Freight Requirements for Effective Supply Chain Management

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Executive Summary

The purpose of this report is to conduct a thorough analysis of transportation management whilst focusing on freight requirements for effective supply chain management. The report takes an approach of analysing transportation management and concepts through the manufacturer Pacific Brands. Important findings from this report includes a PEST analysis that shows how trade agreements have a large impact on the movement of products between manufacturers and Australia consumers. Pacific Brands has, along with many other manufacturers, utilised the more relaxed rules and regulations to move production of goods internationally. This report also found that the value of the Australian dollar is an important aspect that must be considered. As up to 85% of products are produced internationally fluctuations in the Australian dollar can heavily impact an organisations profitability. Simultaneously organisations have incorporated ethical sourcing and safe working practices and are demanding that all internationally manufacturers are committed to their sustainability and responsibility programs.

The technological component of the analysis shows that advances in supply chain technology have resulted in improvements regarding tracking, efficiency, security and customer relationships. Current analysis of the textile and clothing industry shows that Pacific Brands is in a valuable position well established into a mature yet profitable marketplace with a moderate level of rivalry without the burdens caused by oppressive suppliers, consumer demands or controls. Conversely, the threat of substitutes and new entrants to the market means that the organisation is required to remain vigilant and innovative to remain in its current industry leading position. Report indicates that transportation enables the expansion of the global supply chain and in utilising intermodal transport enables the intercontinental transportation of goods. It was recommended that Pacific Brands utilises sea transport globally as the materials and clothing items are of low value, large bulk, low weight and transportation is not time dependent. Using a combination of road and sea transportation, it is recommended that Pacific Brands partners with an experienced and reliable third party logistics organisations instead of managing the logistics in house.

The report demonstrates that the implementation of a SMART transportation programme enables Pacific Brands to be interlinked with suppliers and customers by providing information regarding the transportation management system.

The implementation of SMART transport technology allows Pacific Brands provides an information flow linkage to suppliers and customers through the transport management system.

The operation of the SMART program was also found to have various capabilities, effects on driver performance, vehicle management, fleet visibility, streamline routine and vehicle security.

The benefits of implementing SMART technology were immediately visible by providing fleet visibility and improving driver performance which ended in vehicle management efficiency gains.

Whilst technology provides considerable advantages the report identifies that using technology increases the likelihood of and impact of cyber-attacks due to the nature of the confidential data transferring throughout the supply chain organisations. Rising fuel costs and the impact and costs related to security especially regarding technological advances were found to be significant threats towards Pacific Brands.

While the SMART program brought efficiencies and savings on fuel cost, it also increased the risks and potential threat. Ultimately the implementation of the SMART system presented lower transportation costs through better fleet utilisation as well lowering fuel costs.

However the advantages resulted in the recommendation to implement a vehicle management, streamline routine, fleet visibility system via SMART program to work strategically to lower transportation costs.

The primary focus of this report is Pacific Brands operating in the Australian Textile, Clothing and Footwear industry. This report analyses how it effectively manages the transport of its finished products through multi-modal transportation and the technologies that it uses to maintain visibility and control throughout its end to end supply chain.

The final section of this report makes recommendations which Pacific Brands can immediately utilise or investigate with a view to implement at later stage.

The main purpose of this report was to research and analyse Pacific Brands within the Australian Textile, Clothing and Footwear Supply Chain. Supplementary research of Pacific Brands was to analyse and explain effective management of transport through modes of transport, implementation of third party logistics operators and adoption of technological advances within the transport industry.

Contents

BUS30003 – Transportation Management

Executive Summary

1 Introduction

2 The Australian Textile and Clothing Industry

2.1 PEST Analysis

Political

Economic

Socio-Cultural

Technological

2.2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Supplier Power

Buyer Power

Threat of Substitute

Threat of New Entrants

Industry Rivalry

2.3 Pacific Brands’ Position in the Industry

3 Transportation Roles, Modes and Management

4 Technology for Effective Management of Transportation

4.1 SMART Transportation Programme

Capabilities

Driver Performance

Vehicle Management

Fleet Visibility

Streamline Routing

Vehicle Security

5 Transportation Issues and Suggested Approaches

6 Recommendations

7 Conclusion

8 References

9 Peer evaluation 

1 Introduction

The logistics and transportation industry continues to grow rapidly in Australia driven by globalisation, progression and demographic changes that creates a change from past transportation strategies. The purpose of this report is to analyse the characteristics of transportation management within the Australian company Pacific Brands and in a broader context focus on the methods of transportation and the implications for effective transportation and supply chain management. This report presents detailed discussion of the Australian Textile, Clothing & Footwear supply chain and industry using macro-environmental analysis and Porter’s five forces. This report also investigates the role of transportation that Pacific Brands can consider and utilise across their upstream and downstream supply chain.  The report also considers role of technology within an efficient management systems and reflects on the variety of transportation before suggesting effective approaches and management strategies.

