Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency In Foundries

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ABSTRACT

Foundry is a standout amongst the most energy concentrated metallurgical industries. Foundries are related with expansive energy consumption requiring the need to look for approaches to limit their energy consumption. This study aimed to build up the energy effectiveness of foundries and it’s casting procedures with the perspective of formulating intends to decrease on their energy consumption. This was accomplished by studying the energy consumption factors of foundries and enterprise alike with comparable energy constraints obliges utilizing information got from past reviews and practical works, basing on this information, energy deficiency factors and preservation measures could be distinguished. The melting procedure expends the greatest piece of the aggregate energy consumed, at 70% in the foundries. This requires the work of more energy efficient melting methods. Execution of energy administration programs keeping in mind the end goal to decrease energy requirements per unit of yield is in this way suggested. Distinctive energy conservation measures that can be utilized in this division were distinguished. Some of these can be executed by embracing straightforward strategies while others require high capital investment. It is therefore prescribed that these organizations begin by actualizing the ease arrangements and continuously move to the capital-escalated arrangements.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION STATEMENT

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

GLOSSARY

1. Introduction

1.1 The objective of this study

1.2 Reason for this study

2. Background Research

2.1 Foundry Description………………………………………….2

2.2 Brief Explanation Of Casting…………………………………….4

3. Sand Casting………………………………………………6

3.1 Equipments and Tooling ………………………………………9

4.       Literature Review in Energy Efficiency Factors…………………………13

4.1. Definition Of Energy Efficiency………………………………….13

4.2 Factors Enhancing Energy Efficiency………………………………15

4.3 Factors Constraining  Energy Efficiency…………………………….20

5.     Casting Simulation Software……………………………………..24

5.1 Choice of Casting Simulation Software……………………………..25

6.     Experiment ………………………………………………..26

6.1 Overview and Setup of Simulation………………………………..26

6.2   Catia Part Model…………………………………………..29

6.1 Results…………………………………………………30

6.1 Result Analysis……………………………………………31

7.       Conclusion………………………………………………..37

8.       References……………………………………………….38

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 – Sand Casting Process Flow                                                                                       

Figure 2 – Open Mould

Figure 3 – Close Mould                                                                                                               10

Figure 4  – Simulation Steps                                                                                                       26

Figure 5  – Ingate Position                                                                                                          27 

Figure 6  – Catia Model                                                                                                              29

Figure 7  – Turbulent Flow                                                                                                          30

Figure 8 – Porosity Build up                                                                                                       31

Figure 9 –  Mould Erosion                                                                                                           31

Figure 10 – Change In Shape                                                                                                     31

Figure 11 – Early Solidification                                                                                                   32

Figure 12  – Material Flow                                                                                                           33

Figure 13  – Formation of Cold Shuts                                                                                          33

Figure 14 – Uniform Metal Flow                                                                                                  34

Figure 15 – Zero Formation Of Cold Shuts                                                                                 34

Figure 16 – Zero Oxide Build Up                                                                                               34

Table 1 – Experiments Constant Values                                                                                     27

Table 2 – Results                                                                                                                         30

1.   Introduction

1.1 The objective of this study

Energy efficiency and reducing pollution are prime goals of every single one country around the world. Rise in world population and shortage of energy resources and significant increase in pollution have lead towards energy saving by more effective use of fuels such as coal, oil, gas and wherever likely use of renewable resources. Energy consumption by various areas has been investigated thoroughly and reported in many reports. Manufacturing accounts for 32% of the total energy consumption. Per the Climate Change Agreement published by UK Government, the foundries sector in the UK needs to attain an energy burden target of 25.7 GJ/tonne. However, the average energy burden for the UK foundry sector is 55 GJ/tonne. [1] Therefore, reducing energy in foundries by increasing efficiency in production line can help to save millions in cost for manufacturing sector and reduce emission.

Consequently, it is essential to discover on which factors enhance and constrain energy efficiency improvement in foundries.

At the same time bearing in mind the vast range of enhancing and constraining factors to improved energy efficiency mentioned to in previous revisions, few research have provided to the assessment of factors influencing energy efficiency in foundries

To have an in-depth view on the foundry energy-efficiency, the study will be focused on the based question throughout the study:

  1. Procedures and operations of foundries that can constraint and increase energy efficiency.

1.2           Reason for this study

  1. Creating a better sustainable and value efficient foundry:

Foundries is tackling a problem of in-efficient procedures and equipment’s. Energy cost typically causes for nearly 30% of the entire cost in foundries. Enhancing energy efficiency is one of the effective approaches to aid the industry to minimize cost, while to some enterprises, means to improve energy efficiency may be expensive and may reduce competitiveness slightly in short term. With clarifying the factors that affect energy efficiency, this research delivers considered propositions to foundry to become more efficient and sustainable.

2.    Background Research

2.1  Foundry Description

A foundry is a place where castings are produced using molten metal as per an end client’s requirements. This fundamental metal requirement between foundries fall under ferrous (iron or steel) and non-ferrous (aluminium, metal, bronze, copper).

There are a few procedures accessible to create castings. Sand moulding, where the reproduction of a completed piece (or pattern) is compacted with sand and binder added substances to frame shape of the completed part, is likely the most widely recognized type of production. The pattern is removed after the mould or impression has been created and afterward the metal is acquainted through a runner framework which fills the cavity. The sand and the metal is then isolated and the casting is then cleaned and completed for shipment to the client.

Castings have applications in practically every capital and customer merchandise. Castings are utilized as a part of autos, trucks, railways, ships, a wide range of apparatus, ventilation systems, iceboxes, grass trimmers, weight lifting, oil and gas field hardware, water works, mining and farming gear. To put it plainly, castings represents to an indispensable yet exceptionally essential part of our regular daily existences

Foundry manages casting methods, a procedure where the melted fluids are filled into moulds. This shape the initial step towards producing an item. Foundry Industry assumes an essential part in the industrial advancement. Begun as early as 3600 BC, the foundry industry has prospered exceptionally well and is probably going to become even larger [2]. Castings are utilized for assortment of commercial and industrial applications which incorporates vehicles, plumbing apparatuses, trains, and aviation sector. Small and medium scope enterprise contribute to a great extent to the casting business. Depending on the sort of end users, the wide assortment of moulding or the casting procedure can be essentially partitioned into 2 areas; [2]

  1. Commercial foundry
  2.  hobby foundry.

Commercial Castings are the process which are utilized as a part of different applications. Production volume is high in this sort of casting. In these sort of foundries, the materials utilized for casting is recuperated and reused for later use in the production of different castings. They serve ventures like Chemical Processing, Fabricated Metal Products, Railroad Equipment, Machine Tools, Farm Machinery, Fire and Rescue, Construction, Mining and Material Handling, Electronic/Electrical Equipment, Food Service Equip and Machinery, Pumps and Compressor Manufacturers, Engine and Turbine Manufacturers, and mining [2]. This sort of foundry offers semi-items or the completed items, including machining and coating.

