trafficking( p ≤ .01, R2 = .131),  as well as, minimum progress in prevention( p ≤ .01, R2 = .345).The dependent variable, minimum progress in protection, had moderate correlation with forced  source prostitution( p ≤ .05, R2 = .198)  forced source labor( p ≤ .05, R2 = .206),  and forced  transit labor( p ≤ .05, R2 = .206).  the dependent variable, minimum progress in protection, had moderate correlation with forced  source prostitution( p ≤ .05, R2 = .198)  forced source labor( p ≤ .05, R2 = .184),  forced  transit labor( p ≤ .05, R2 = .206).

The dependent variable, minimum progress in prevention, had a significantly

Positive correlation with government’s enforcement of trafficking laws ( p ≤ .01, R2 = .251) and convictions of trafficking ( p ≤ .01, R2 = .300),  as well as, minimum progress in prevention( p ≤ .01, R2 = .345). The dependent variable, minimum progress in prevention, had moderate negative correlation victim services not though a non-governmental organizations( p ≤ .05, R2 = -.192)  alternately, the dependent variable, minimum progress in prevention, had moderate correlation with forced  source prostitution( p ≤ .05, R2 = .176)  forced source labor( p ≤ .05, R2 = .219),  forced transit labor( p ≤ .05, R2 = .207) and forced internal prostitution( p ≤ .05, R2 = .184).

In summation, the zero-order correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between forced destination labor and the criminal justice e system’s procedure for identifying human trafficking victims which was statistically significant ( p ≤ .01, R2 = .224),Secondly, The dependent variable, minimum progress in prevention, had moderate negative correlation  with the provision of victim services not though a non-governmental organizations( p ≤ .05, R2 = -.192).

TABLE 2 – INSERT HERE

Ordinary Least-Squares Regression

The results for ordinary least squares are broken down into three tables, model summary, ANOVA, and coefficient table. In the model, summary R Square is .353. The significant level in the ANOVA table is less than .05, giving a significant linear regression. Calculations for the prediction of minimum progress in victim protection based on independent variables is found to be significant with a 35.3% chance independent variables had an impact on the minimum progress protecting victims.

TABLE 3 – INSERT HERE

Logistic Regression

Results of the minimum progress of victim protection logistic regression model in SPSS includes four tables, an omnibus test of the model, coefficients table, a classification table and variables in the equation table.

A logistic regression was performed to ascertain the effects of human trafficking rates, criminal justice creation, enforcement and conviction as well as victim services had on the likelihood that minimum progress of victim protection would be achieved. The logistic regression model was statistically significant, χ2(13) = 47.00, p < .0005. The model explained 0.39% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in the minimum progress of protection correctly classified 72.8% of cases. The variables of equation table reveal that forced labor destination is statistically significant and, is less likely it is that the observed difference is due to chance.

The data analysis backs up the literature and empirical research placed in this study.

TABLE 4 – INSERT HERE

Discussion and Conclusion

The purpose of this study is to compare recorded human trafficking incidences, occurring from 2000 to 2011, among the top fourteen wealthiest countries. In addition, the study measures how often those country’s governments followed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s recommended “3P”s model of prosecution, protection, and prevention, in combating domestic human trafficking. By using SPSS as a statistical tool to analysis secondary data and discover possible patterns correlations with wealthy countries, consumer countries and the global demand that drive the human trafficking market.

The public does not have a clear understanding of the human trafficking problem based on n the public opinion survey of 2000 Americans; analysis results show that even though ninety percent of respondents know that human trafficking is a form of slavery, still Ninety-two percent of respondents believe trafficking victims are usually female. In addition, seventy-one percent believed smuggling and trafficking were the same things (Bouche et al., 2016).

In my opinion our government does not have a clear understanding of the human trafficking problem based on The End Modern Slavery Initiative Act of 2015, which was introduced to Congress in February 2015 Senator Corker (R)  which promotes the eradication of modern-day slavery through subsidizing country’s and companies that have/had forced slave labor to encourage them to stop exploiting humans (Library of Congress, 2016).

A majority of the world does not have a clear understanding of the human trafficking problem based on the International Organization for Migration in Geneva studied this phenomenon nationally in 1998. The IOM found that twelve of the twenty-five countries surveyed could not produce any data on cases of trafficking in women. (Laczko & Gramegna, 2003).

Most research collects information on the poorest countries the source countries of human trafficking victims. It is easy to see how such a vulnerable population would be easy prey for traffickers. Most of the source country studies become merely a confirmation of what is already known. More needs to be discovered about destination countries.