2 The Australian Textile and Clothing Industry

The textiles and clothing remains of major importance to the Australian economy as a creator of jobs despite the industry contracting due to increased importation resulting from trade freedoms (Havrila & Gunawardana 2003, pp. 103-104). Australia’s proximity to the cheap supply markets of Asia has increased imports and enabled the utilisation of China’s expansive production capacity (Webber & Weller 2002).

Webber & Weller (2002) highlight China’s ever expanding production capacity of finished clothing products. As a global leader in producing wool and cotton, Australia exports these raw products in large volumes to China. Finished garments are then exported globally with Australia being one of the destinations (Havrila & Gunawardana 2003, p. 103).

The Textile and Clothing Industry in Australia produces a gross

Havrila & Gunawardana (2003, p. 103) rightfully highlight the high quality of wool and cotton produced in Australia but sadly exported to predominantly to Asia which in turn exports finished products to Australian firms.

Australia is a world leader in wool and cotton production but the majority is exported in an unprocessed state only to return having been transformed into the finished product overseas (Havrila & Gunawardana 2003, p. 103). Pacific Brands, a leader in the Australian textile and clothing industries, produces only 15% of its products in Australia instead choosing to utilise cheaper alternatives in Asia. China in particular is responsible for the manufacture of two-thirds of Pacific Brands’ products (Pacific Brands 2016).

2.1 PEST Analysis

The PEST analysis assists in developing an understanding of the forces of change a business is exposed to on a broader scale, encompassing external environments on both local and global scales (Robbins et al 2012, pp.33). The analysis also helps understand and prepare for market fluctuations, as well as understand the business’s position, potential and direction within the industry (Gupta 2013, p. 17).

Political

Trade agreements have a large impact on the movement of products between manufacturers and Australia. Prior to the liberalisation of trade barriers, importation of clothing and textiles had been governed and constrained by a quota system. Since then many organisations, Pacific Brands included, have utilised the relaxed rules to move production offshore (Weller 2007). The China-Australia Free Trade Agreement makes moving goods more transparent and cheaper (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016).

The China-Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) came into effect 20 December 2015 presenting Australian businesses with enormous opportunities (austrade, 2017). Opening up free trade with potentially our ‘biggest trading partner’ has essentially ended mass local production. Australian businesses will now have to factor in other considerations such as currency fluctuation and lead times when moving towards offshore manufacturing.

Economic

Stability, growth, unemployment and income levels are all important factors. It also covers global fluctuations such as in currency exchange. The value of the Australian dollar is one important part of this area that must be considered. With 85% of products being produced by foreign based manufacturers, the value of the dollar is important to profitability.

Socio-Cultural

In deciding to move the majority of manufacturing off-shore, and in the process making almost 2000 employees redundant, many people have felt disillusioned by what was once a proud Australian brand (Sydney Morning Herald 2009). On the other hand, the organisation has worked hard to incorporate ethical sourcing, demanding that all offshore manufacturers are committed to their Ethical Sourcing Program, as well as being signed up to the Bangladesh Accord for safe working conditions (Pacific Brands 2016).

Technological

The technological aspect of the analysis covers the knowledge, processes and tools used to convert resources into products and services, generally relating to changes in product or process technologies (Robbins et al 2012, p. 34). This includes the likes of advances in information processing, computerisation and automating labour processes (Senior 2010, p. 20). Technological advances in supply chains have resulted in improvements in tracking, efficiency, security and customer relationships (Ketikidis et al. 2008, p. 594).

2.2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Porter’s Five Forces model helps to determine the relative attractiveness of an industry. It can assist in create opportunities and a competitive advantage by identifying the competitive structure and economic environment of an industry (Baltzan, Lynch & Blakey 2013, p. 28-30).