Hobby Foundry can be characterized as fundamental metal casting setup in the home or lawn by side interest metal experts to make little castings for different needs. A home foundry is not the same as a commercial foundry in the way it is by and large setup utilizing things and hardware that are effortlessly accessible in the market and can be utilized to perform straightforward metal casting works.

Casting has turned out to be more useful contrasted and alternate strategies for manufacturing parts. Both Commercial castings and industrial castings depend essentially on metal castings. Metal castings are characterized into two sorts; Ferrous and Non-Ferrous metals castings. [2]

Over 80% of the metal casting are utilized by the iron and steel industry. Grey Iron goes about as the most used and significant parts of a few industrially utilized items which are trailed by Cast Steel, Ductile Iron and afterward non-ferrous. [3]

Casting has proved to be more valuable compared with the other methods of manufacturing components. Both Commercial castings and industrial castings rely mainly on Metal castings. Metal castings are classified into two types; Ferrous and Non-Ferrous metals castings.

More than 80% of the metal casts are used by the iron and steel industry. Grey Iron acts as the most versatile and major components of several commercially used products which are followed by Cast Steel, Ductile Iron and then non-ferrous. [2]

  1.  Brief Explanation of Casting

Casting is one of the oldest metal forming processes, depend on pouring the melt metal into a required shaped mould and wait until it solidifies [1]. It is often used to manufacture intricate parts, which are too expensive or time straining to produce by other procedures. However, casting probably is one of the greatest demanding manufacturing process. It is a highly technical engineering process in need of in-depth scientific understanding. A conventional modern casting process contains six different stages, specifically melting, alloying, moulding, pouring, solidification and finishing correspondingly. On every phase, greater level and precision of process control is essential [1]. Casting process also is one of the most energy concentrated manufacturing processes. The metal melting consumes over half of the energy in a casting process. Therefore, the costs on the casting process has been a substantial concern due to the increasing of the energy prices. [4]

Castings are designed to create molten metals, mouldable plastics and various other materials [2]. Differing upon the size and nature of the castings, Commercial foundry prepares the Caster. Bench Moulding, Floor Moulding, Pit Moulding, Machine Moulding, Stack Moulding are some of the types used today. [2]

Some of the most common casting techniques involved in the foundry are

  1.  Die casting,
  2. Shell casting,
  3. Investment casting
  4. lost foam casting.

Apart from techniques mentioned above, Sand Casting is the most customary casting process used in foundries. Detailed process description of sand casting would be explained in Section 3 due to the complexity of the process.

  1. Die Casting:

Die casting is a multipurpose process enabling the high-speed production of complicated and difficult appliances on a large scale [2]. The die casting foundry has straightforward assembly line production enabling motor and metal industries to produce sturdy products. Die-casting products create more than 20% of daily household uses [2]. Engineers and scientists predict that the importance of die-casting will only grow in the future. The die-casting industry is going to develop from strength to strength due to various technological advances. Die casting products have successfully move into every scope of household, commercial and industrial life. Their applications can be found in common household appliances such as faucets to complex commercial and industrial applications in the automobile industry.

  1. Shell Casting:

Shell mould casting is a metal casting process like sand casting, since molten metal is poured into a not reusable mould [5]. However, in shell mould casting, the mould is a thin-walled shell formed from applying a sand-resin mixture around the pattern. The pattern, a metal piece in the shape of the designed part, is reused to form several shell moulds. A reusable pattern permits for better production rates [5], while the disposable moulds allow complex geometries to be cast. Shell mould casting needs the use of a metal pattern, oven, sand-resin mixture, dump box, and molten metal. Shell mould casting enables the use of both ferrous and non-ferrous metal.

 

  1. Investment Casting:

Investment casting is a plaster-like material which can withstand high temperatures during casting and soldering. Foundry work on a casting process known as “Investment casting”, also called lost-wax casting, which is one of the oldest known metal-forming practices. Throughout the process of castings, metals are melted in various types of furnace depending upon the raw materials used. Cupola, Electric Induction, Crucible are one of the regularly used types found today in most commercial foundries.

Laterally with the increased inclination of commercial foundries, there is also numerous worries about the emission created by foundries. Worldwide individual government is completely tackling to the environmental effect. This will lead to improve the efficiency of foundries and make them more environmentally responsive. [2]

 

  1. Lost Foam Casting:

Lost foam casting technique (LFC) is identified by various names like lost foam, evaporative pattern casting, evaporative foam casting, and full mould. Like full mould process, in this process the pattern evaporates when the metal is poured into the mould. Lost foam casting is a type of metal casting process that uses expendable foam patterns to produce castings. Expanded polystyrene foam is used which melts when molten metal is poured into the mould. [6]

  1. Sand Casting

A brief description on sand casting process will be informative before we indulge more in depth to process stages, tool used in the process and materials required.

Melting and handling molten metal are the two most critical components in the overall metal casting operations. Molten metal processing is an opportunity for refining and quality enhancement.

As known, sand casting has been the most popular casting methods producing by far the highest castings used by leading metal manufactures around the globe Sand casting is also known as Sand moulded casting. Over 70% of all metal castings are produced using sand casting process.

Sand Casting has 7 essential process stages: [7]

  1. Pattern Making
  2. Mould making
  3. Clamping
  4. Pouring
  5. Cooling
  6. Removal
  7. Trimming

 

Sand Casting Stages In-Detail; [7], [8]. [9]

  1. Pattern Making

Before the mould making process, the pattern of the shape or object which is needed to be fabricated is build.

  1. Mould Making

The mould is created using the pattern created from the previous stage for casting. The mould must be preformed for each casting due to quality purposes. The mould is formed by packing sand into each half of the mould and as well as around the mould pattern. Once the sand surrounding the pattern hardens and forms a solid

surface, the pattern is the removed, only left with the cavity that will form the shape or design of the casting. The sand is packed through a vibratory process called ramming. Separate cores are formed to produces internal features of the casting which can’t be formed by patterns. The separate cores are made out of sand prior to the formation of the mould. Positioning the pattern, packing the sand and pattern removal are part of the mould making duration. Mould making time is also influenced by the size of the surface, part complexity, number of cores and type of sand mould used. Lubrication is often used on the surface to assist in casting removal. Apart from that, application of lubricant also improves the flow of the metal and improves surface finishing. Sand and molten metal temperature influences in the choice of lubricant used.