A disadvantage to the study is the use of only a small portion of the total original sample was used to run the analysis for this research paper. One hundred and seventy-nine countries were identified in the original research. The current research sample consists of fourteen countries. The additional data from other nations may have given more strength to analysis results.

A strong negative correlation between forced source labor and criminal justice system’s procedures for victim identification implies a need for law enforcement training specifically targeted at human trafficking victims, which includes forced labor, as well as, forced prostitution. Moderately strong negative correlations between provided services for victims that are not non-governmental organizations and the minimum progress of protection for victims of human trafficking. A possible task force needs to be created that specifically deals with human trafficking crimes similar to the SART model. Sexual Assault Response Team. SART is a collaboration of specially trained professionals, such as law enforcement, victim advocates medical personnel and prosecutors that all work together as a team to handle victims of sexual assault.

Conclusions are based on literature review, analysis results, and past empirical observations. More research needs to be done on human trafficking. Training and services need to be available for law enforcement, especially those who will be the trafficking victim’s first point of contact, regarding human trafficking victims and their needs. Procedures could be put into place for identifying victims of human trafficking for police, medical and advocates as well as collaboration efforts.

Finally, a collaboration of government agencies to provide human trafficking victims easy access to basic living requirements, protection from further harm and supportive services to ensure their successful acclimation back into the community.

References 

Aramayo, A. (2015). Disparate Treatment of Mexican Unaccompanied Alien Children: the United States’ Violation of the Trafficking Protocol, Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. American University International Law Review, 30(4).

Bales, K. (1999). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press.

Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76, 169–217.

Bouche, V., Farrell, A., Wittmer, D. (2016). Identifying Effective Counter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the US: Legislative, Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work. United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice Pub. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=271816.

Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (2016), https://business-humanrights.org/en/uk-modern-slavery-act.

Clawson, H., Lane M., Small, K. (2015). Estimating Human Trafficking into the United States.

Phase I Development of a Methodology. ICF International Company. http:/doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20422.v1

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. Springer-Verlag.

Dettmeijer-Vermeulen, C. (2012). Trafficking In Human Beings. Ten Years of Independent Monitoring by the Dutch Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 18(3), 283-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10610-011-9162-y

Emmers, R., Greener-Barcham, B., Thomas, N. (2006). Institutional Arrangements to Counter Human Trafficking in the Asia-Pacific. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 28(3), 490-511.

Everts, D. (2003). Human Trafficking: The Ruthless Trade in Human Misery. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 10(1), 149-158.

Frank, R. (2013). Human Trafficking Indicators, 2000-2011: A New Dataset. University of Sydney. www.humantraffickinindicators.org

Galiana, C.. (2000). Trafficking in Women. The European Parliament. Civil Liberties Series, LIBE 109 EN.

Guinn, D. (2008). Defining the Problem of Trafficking: The Interplay of US Law, Donor, and NGO Engagement and the Local Context in Latin America. Human Rights Quarterly, 30(1), 119-145.

ICAT Working Group (2014). Preventing Trafficking in Persons by Addressing Demand. InterAgency Coordination Group against Trafficking in Persons. Issue 2

Kubrin, C., Stucky, T., Krohn, M. (2009). Researching Theories of Crime and Deviance. Oxford University Press.

Laczko, F., Gramegna, M. (2003). Developing Better Indicators of Human Trafficking. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 10(1), 179-194.

McCarthy, B (2002). New Economics of Sociological Criminology. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 28, 417-442. doi.10.1146/annurev.soc.28.110601.140752

Nagin, D. (2007). Moving Choice to Center Stage in Criminological Research and Theory: The American Society of Criminology 2006 Sutherland Address. Criminology, Vol 45, 259–272.

Starks, V. (2008). The U.S. Government’s Recent Initiatives to Prevent Contractors from Engaging in Trafficking in Persons: Analysis of Federal Acquisition Regulation Subpart 22.17. Public Contract Law Journal, 37(4), 879-905.

Trainor, G., Besler, P. (2006). Globalization and the Illicit Market for Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis of Supply and Demand. UN International Labor Organization, Vol 53.

Wheaton, E., Schauer, Galli, T. (2010). Economics of Human Trafficking. UN International Migration. Vol 48 (4). doi: 10.111/j.1468-2435.2009.00592.x

Zhang, S. (2012). Looking for a Hidden Population: Trafficking of Migrant Laborers in San Diego County. San Diego State University

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please:

McAfee SECURE sites help keep you safe from identity theft, credit card fraud, spyware, spam, viruses and online scams Prices from
£29

Undergraduate 2:2 • 250 words • 7 day delivery

Order now

Delivered on-time or your money back

Rated 4.1 out of 5 by
Reviews.co.uk Logo (25 Reviews)

Get help with your dissertation