The Porter’s Five Forces model can assist Pacific Brands in providing a snapshot of its industry and help identify opportunities which it can use to gain a competitive advantage (Baltzan, Lynch & Blakey, p. 28-30, 2010).

Supplier Power

Buyer power is determined by how influential a supplier is and whether it has the power to raise prices or dictate terms to the buyer. Pacific Brands sources domestically produced products from four company owned factories and products sourced from offshore are produced in over 150 different sites (Pacific Brands 2016). This force is Low.

With the recent takeover of Pacific Brands by Hanes Brands, it now has global resources to influence the market. The Bonds range is popular in Australia and its pricing can now be influenced by utilising an Economies of Scale from sourcing offshore (Hanes 2017).

Buyer Power

The influence of buyer power is derived from the ability of consumers to affect price and quality (Arline 2015). Powerful customers extract value by forcing prices down, demanding better quality or more service (Porter 2008, p. 83). Pacific Brand’s products appear in many retail outlets as well as in organisation-run stores however whilst the number of buyers is high but the quantity purchased is moderately high. This force is Moderate.

Consumers drive the industry by selecting products based on quality and cost (Arline 2015). Large retail stores as well as supermarkets are also able to drive down unit cost due to the number of stores for distribution (Porter 2008, p. 83).  The Australian Bureau of Statistics

Threat of Substitute

The threat of substitutes is derived from the cost of switching as well as a buyer’s inclination to change (Arline 2015). In an industry with so many different brands, organisations and products the threat of substitutes is very high. There isn’t high sunk costs keeping customers from switching between brands and the cost of trialling a substitute is low. This force is Very High.

Threat of New Entrants

The industry is not dominated by any major player suggesting that there is a market for new entrants (Magner 2016, p. 18). The Bonds and Berlei range from Pacific Brands are iconic Australian brands therefore enjoy good exposure and customer loyalty.

New entrants to an industry will aim to gain market share through putting pressure on price, costs or investments (Porter 2008, p. 80). The clothing and textile industry has many players, none of which have a dominant market share although Pacific Brands are one of the largest in the industry (Magner 2016, p. 18). Low cost of entry means that the threat of new entrants is moderate, however Pacific Brands is well entrenched in the Australian psyche through brand recognition and economies of scale. This force is Moderate.

Industry Rivalry

Industry rivalry is a force that examines the competition in the marketplace determined by the number of existing competitors and their capabilities (Arline 2015). There are many business selling similar products, the industry is mature and switching to competition is cheap and easy, meaning industry rivalry is moderately low (Magner 2015, pp. 17-19). This force is Moderate.

2.3 Pacific Brands’ Position in the Industry

Pacific Brands is a large operator in the textile and clothing industry. One that is taking advantage of the benefits of globalisation, international agreements and current economic conditions to drive costs down through moving production offshore. Technological improvements in information sharing and transport processes has ensured the move has been smooth. Taking a large amount of production to foreign facilities is counter to many Australian’s attitudes towards keeping operations in Australia, however responding with ethical programs has helped alleviate the issue.

Having analysed the textile and clothing industry that Pacific Brands operates within, it is clear that the company is in a good position well entrenched into a mature yet profitable market with a moderate level of rivalry. The organisation is not burdened by oppressive supplier or consumer demands or controls. However, the threat of substitutes and new entrants means that the organisation must remain vigilant and innovative to remain in its industry leading position.

3 Transportation Roles, Modes and Management

Transportation is critical to Pacific Brands because it enables them to purchase raw materials from all over the world as well as produce their clothing in areas of the world with lower costs and therefore increase profitability. It is important to consider that with transportation although it is an additional cost to an organisation the costs are normally offset by a reduction in overall cost by using an off shored processing or manufacturing plant. On top of reducing processing and manufacturing costs transportation allows the organisation to take advantages of goods that are not available locally such as cotton.