  1. Clamping

After mould making process, clamping is the next step. When the mould has been made, it must be set for the molten metal to be poured into. Surface of the mould cavity is first lubricated to facilitate the removal of the casting. Then, mould halves are closed, cores are placed accordingly, and finally secured with clamps.

  1. Pouring

The cast molten metal is maintained at a required temperature in the furnace. Upon securing the mould with clamps, the molten metal then will ladle from its holding container in the furnace and poured in to the mould.

  1. Cooling

Subsequently after pouring, the molten metal will begin to cool down and solidify once it enters the cavity. Once the whole cavity is filled and the molten metal hardens, the desired shape of the casting is created. The mould can only be unfastened once the cooling time of the molten metal is completed. The needed cooling time can be approximated based on thickness of the casting wall and temperature of the metal. Most of the time, possible defects or irregularities occur during the solidification process. Generally, most metal has various cool times which if not accounted for in the beginning, may exhibit defects on the finished part such as, shrinkage, cracks, porosity and cold shuts which are common during casting process if preventive measures aren’t taken during the design phase which also will affect the energy efficiency of the process.

  1. Removal

Upon completion of the cooling process or solidification of the cast, the casting can be removed by simply breaking the sand mould. These step is known as shakeout. Its commonly done by a vibrating machine that vibrates the sand mould and casting out of the flask. Upon removal, the casting most likely to have rough amount of sand and oxidise layer adhered to the surface. Generally, shot-blasting is utilized to eliminate any remaining sand, particularly from the internal surface and reduce the surface roughness.

Surface roughness is caused from manufacturing process. It’s usually measured in root mean square(RMS) of the finished part surface variation. Commonly, manufacturing process causes the surface roughness to be around 32-250 micrometres, after surface finishing process, it will have reduced to 1-32 micrometres.

  1. Trimming

Throughout the cooling process, the material from the channels in the mould hardens and attaches itself to the part. Unnecessary metal must be trimmed from the casting either manually via cutting or sawing or using a trimming process. Size of the casting’s envelope determine the time needed to trim the additional material.

Casting Envelope is sometimes known as a bounding box that contains the part. Typically, larger cast part needs longer duration to trim. Scrap materials which were trimmed off will be reused in the next sand casting process. However, the scrap material need to be reconditioned to the required chemical properties before combining it with non-recycled metals.

The overall procedure of sand casting process is explained in an illustrated diagram in Figure 1

Figure 1

Sand Casting Process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1.          Equipment and tools used in Sand Casting Process

In sand casting process, there are numerous tooling and equipment that are required to complete the casting process. It varies from clamps to furnaces used to melt the metal and mould to from the shape of the casting. Therefore, I have chosen 3 primary equipment and tools that are deem essential for sand casting process;

  1. Mould
  2. Sand
  3. Pattern

Mould

In sand casting, the essential bit of equipment is the mould, which contains a few parts. The mould is partitioned into two parts – the cope (upper half) and the drag (base half) [10], which meet along a separating line. Separating line is the line along a section where the mould parts separate. Both mould parts are contained inside a crate called a flask. Both mould parts are contained inside a container, called a flask, which itself is isolated along this separating line. The mould cavity is created by pressing sand around the pattern of the flask. The sand can be stuffed by hand, yet machines that utilize pressure guarantee notwithstanding pressing of the sand and require far less time, along these lines expanding the generation rate. After the sand has been packed and the pattern is detached, a cavity will remain that structures the outside state of the casting. Certain inner surfaces of the casting might be shaped by cores.

Cores are extra pieces that frame the interior openings and sections of the casting. Cores are ordinarily made from sand with the specific purpose that they can be shaken out of the cast. Accordingly, sand core take into consideration the creation of numerous complex internal components. Each core is situated in the mould before the molten metal is poured. With a specific end goal to keep each core in place, the pattern has openings called core prints where the core can be secured. Be that as it may, the core may move because of buoyancy in the metal. Additionally, support is given to the cores by chaplets. These are little metal pieces that are secured among the cores and the cavity exterior [7]. Chaplets should be constructed from  metal with a higher melting temperature than that of the metal being cast keeping in mind the end goal to keep up their structure[7]. After hardening, the chaplets will have been thrown inside the cast and the excess material of the chaplets that remains must be cut off.

Apart from the external and internal components of the casting, different elements must be fused into the mould to suit the stream of molten metal. The molten metal is filled a pouring basin, which is a vast depression in the highest point of the sand mould. The molten metal pipes out of the base of basin and down the primary channel, called the sprue. The sprue then interfaces with a series of channels, called runners, which conveys the molten metal into the cavity. Toward the end of every runner, the molten metal enters the cavity through an entryway which controls the stream rate and limits turbulence. Regularly associated with the runner framework are risers. Risers are chambers that load with molten metal, giving an extra source of metal amid solidification. At the point when the casting cools, the molten metal will reduce in size and extra metal is required. A comparable feature that guides in lessening shrinkage is an open riser. The first material to enter the cavity is permitted to go totally through and enter the open riser. This methodology avoids early hardening of the molten metal and gives a source of metal to make up for shrinkage. Finally, small channels are incorporated that keep running from the cavity to the outside of the mould. These channels go about as venting openings to permit gasses to release from the cavity. The porosity of the sand likewise permits air to get away, yet extra vents are now and then required. The molten metal that courses through the all part of the channels (sprue, runners, and risers) will join to the casting and should be isolated from the part after it is removed.

Figure 2 and Figure 3 shows the illustrated explanation of open and closed sand mould [10]

Figure 3 – Closed Mould

Figure 2- Open Mould

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAND

The sand that is utilized to make the moulds is commonly silica sand (SiO2) [10], that is added with a type of binder to help preserve the design of the mould cavity. Utilizing sand as the mould material offers a few advantages to the casting procedure. Sand is exceptionally cheap and is impervious to high temperatures, permitting many metals to be cast that have high melting temperatures. There are distinctive arrangements of the sand for the shape, which portray the accompanying four interesting types of sand moulds; [10]

Greensand mould – Greensand moulds use a mixture of sand, water, and a clay or binder. Typical composition of the mixture is 90% sand, 3% water, and 7% clay or binder. Greensand moulds are the least expensive and most widely used.

Skin-dried mould – A skin-dried mould begins like a greensand mould, but additional bonding materials are added and the cavity surface is dried by a torch or heating lamp to increase mould strength. Doing so also improves the dimensional accuracy and surface finish, but will lower the collapsibility. Dry skin moulds are more expensive and require more time, thus lowering the production rate.

Dry sand mould – In a dry sand mould, sometimes called a cold box mould, the sand is mixed only with an organic binder. The mould is strengthened by baking it in an oven. The resulting mould has high dimensional accuracy, but is expensive and results in a lower production rate.

No-bake mould – The sand in a no-bake mould is mixed with a liquid resin and hardens at room temperature.

 

Pattern

The primary tooling for sand casting is the pattern that is utilized to make the mould cavity. The pattern is a full-size model of the part that makes an impression in the sand mould. Nonetheless, some internal surfaces may not be incorporated into the pattern, as they will be made by individual cores. The pattern is made to be bigger than the part because the casting will contract inside the mould cavity. Additionally, a few indistinguishable patterns might be utilized to make numerous impressions in the sand mould, therefore making different cavities that will deliver the same number of parts in one casting.

A pattern for a part can be made in many ways, which are categorized into the following four types: [10],[11]

  1. Solid pattern – A solid pattern is a model of the part as a single piece. It is the easiest to fabricate, but can cause some difficulties in making the mould. The parting line and runner system must be determined separately. Solid patterns are typically used for geometrically simple parts that are produced in low quantities.
  2. Split pattern – A split pattern models the part as two separate pieces that meet along the parting line of the mould. Using two separate pieces allows the mould cavities in the cope and drag to be made separately and the parting line is already determined. Split patterns are typically used for parts that are geometrically complex and are produced in moderate quantities.
  3. Match-plate pattern – A match-plate pattern is like a split pattern, except that each half of the pattern is attached to opposite sides of a single plate. The plate is usually made from wood or metal. This pattern design ensures proper alignment of the mould cavities in the cope and drag and the runner system can be included on the match plate. Match-plate patterns are used for larger production quantities and are often used when the process is automated.
  4. Cope and drag pattern – A cope and drag pattern is like a match plate pattern, except that each half of the pattern is attached to a separate plate and the mould halves are made independently. Just as with a match plate pattern, the plates ensure proper alignment of the mould cavities in the cope and drag and the runner system can be included on the plates. Cope and drag patterns are often desirable for larger castings, where a match-plate pattern would be too heavy and cumbersome. They are also used for larger production quantities and are often used when the process is automated.

*The classification of sand mould type and pattern types are quoted completely.

  1. Literature Review of Energy Efficiency Factors

As mentioned above, this research is solely based on the question: Which Procedures and operations of foundries that can constraint and increase energy efficiency and improved sustainability

Due to the difference in fundamentals, these questions are based on my logical outline of the three bodies of literature, one reviewing the concept of energy efficiency, one discusses the factors that enhance energy efficiency and constrains energy efficiency.

The characterisation of the energy efficiency should be explained before investigating factors influencing it. Energy usage is increasing fast with the rapid expansion of the global economy and how to improve energy efficiency with inadequate energy resources is becoming a necessity. Numerous authorities carry out research on energy efficiency from different perceptions and their definition and measurement of the energy efficiency may lead to various justifications. There are various energy efficiency indicators or guides which are applied in foundries and as well various other industries to identify each specific efficiency rating according to its criteria. The energy efficiency indicators would be explained in-depth in Section 4.1

The second and the third section of this chapter are analysis of literature discussing factors that enhance and constrain energy efficiency influencing factors include economical, institutional, administrative and behavioural factors.

  1.         Definition and measurement of energy efficiency

Very definition of energy efficiency refers to creating equal amount of energy or power with the use of less energy [12]. Whereas energy conservation suggests a change in consumer’s behaviour, energy efficiency focuses more on measures to reduce the energy usage without change of appropriate behaviour and simply said that, reducing energy consumption through applying effective procedures instead of producing or consuming lesser products in production or daily routine. Meanwhile, energy efficiency is usually expressed by the ratio between the highest quantity of energy obtainable and the quantity of final energy consumed [13] .

The main guides applied study on energy efficiency are:

  1. energy macro-efficiency
  2. energy physical efficiency
  3.  energy thermodynamics efficiency
  4. Energy Value Efficiency

Occasionally using numerous efficiency guides or indicators at once is necessary because every indicator is based on specific assumptions and has its own advantage and disadvantage.

Energy macro-efficiency:

Energy consumptions are commonly described in energy consumption per GDP to total energy efficiency. This indicator usually stated as the reciprocal of energy intensity that is explained by the ratio between the GDP and energy consumption. Energy intensity are used to indicate energy efficiency when there’s no drastic changes to energy input or else abrupt addition of various energy sources may cause unwanted variation when the input.

Energy physical efficiency:

This indicator represents the energy used per unit of   product or items produces, which is generally termed as physical-thermodynamic indicator where energy input calculated in thermodynamic units [14]. For instance, energy efficiency in the foundry can be measured by the amount of energy needed to produce a ton of steel product. This efficiency guide suits to comparing the efficiency between the foundries with comparable production structures and be used in longitudinal (time series) analysis. Nonetheless, diversity in industries would make the comparison between several other industries would be difficult due to the energy usage in products varies, therefore specifying a products specific energy usage would be difficult which may impair the applicability of this indicator.  [12]

Energy thermodynamics efficiency:

Thermodynamic indicator indicates the degree of deviation of a procedure from the theoretical value [14] The indicator solely based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. First-law efficiency is called thermal efficiency which is expressed by the ratio of value of the output of the process and value of the input. [ 12]

Energy value efficiency:

The similar thermal equivalent can produce different results because of the differentiated energy properties. The energy inputs in certain industries are low however, the energy values may be higher than other industries due to the high amount of high-quality energy (oil, natural gas) in the total energy inputs. The use of energy value efficiency and various efficiency indicators may ease in finding explanations of efficiency between different establishments.

[15 ].

4.2 Factors enhancing energy efficiency

 Improving energy effectiveness and utilizing clean energy are successful approaches to manage the deficiency of energy and the weight of lessening carbon emission. Be that as it may, the cost of utilizing clean and viable energy is high and consequently improving energy efficiency is a more effective technique the length of the energy utilized as a part of day by day life and production. Keeping in mind the end goal to improve energy efficiency, it is essential to determine what factors impact energy efficiency. In view of the past reviews studies conducted, I discover the enhancement factors in energy efficiency include the associated viewpoints:

 

i.                    Technology improvement

Advancements that lessen energy utilization are fundamental with a specific end goal to enhance energy productivity, which is verified by studies by nations. Utilization of panel information to show that the use on energy efficiency R&D, the increase of energy cost in the vicinity of 1997 and 1999, and possession change in industry are the principle variables to advance energy efficiency in developing nations. [16]

Research calculating the rate of energy power variety brought on by innovation likewise confirm the impacts of innovation. With utilizing the information yield technique to demonstrate that innovation change clarifying more than 40% of the energy efficiency variety in China amid 1978-1995 [17].