Intermodal transport is a transportation methodology where a combination of transportation types are used on the overall transportation of goods (Coyle et al 2011). This can include road, rail, sea and air as well as pipeline infrastructure. Road transportation is the most common form of transportation and has the advantage of being able to travel to and from most locations within a country or continent however it is limited for long haul transport due to geographical constraints such as oceans and unsafe countries or areas. Road transport generally consists of trucks but can also include motorbikes for smaller deliveries or vans and cars for medium sized deliveries (Coyle et al 2011). Rail and pipelines both have similar advantages and constraints being that whilst they are cost effective for large scale transportation they are a point to point solution where the cost to change the source or destination location would be prohibitive, additionally pipelines are only useful for large volumes of liquid or gaseous substances so hold no transportation usage for Pacific Brands (Coyle et al 2011).

The other two primary transportation methods that Pacific Brands would need to consider are air and sea transport as these both enable the intercontinental transportation of goods and enable the goods or materials to reach Australia from their original location. As with all the other methods of transportation these methods have pros and cons which would help drive the organisation’s decision as to which method to utilise. Air transportation is generally used for small, high cost and time sensitive freight due to the constraints around aircraft weight, the size of the cargo space in an aircraft and the cost of transportation compared to other methods (Coyle et al 2011). Sea cargo on the other hand is slower, has greater cargo volume and is therefore cheaper on an item by item cost. The disadvantages of shipping is that the items take longer to arrive at their destination and as with rain and air transportation the goods are not delivered to their final location and must be used in conjunction with another mode of transportation (Coyle et al 2011). This is where the benefit of intermodal transportation can be realised as it enables an increased flexibility in the source and destination as well as increasing flexibility for the organisation by enabling them to select a more cost efficient or time efficient shipping method.

Most goods in the current global market place are transported using more than one transportation method. There are a number of different ways that Pacific Brands could transport their goods from raw materials to manufacture to retail but it is also important to consider that there are a number of steps that precede, and a number that are dependent on, most of these tasks. Much of the transportation occurs even before Pacific Brands can manufacture the end product, either offshore or locally in Australia, and considers the transportation methods for getting the goods to the end consumer.

Pacific Brands as an organisation is made up of a number of different clothing brands that are manufactured from a number of locations in Australia, China, Indonesia, Cambodia and India which comprises of around 150 individual factories (Pacific Brands 2016). Due to the nature of the goods that Pacific Brands is transporting, namely clothing items, it is immediately apparent that pipelines would be unacceptable for transportation due to the goods being neither in a liquid or gaseous form. Which leaves rail, road, air and sea as the available transportation options that they would need to consider. Given the number of factory locations it is unlikely that they would all be serviced by a sea port, airport or railway station so it is necessary for these items to travel on roads to get the goods from the warehouses or manufacturing plants to the warehouse hub that will facilitate the next leg of the journey to the items final location. To get the items or materials to Australia it would be recommended that Pacific Brands utilises sea transport as the materials or completed clothing items are of a relatively low value, large bulk, low weight and are not time dependent which means that the cost of air freight would be prohibitive against the costs of the goods being transported (Coyle et al 2011).

Once the method of transportation is determined, in this case a combination of road and sea, then it is necessary to consider if the transportation will be done by the organisation or by a third party logistics organisation. It would be unreasonable and unnecessarily costly for Pacific Brands to have their own shipping fleet so this component of the transportation should be outsourced to a specialised organisation. To transport the goods to and from the seaport Pacific Brands could have their own vehicles or they could use a third party. To make the best decision for the organisation they need to consider the costs and reliability of available third party logistics organisations against the costs of having the road transportation arranged and managed in house. The countries that Pacific Brands have factories in are all common manufacturing locations and therefore have developed transportation systems that would be efficient in getting goods from manufacturers, warehouses and sea or airports. For this reason it would be recommended that Pacific Brands partners with an experienced and reliable third party logistics organisation instead of managing the logistics in house (Coyle et al 2011).

4 Technology for Effective Management of Transportation

The advancement of technology within the transport sector has become critical within the last five years for Pacific Brands due to the use of intermodal transport systems for the receipt and delivery of their products. In the past Pacific Brands had used basic technology such as GPS trackers to monitor vehicle and stock movements while in transit. Pacific Brands found that GPS tracking was not sufficient in monitoring stock once it had been delivered. The implementation of an Intelligent Transport System of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Device) tags in conjunction with a SMART transportation programme was required (Stefansson & Lumsden 2009). The SMART programme can be provided through companies such as Intel and Epicor.