Other than the quantitative research on relations between innovation change and energy efficiency, there are likewise thinks about concentrating on the impacting system of innovation change. Study clarifies the innovation impacts from three headings: R&D venture, human asset and FDI. Investment on R&D and human asset are essential conditions for innovation in new efficiency hardware and drives energy efficient upgrades by encouraging energy saving mindfulness.

There is certain technological advancement in procedures and equipment that would increase energy efficiency in foundries:

  1. Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT) [18]

Cutting-edge blast furnace is regularly up to 0.15-0.25MPa and therefore potential energy exists in top gas. The Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbine innovation channels the coal gas into the turbine expander by utilizing the top gas squeeze recuperation, changes over weight into the machine energy, and drives the era to create power. Contingent upon the top gas weight, it can create 20-40 kWh power roughly every one ton of iron generation. The more noteworthy the stove is, the higher the furnace top and the shorter the investment recuperation period is. This procedure is accessible to reuse around 30% of the power a blast furnace blower required. Along these lines of energy production does not consume any fuel and in the meantime, it doesn’t create natural contamination however reduces energy cost. As a result of every one of these favourable circumstances, The Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbine innovation is presently a noteworthy energy efficient equipment

  1. Enhance Pouring [19]

While the furnace is pouring, it is not being utilized for melting. Matter of fact, if tapping takes too long, the metal may require reheating, a waste of electrical power. Improved tapping practice to could increase efficiency.

A substantial Midwestern jobbing foundry expanded its liquefy heater usage by 30% essentially by expanding the width of the trough in the exchange washes from the melters to its holding heaters. This not just permitted them to diminish pouring time and, consequently, holding time and furthermore pouring temperature which cut vitality utilization and expanded unmanageable life.

Another approach to decrease energy consumption in the furnace is to pour at the coolest temperature that is practical and stay away from temperature overshooting. For instance, if metal that could have been poured at 2,750°F is permitted to rise under 10% to 3,000°F, heat losses are supported by 33%, utilizing fundamentally more vitality.

  1. Desulfurization technique of sintering machine [20]

The flue gas produced by sintering machine includes sulphur oxide, dust, nitrogen oxides and dioxin and has a serious problem of air pollution. Currently, dry method and wet method of Desulfurization can effectively solve this problem.

  1. Regenerative heating furnace [21]

The significant energy loss in steel rolling is steel roll heating furnace, where it utilizes half of the whole energy consumption. Regenerative furnace ignition innovation can help to cool the high-temperature gas off to under 150℃ underneath and the warmth recuperation rate is up 80% and along these lines 30% energy can be spared.

ii.                 Governmental policies

There is an issue of externality in enhancing energy efficiency effectiveness because of the fractional character of open merchandise of energy efficiency. Since the market neglects to manage the issue of externality, administrative impedance is expected to supplement the market imperfection in energy efficiency improvement. Also, legislative impedance as an outer drive is at times important to push the venture change to accomplish the objective of carbon discharge decrease [22] There are five primary structures in energy efficient productive approaches or administrative projects: enactment, least effectiveness measures, obligatory necessities, monetary measures and intentional understandings.

Concerned nations pick one or a few above measures as indicated by the way of life and traditions. Limited energy resources and high energy reliance in Japan and UK requires them to give higher need to energy efficient enhancement than the nations with rich assets. Japan proposed the Energy Conservation Act containing Energy efficient projects in 1979 and got great outcomes guaranteed by the solid legitimate custom: 37% decrease in energy power was established amid 1979-2003 [23] UK likewise made progress on energy effectiveness change by presenting different energy administrative approaches, for example, compulsory energy reviews and preservation strategies, and proficiency models for air compressors and joined warmth and power plants.

Certain nations including the Netherlands and Germany employed financial measures and wilful understandings to invigorate energy efficient change. To urge more manufacturing units to participate in the energy efficient activities, intentional understandings are typically supplemented by financial incitement, for example, impose decrease in tax, investment or subsidies grants [23]. This measure is more prominent among government strategies in light of the fact that there are less negative effects on modern [24].

Likewise, instructive and useful projects are additionally assuming a part in energy effectiveness change. Energy marking programs, driving consumers to pick energy efficient items, are part of the program. Moreover, energy reviews, energy chief preparing and energy administration frameworks are likewise compelling approach to cultivate energy efficient mindfulness and enhance energy efficiency

  1. Enterprises management

Innovation assumes a key part in energy efficient enhancement, in any case, industries or enterprise obtains various outcomes even they utilize a similar technology. Conducted studies in ten enterprises including nourishment, wood and science, in Southern Brazil and discover that the energy utilization in organization D represent just 50% of the organization B’s in spite of the fact that they have a place with a similar industry (sustenance and wood) and deliver proportional products. [25]

Individuals as opposed to highly technological machines choose the efficiency and hierarchical change Accepting energy efficient innovation is critical without a doubt, yet how to modify and deal with the resources in organizations to ensure the effective operation of innovation is now and then are more imperative.

Forming up big business methodologies and administration framework and worker’s preparation are three critical angles in big business administration, and there is a solid connection between energy efficiency and enterprise administration, which implies that the organizations with better execution in administration have high energy efficiency effectiveness. [25]

Administration frameworks typically incorporate point by point methods in managerial and control region, which not just offer express course and measures to accomplish objectives, yet give a positive impact on energy efficient surroundings. The ISO14001 standard is a quickening device to hasten the mechanical advancement in organizations [25]. It likewise shows a route in which administration can influence development. As per 59 administrators in Swedish foundry enterprise, long haul procedures and goals are regarded the most effective drivers for energy efficiency effectiveness [26]. The fact is that in Brazil that absence of procedure to search collaboration in colleges and undertakings prompt the moderate vitality effective innovation exchanges from colleges to organizations additionally mirror the significance of system. Aside from that, empowering the activity of workers and offering preparing for them as the effective approach to change singular perception and conduct, are along these lines likewise be a procedure driver for energy efficiency [25]

iv.                 Market competition

The perspective that competitors gives an empowering impact on productive portion of assets is generally acknowledged in any case, enhancement of energy efficiency in the ventures is actuated by rivalry. It happens in an indirect manner in a competitive condition through innovation change and refined administration.

Escalated market rivalry can drive development in industries to stay away from decline of profits when the level of market competitiveness is still low. Right now, R&D speculation is a viable approach to improve enterprise intensity. Be that as it may, enterprise’s R&D eagerness would be discouraged with the decline of innovative profits when the market competition has been furious.

FDI enhances energy efficiency through technological overflow as well as through competition. The entry of external investors would change the competitive structure, which would drive local enterprises to enhance intensity to keep a decent position when sharing markets to outside enterprises. Under enormous pressure, local industries generally mirror the innovation and administration style of foreign industries in light of their favourable circumstances, in the meantime, local enterprises raise their contribution on R&D and upgrade technical capability of workers to additionally adapt the technical procedures and processes from foreign enterprise given that the minor technological opening is advantageous to innovation adoption. Both of the impersonation and R&D capacity advancement will help the local industries to enhance their competitiveness, which is affirmed by some experimental reviews.

4.3   Factors constraining energy efficiency

Energy efficiency has been broadly acknowledged as an approach to secure the earth, decrease reliance on energy imports and enhance industry competitiveness [27 ].  In any case, various enterprise still has not adopted energy efficiency measures in spite of the fact that there are policies and competition empowering them.

[28] For instance, applying the information of the US Green Lights Program, showed that there is a ton of space to enhance energy efficiency in lighting, yet because of the hierarchical boundaries, even financially effective energy efficient investment can’t be placed completely into utilization. The US Motor Challenge Program propelled by Department of Energy likewise met comparable issues. The program figured and affirmed the cost-effectiveness of the energy efficient engines and provided specialized support to energize innovation selection in enterprise, yet the energy consumption of engines showed that the circumstance of the program was not perfect [29 ] In the iron and steel industry, the use of the Coke Dry Quench not just lessens the profitable cost through heat recycle of red cock additionally creates steam that can be used to create power and in this manner decreased the discharge of SO2 and CO2 through diminishing steam generation by burning coal [30 ] .Be that as it may, the selection rate of this innovation is just 10% in China, and even in Japan with cutting edge steel innovation, this rate just achieved 60%.

Boundaries to energy efficiency incorporate all variables averting or slowing the appropriation and propagation of energy efficient measures [31 ] .The accompanying three areas surveys the compelling elements specified in previous theories and practical.

  1. Market failure

The boundaries of energy efficiency enhancement were clarified utilizing theory of standard financial aspects in early reviews on energy efficiency. Market failures including the technical specialist issue, externality and defective data are primary reasons ruining the selection and diffusion of energy efficiency measures.

With the improvement of scale and division in production, present day ventures more often than not enlist proficient managers to work one branch of people. The connection amongst owners and proficient managers is called principal-agent relation.Despite the fact that having the commitment of making choices for shareholders, supervisors as discerning individuals once in a while settle on decisions for their own particular interest as opposed to the owners and in this manner the decisions stray from the ideal ones, which is called principal-agent problem. The deviated data between the owners and managers and short administration term of managers may prompt a high rate of principal-agent problem [28]

At the point when the owners acknowledge perhaps imperfect decisions taken by chiefs, they will require a higher payback rate of new measures [25 ] .As indicated by the review in 288 American manufacturing industry, their asked for payback rate of energy efficiency innovation is 12% which is significantly higher than the actual rate of return of 7% [25 ] .Along these lines, the measures with benefits higher than investment cost however lower than owners foreseen criteria may not be embraced in this specific situation.

Job hopping of supervisors is another part of principal-agent problem. Since the administration terms of managers are typically decided before they join the enterprise and the compensation is identified with their conduct in office, they have a tendency to pick projects with short payback period particularly those can pay back while they are in office, which drives the projects with better execution however distant pay off are neglected to be [33 ] .

Flawed data displayed here fundamentally indicates to weak correspondence amongst enterprises and providers of energy efficient measures. This may bring about disappointment in embracing energy efficient measures, as the enterprises have inadequate information about accessible of measures, for example, the potential for investment funds. For instance, in the wake of shaping the feeling that providers like to exaggerate the capability of energy efficient innovation, enterprise may raise the requirement of payback to balance the cost of hazard brought on by overvalue. Under these circumstances, the providers offering exact data with low payback are easier to be declined. This was the main obstruction to energy efficient enhancement in Netherland enterprise. 30% of the enterprise knew minimal about the presence of cutting edge innovation [34 ].

Externality as another piece of market failure has negative impact on both abuse and usage of energy efficient technology. Energy valuing disregards a lot of social expenses during the time spent energy extracting and filtering, for example, the discharge of greenhouse gasses, contamination of air, water and soil created by energy consumption. While understanding the lack of evaluating for contamination release, enterprise have a tendency to consume more energy and avoid from assuming the responsibility of handling the contaminations if there is no legislative supervision.

Technology risks associated with developments and selection of new innovation can likewise prohibit improvement in energy efficiency, despite the fact that we find out about beneficial outcomes of advancement externality. Due the danger of embracing new measures, enterprise would rather bear the cost of high energy consumption and wait it out for the display of the technology by different enterprise before their own particular utilization. There are comparable issues with advancement. Innovation developments require much capital. The capital and development for the most part originates from one or a few enterprises, yet the accomplishments are shared by the entire society.

  1. Financial constraints

Despite market failure, financial constraints are considered by researchers to be the principle factor of energy efficiency constrains [26]. Capital inadequacy is one of them. The question is whether the industries can get enough capital from outside and the particular office in the industry to obtain sufficient capital when industry distributes it. A review in 50 manufacturing industries in Greece demonstrates that 76% interviewees feel that inadequate capital is the primary boundary of energy efficient enhancement [35].

The rate of hidden cost is some of the time significant particularly when the industries need to put resources into equipment, so if industries are in deficiency of cash, the hidden cost can likewise impact the selection of the industry. The normal cost of gathering data for applying energy efficient measures in 12 Dutch enterprise represented 2-6% of the total investment, and the rate of confirming the dependability of innovation achieved 1-2% of the investment in total [36]. After the selection of specific advancements, modifying certain piece of the earlier structures or preparing the specialized staff are fundamental to guarantee the operation of the new measures and the cost of these progressions are additionally falls within the hidden cost.