4.1 SMART Transportation Programme

The SMART transportation programme enables Pacific Brands to be connected with suppliers, customers, individual company departments, drivers, government agencies and wholesalers. The Smart transportation programme provides Pacific Brands with information on the performance and sustainability of transport used throughout the supply chain (Stefansson & Lumsden 2009).

Capabilities

The capability of the SMART transportation programme provides trip related information to drivers regarding weather conditions, petrol stations, accommodation, rest areas and weigh stations (Intel 2016). Vehicle efficiency information is provided to both drivers and management via the Smart programme. The programme enables a reduction in fuel consumption by monitoring road conditions, driving patterns, roadworks, traffic delays and alternate vehicle routes to or from the delivery destination (Intel 2016).

Driver Performance

Driver Performance information can be viewed and accessed by management of Pacific Brands in the form of data analysis through the programme. This enables Logistics, Operations and Human Resources management to monitor drivers habits, identify drivers that may need retraining in road safety, delivery procedures and fatigue management procedures (Intel 2016). In turn this information can be used to lower insurance costs, raise fleet performance and improve profitability for the company by improving customer satisfaction.

Vehicle Management

Vehicle Management information is provided and can be accessed by Operations, Workshop Maintenance, Logistics and Accounts managers through the SMART programme (Stefansson & Lumsden 2009). The information is based on near real time data of vehicle performance, freight status and environmental conditions. The system also alerts drivers and managers to vehicle repairs, itinerary changes, accidents, theft of freight, vehicle breakdown assistance and natural disasters (Intel 2016).

Fleet Visibility

Fleet Visibility information which is based on data from drivers, vehicles, freight and surrounding conditions such as roadworks, detours or road closures (Intel 2016). The data is provided by the programme and is used in conjunction with the Operations Department of Pacific Brands to make decisions on the safest and most efficient route to take for successful freight delivery.

Streamline Routing

Streamline Routing information can be entered in real time by the Operations Department. It enables the driver to avoid congestion and in turn results in a vehicle with lower fuel consumption and faster delivery times (Stefansson & Lumsden 2009).

Vehicle Security

Vehicle Security SMART programme can authenticate drivers by fingerprint or iris recognition and it can also provide features such as geo-fencing which alerts operations if the driver has diverted from the route. Geo-fencing works in conjunction with either GPS or RFID systems and incorporates Google earth to create a virtual barrier within the system, this barrier is inputted by the Operations Manager or Supervisor. Operations staff can monitor the system at all times (Stefansson & Lumsden 2009).

The benefit of linking Pacific Brands with Intelligent Transport Systems such as the Intel Smart programme is that the technology is readily available, compatible with most companies existing systems and is easily affordable due to the programme being cloud based (Intel 2016). Technology is able to provide Pacific Brands with real time information on all facets of transportation within the daily operation of the company.

5 Transportation Issues and Suggested Approaches

Despite the numerous opportunities the current market offers for major operators such as Pacific Brands, the future poses challenges especially regarding the road infrastructure in Australia that impacts online shopping and upstream and downstream transportation as well as rising fuel costs and the impact and cost of security and technological advancement. Unexpected events can result in disruption of the usual movement of products through the Pacific Brands supply chain network that ultimately exposes transportation and operational functions towards financial risks, product loss, damage, contamination, delivery delays, interruptions and security breaches (Coyle et al 2011).

To confront this issue Li, Ren and Wang (2016) propose developing risk models based on cause and effects within the system boundaries and considering models created under different scenarios can explore the system performance, benchmark system behaviour and risk circumstances to screen out the critical hazards to establish flexible model modification function to measure the outcomes of alternative risks. Bezes (2016, p. 284-300) identified that the risks associated with logistics and performance are higher and dissuasive for online purchases but monetary and time constraints tend to predominantly or exclusively discourage in-store purchasing.  Online shopping means that consumers are bypassing the conventional supply chain network as the traditional bricks and mortar retail model will become less important and cause stress to the profit margins in businesses (Hodgson 2014).

To combat this concern Pacific Brands should not look merely to a single risk but rather should consider its actual impact on their customer’s final decision to mitigate against all perceived risk (Bezes 2016). Welborn (2010) suggests that consumers are paying more on hidden costs such as fuel surcharges and overall transportation costs as a result of rising cost of crude oil. Sufficient implementation of vehicle management, streamline routine, fleet visibility via SMART programs will provide a key advantage in strategically lowering transportation costs (Stefansson & Lumsden 2009).

Technology such as GPS trackers to monitor vehicle and stock movements while in transit will open Pacific Brands to an increased risk of cyber-attacks due to extensive variety of confidential data streaming throughout Pacific Brands supply chain system. No enterprise is completely immune, therefore the increased number of devices and control systems that are connected means they are more prone and vulnerable to disruption (Marsh.com 2016) and disruption to Pacific Brand’s transport system. Authentication Procedures to further understand the threats and risks will allow Pacific Brands develop strategies in responses to incidents to ensure minimum impact towards transportation operations.

It is recommended that Pacific Brands implements security practises that establish successful risk reduction in line with their transportation system to enhance identification of threats and risks towards Pacific Brands by sustaining embarked engagement.

6 Recommendations

Pacific Brands is a major competitor within the Australian Textile, Clothing and Footwear industry. The company is taking advantage of offshore manufacturing with most of its manufacturing being conducted by China. Based on the preceding analysis and research done for this report in the areas of the Supply Chain position within the Australian Textiles, Clothing and Footwear Industry, Technological management of Transportation, Transport Management for the Upstream and Downstream Supply Chain and Modal transport these recommendations are as follows.

  • The company is trading well inside an established industry. The organisation is in a position to derive the benefits of globalisation and economic trends. Constant monitoring of the Australian Dollar against China’s Yuan must continue so as to allow maximum profits and minimal cost.
  • Constant product innovation and development needs to be implemented so as the threat of any new entrants or substitutes does not affect Pacific Brands buying and supplier power.
  • Implementation of a third party logistics transport provider within offshore countries that Pacific Brands uses to manufacture their merchandise. This will be used to reduce overall costs with all modes of transport and provide a shipping agent service.
  • Smart Technology is to be used by vehicles along with RFID tags, this combination of technology will be able to monitor and protect the merchandise nationally and globally.
  • Cloud based integrated transport systems will enable Pacific Brands, chosen third party logistics providers and the customer base to communicate in real time status regarding departure and delivery of stock, along with day to day office functions such as ordering stock, paying accounts and wages, and generating reports.
  • Consistent reviews and monitoring is recommended to improve disputes associated with transportation, whilst conducting partial examination of strategies will ensure Pacific Brands capabilities of scanning for newer risks.
  • Implementation of security practises that establishes successful Risk ascendancy in line with their transportation system to enhance identification to threats and risks to Pacific Brands by sustaining embarked engagement.

7 Conclusion

Pacific Brands has been in the marketplace since 1893, within that time Pacific Brands has become a major global player in marketing and supplying of various Australian brands. The main purpose of the report was to research and analyse Pacific Brands within the Australian Textile, Clothing and Footwear Supply Chain. Further research was warranted to analyse and explain the effective management of transport through modes of transport, implementation of third party logistics operators and technological advances within the transport industry which in turn could be incorporated into vehicles and operation centre.

Because of Australia’s changing economic position especially with the commencement of the free trade agreement with China in December 2015 there is a need for Pacific Brands to adjust their tactical and strategic planning to anticipate possible changes to supply and demand of their merchandise. China already process 66% of Pacific Brands merchandise so it is important that constant monitoring of the Australian dollar against the Chinese yuan is performed and taken into consideration in future demand and supply reports. The implementation of modern technology systems and third party logistics operators that can perform national and global transportation for both upstream and downstream supply chains on behalf of Pacific Brands under contractible legal agreements. Proper acquisition of a third party provider will enable Pacific Brands to transport their merchandise nationally and globally on a scale that is equal to or better than industry competition. This in turn will create more growth and greater profits for Pacific Brands and will enable them to become an industry leader within the field of the Australian Textiles, Clothing and Footwear industry.

The China-Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) came into effect 20 December 2015 presenting Australian businesses with enormous opportunities (austrade, 2017). Opening up free trade with potentially our ‘biggest trading partner’ has essentially ended mass local production. Australian businesses will now have to factor in other considerations such as currency fluctuation and lead times

Cost relationships and globalization in the Australian clothing industry
Lila J. Truett & Dale B. Truett

8 References

Arline, K 2015, Porter’s Five Forces: Analyzing the Competition, Business News Daily, viewed 12 August 2016, <http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/5446-porters-five-forces.html>.