Risk and vulnerability of investment is another constraint faced, risk imply to disturbance of manufacturing process or quality of the product caused by new technology or process in production .In an investigation, the danger of interference to production was the most crucial boundary to actualize measures to improve energy efficiency

  1. Social factors

The idea of energy efficiency incorporates both a financial and social importance. Lately, an expanding number of studies have investigated energy efficiency from the social point of view. The decisions of energy efficient measures are made under particular social conditions and social structure, industry structure and enterprise as establishments. In this manner, effective measures in specific situations may lose their adequacy in other .In the investigation of energy efficiency in the Swedish material industry, it was focused on the impact of experiences, habits and establishments on absorption and practicality of energy efficient measures other than the factors said in conventional financial aspects. In addition, they also demonstrated that the awareness of energy efficiency, key part responsible for educational adsorption and technological application all impacted the level of energy efficiency after examining the affecting factors from corporative, strategic and industrial angles. This review offers another course to explain the distinction of effectiveness of technology among enterprise

Management is a primary feature for authoritative structure and the data passes through enterprise regularly experiences various level of handling. The owner of enterprise has a tendency to simplify decision making and the concept they indicate once in a while is subjective; hence the absence of logical assessment may impact the correct decision of new measures. In addition, we can assume, from the deduction of solid conclusiveness of senior managers, that the status of the manager of the energy division in big business has a tight association with the scale and speed of the reception of energy efficient measures.

Aside from the lack of procedures and foundations set up by both governments and enterprises, the individual behaviour, for example, identity and comprehension of business person can be boundaries. For instance, managerial people’s restriction to change and depending on others’ development and environmental assurance negatively affect energy efficient enhancement.

  1. Casting Simulation Software

Casting simulation procedure generally utilized as a part of foundries and metal casting businesses. Process simulation reproduces the real-time casting procedure and gives a virtual casting procedure as molten metal stream in mould cavity as for time and course. It demonstrates the virtual procedure of casting like shape filling, hardening and cooling and anticipate the area of internal imperfections. With the assistance of the simulation software, casting process strategy and design optimization is conceivable. Casting simulation is utilized as a part of the production of solid, conservative and high precision cast segment. Although the simulation is plainly essential gadget, simulation can’t right itself existing casting procedure or outline. In this way, for the use of casting simulation experienced individual required. Dependability of cast part can be enhanced with the assistance of casting simulation program.

Casting simulation re-enacts the actual casting by utilizing a software program. The simulation program is comprising of set of numerical conditions [1]. Casting process simulation has turned into a priceless device in the production of practical and superior cast parts. Its application by experienced and learned administrators prompts diminished castings defects, casting yield change, and lessened experimentation cycle being developed of a casting efficiency. Progressively casting simulation is being utilized as a shared device between product architects and cast makers to lessen lead times and to deliver better castings.

Importance of casting simulation: [37]

Casting simulation would be beneficial when it can be cost-effectively validated for quality improvement by forecasting and removing internal defects like porosity, yield improvement andrapid development.

  • Quality enhancement:
  • increases the reliability and efficiency of casting and decreases the extra cost of defective casting and other resources cost which may be obtained from simulation.
  • Yield improvement:
  •  the casting process and method are optimized in lesser period. And, the casting process is optimized there will be reduced wastage
  • Rapid development:
  •  Simulation of casting is computer-generated procedure so there is no unwanted material Casting through simulation removes the wastes of production

There are numerous types of casting simulation to accommodate different casting methods such as finite element method, finite difference method, finite volume method and vector element method.

These are the simulation programs employ different methods for casting simulation are as: [ ]

  • Finite Element Method (example- ProCAST, Click2Cast)
  • Finite Difference Method (example- Solid CAST)
  • Finite Volume Method (example- MAGMA)
  • Vector Element Method (example- Auto CAST)

 

  1. Choice of Casting Simulation software

Among all the different casting simulation program expressed in section 5, I have picked Click2Cast as my favoured simulation for my examination because of easy to understand interface it gives.

Click2Cast is a casting simulation programming created around the idea of simple recreation. Because of the basic and speedy form filling simulation, this product permits client to improve and streamline their fabricated segments while maintaining a strategic distance from run of the mill giving deformities such a role as air capture, porosity and cold shuts. Click2Cast urges clients to be inventive and progressive in a tranquil, 5-stage prepare. designate unit parts, create mesh size and characterize components like materials, temperatures and gravity empowers users to ascertain and simulate the cast filling process and the solidifying procedure alike.

Being straightforward and simple, Click2Cast makes virtual model moulds that permit the user to try out the models on their desktop without recreating another mould. Thus, users can investigate and explore different avenues regarding elective strategies in a matter of minutes, sparing time and cost.

With Click2Cast, you can examine moulds without spending additional time, labor or capital, and as a result, it can make your business more efficient. Click2Cas helps users avoid common casting defects such as air entrapment, porosity, cold shots, and more. It also aids user to design improved products by quickly evaluate casting prospects, visualization of the solidification to optimize ingate location, simulates casting with auto-generation of risers and guides manufacturing user to refine process for better efficiency. Nonetheless, Click2Cast Increase manufacturing superiority and effectiveness by: [38]

  • Rapidly assess casting intricacy for citing
  • Foresee typical casting defects in advance
  • Optimize running and feeding systems
  •            Evade costly experimental error

 


In figure 4 it illustrates the 5 simple steps needed to perform the casting simulation

3 Import Geometry     2. Define Ingate       3. Define Process Parameters       4. Run Sim.                     5.Check Results

Figure 4 [38]

 

 

 

 

  1. Experiments
    1. Overview and Setup of Parts

Due to the nature of my research, I have chosen a quantitative approach as it fits my objective of highlighting the factors that affects efficiency and sustainability in foundries. The reason for my approach is to determine that specific parameters that are able to influence and affect the efficiency. In order to prove the relationship between the factors of energy efficiency as explained in section 4, I have opted my research to be based upon a casting simulation which were explained in section 5 as why that particular software was chosen.

Before conducting the experiment, I have conducted an extensive literature review of both academic and practical publication and journals which was affiliated with my study objective. It was imperative for me to have a clear understanding of the factors that affects energy efficiency in foundries and enterprises alike to it and as well, the very definition of energy efficiency. Initial findings from the literature review were used as guide lines for my data analysis. The next stage of my approach is data collection through casting simulation software, CLICK2CAST. The functionality and reason of choosing Click2Cast were explained in previous sections. The data was collected with a 3D-model of a brake calliper which was then imported into the simulation software.