Baltzan, P, Lynch, K & Blakey, P 2013, Business driven information systems, McGraw-Hill Australia, North Ryde.

Bezes, C 2016, ‘Comparing online and in-store risks in multichannel shopping’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 284-300.

Coyle, J, Novack, R, Gibson, B & Bardi, E 2011, Transportation: A supply chain perspective, 7th edn, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016, Trade and Investment, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, viewed 14 August 2016, <http://dfat.gov.au/trade/Pages/trade-and-investment.aspx>.

Epicor 2016, Supply Chain Management, viewed 15 August 2016, <http://www.epicor.com/australia/solutions/supply-chain-management.aspx>.

Gupta, A 2013, ‘Environmental and pest analysis: An approach to external business environment’, Merit Research Journal of Art, Social Science and Humanities, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 13-17.

Havrila, I & Gunawardana, P 2003, ‘Analysing Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness: An Application to Australia’s Textile and Clothing Industries’, Australian Economic Papers, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 103-117.

Intel 2016, Transforming Fleet Transportation with IoL Technologies, viewed 16 August 2016, < http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/internet-of-things/infographics/iot-transportation-infographic.html>.

Ketikidis, P, Koh, S, Dimitriadis, N, Gunasekaran, A & Kehajova, M 2008, ‘The use of information systems for logistics and supply chain management in South East Europe: Current status and future direction’, Omega – The International Journal of Management Science, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 592-599.

Li, C, Ren, J & Wang, H 2016, ‘A system dynamics simulation model of chemical supply chain transportation risk management systems’, Computers & Chemical Engineering, vol. 89, pp. 71-83.

Magner, L 2015, Textile Product Wholesaling in Australia, IBISWorld, F3711.

Magner, L 2016, Clothing Wholesaling in Australia, IBISWorld, F3713.

Marsh Inisghts 2015, Cyber Risk in the Transportation Industry, Marsh.com, viewed 30th August 2016, <https://www.marsh.com/content/dam/marsh/Documents/PDF/UK-en/Cyber%20Risk%20in%20the%20Transportation%20Industry-03-2015.pdf>.

Marsh.com. (2016). Cyber Risk in the Transportation Industry. [online] Available at: https://www.marsh.com/uk/insights/research/cyber-risk-in-the-transportation-industry.html [Accessed 30 Aug. 2016].

Pacific Brands 2016, Where We Source, Pacific Brands, viewed 12 August 2016, <http://www.pacificbrands.com.au/ethical-sourcing/where-we-source/>.

http://www.hanesaustralasia.com.au/ethical-sourcing/where-we-source.

Porter, M 2008, ‘The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 78-93.

Robbins, S, DeCenzo, D, Coulter, M & Woods, M 2012, Management: The Essentials, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest.

Stefansson, G & Lumsden, K 2009, ‘Performance issues of Smart Transportation Management systems’, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 55-70.

Sydney Morning Herald, 2009, ‘Pac Brands suffers loss, set to axe 1850 jobs’, Sydney Morning Herald, viewed 14 August 2016, <http://www.smh.com.au/business/pac-brands-suffers-loss-set-to-axe-1850-jobs-20090224-8h6x>.

Webber, M & Weller, S 2002, ‘Trade and Inequality: Australia’s textile, clothing and footwear industries, 1986‐96’, Journal of Economic Geography, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 381–403.

Welborn, C 2010, “Fuel costs and supply chain decisions”, Journal of Transportation Management, no. 7, p. p.75.

Weller, S 2007, ‘Retailing, Clothing and Textiles Production in Australia’, Working Paper No. 29 Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, pp. 1-18.

9 Peer evaluation 

Self-evaluation
Name: Nicola Hallett Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
Regularly and productively contributed to the group wiki 1 2 3 4 5
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Peer evaluation
Group member’s name: Elizabeth Lovell Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
Regularly and productively contributed to the group wiki 1 2 3 4 5
Equally participated to produce the group report 1 2 3 4 5
Group member’s name: Ben FairFax Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
Regularly and productively contributed to the group wiki 1 2 3 4 5
Equally participated to produce the group report 1 2 3 4 5
Group member’s name: Lokugamage Perera Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
Regularly and productively contributed to the group wiki 1 2 3 4 5
Equally participated to produce the group report 1 2 3 4 5

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