As part of the experiment, there are 6 parameters that’s required for the simulation to run according to my study objective;

  • Mesh size
  • Ingate position
  • Part Material
  • Mould Material
  • Ingate Velocity
  • Filling Time

There are few terms that needs to be explained of the definition to have a better understanding of the process,

  • Ingate position
  • This is the point where the molten metal will be directed into the mould from the gating system
  • Ingate Velocity
  • The speed where the molten metal is poured into the mould cavity through the ingate.
  • Filling time
  • Time required to mould or cast a product.

As mentioned above regarding the parameters, there are 4 parameters that were kept constant throughout the experiments, mesh size, ingate position, part and mould material and fill time whereas  the parameters that varies are ingate velocity  Table 1and figure 5 would provide a distinctive understanding of the constant in the experiments.

Table 1

Mesh Size Part Material Mould Material Fill Time m/s
3.0mm Aluminium, A1Si7mg Sand 10

Figure 5 – Ingate Position

 

 

 

 

In order for me to determine the relationship between energy efficiency and factors affecting it, I conducted an experiment with 10 different variation in accordance to sand casting to prove efficiency constraints in foundries regarding to the process parameters which in my simulation would be, Ingate velocity and Filling time.

Before running the simulation, there are 3 criteria that needed to be fulfilled;

  1. Geometry
  2. Mesh and Ingate configuration
  3. Process Parameters

In geometry section, the first step is to import the brake calliper geometry into the simulation. Next step is adding the mould element to the product which encases the brake calliper.

Next step is defining the mesh size and ingate position of the brake calliper. As were shown in figure 5, ingate position was kept constant. Then, the type of ingate were specified which was a circular type due to the geometry of the brake calliper. The mesh size was selected at 3.0 mm so the accuracy of the simulation would be higher and the calibration time of results would be shorter.

Finally, in parameters section, the casting process is configured according to my study requirements. Firstly, the casting metal is selected which is aluminium type, A1Si7mg which was the type of metal commonly used in casting processes. Due to the nature of my study which emphasise on sand casting process, the primary and secondary mould materials were sand and shell- sand respectively. In regards of process parameters, ingate velocity and the filling time were selected in 10 different variation.

  1. Catia Part Model

As said in previous section, in order to run the simulation, a model was required. Therefore, the brake calliper was modelled and design using the design software, Catia. Following diagrams are the modelled part with parameters that were used in the simulation process;

Height from Sleeve to grip – 121mm

Total Height – 144mm

Distance from bottom sleeve to top grip – 55m

Figure 6

 

Casting Process Mesh Size

(mm)

Part Material Mould Material Simulation Ingate Velocity(m/s) Fill

Time(m/s)

Filling of mould

(sec)

Sand Casting 3.0 Aluminium,

AlSi7Mg

Shell-Sand 1 100 10 8.9
2 90 10 10.1
3 80 10 13.75
4 70 10 14.3
5 60 10 17.1
6 50 10 26.7
7 40 10 32.3
8 30 10 39.3
9 20 10 45
10 10 10 50.16
  1.  Results

Results Analysis

Before the results of the analysis is discussed, firstly I need to specify key factors that I have accumulated from my literature study and experiments which are related to the efficiency of the casting processes and the cast product. In conjunction with sand casting process, there is a process factor that affects the efficiency of the sand casting process, Ingate velocity of the mould.

Gate velocity is the most crucial process parameters in casting as it decides the final quality of the product and the energy efficiency of the process. Ingate velocity implies to speed of the mould material entering the cavity. Because of that, inefficient ingate velocity would result in a number of deficiency factors relating to energy usage. Those factors are; [37]

  1. Porosity
  • Build-up of trapped air in the mould
  1. Cold Shuts
  • Surface defects on the surface of the casting
  1. Mould Erosion
  • Continued material loss from the mould surface

Based on my simulation, there are 10 different variation of process parameters, Ingate velocity Each simulation results differs from one another. The simulation process was increased in value in each simulation process parameters. Hereby, basing my theory from the 10-different variant of my experiments, I have identified 3 distinctive simulation process which obtained significant results comparing to other simulation results.

As I mentioned above, the 3 distinctive results were the result of simulation 1, 6 and 10. As I have learned from the simulation’s part model result, each of the 3 simulation results were significantly influenced by the fill time, nonetheless, 2 out of the 3-simulation resulted in a negative result whereas one had a rather substantially optimal, perfect outcome, refer table 2 for result description.

I have characterized 3 of the simulation results in to fill periods for better understanding of the discussion section;

  1. Slow Fill Time – Simulation 10
  2. Fast Fill time – Simulation 1
  3. Medial Fill time – Simulation 5

Fast Fill Time

Referring to Table 2, simulation 1 took 8.9 second for the mould to be filled however having a high gate velocity resulted in turbulent flow of molten metal within the mould, throughout the mould, there are irregularities in the flow of metal which disrupted the solidification process, refer Figure 7,

Figure 7 Turbulent Flow

Based on figure 8, high rate of filling caused the part to sustain, Porosity, air entrapment within the mould which gas bubbles to accumulate at the base of the part. Regarding Figure 9 and 10, fast fill caused the molten metal flow from the ingate to be turbulent which lead to the deformation and caused mould erosion which caused by the molten metal to be concentrated in certain specific points of the mould instead of having steady flow of metal throughout the mould.

Oxide Build-up

Mould Eroded

Figure 9 Mould Erosion

(cross-section)

Figure 8 Porosity Build-Up

   Deformation in Shape

Figure 10 Changes in Shape

As shown in figure 7 to 10, these fast fill process was proven to be inefficient due to the defects and deformation incurred by the part. Even though, the time taken for the process was far lesser comparing to other simulation, the result of the casting process was proven to be inefficient.

Slow Fill Time

In reference to Table 2, simulation 10 has the lowest gate velocity which resulted in 50.16sec to fill the mould cavity. The mould filling time took too much time which caused the molten metal used in the mould too solidify sooner, Figure 11, which resulted in more energy required to fill the mould which resulted the mould filling process to fail. When the molten metal begins to harden before the entire mould is filled, consequently, the material flow slowed down in certain parts of the mould cavity, figure 12, and alters the flow pattern and significantly it reduces the efficiency rate of the cast. In other words, more energy was required to fill the mould cavity. Moreover, due to the slow propagation of molten metal, the casting process begin to develop cold shuts towards the end of the solidification process which further affected the sustainability of the process and product, Figure 13.

Early solidification of the metal

Early

solidification of the metal

Figure 11

Material Movement slowed down

Figure 12

Formation of Cold Shuts

Figure 13

Medial Fill Time

Based on my simulation, I have identified the optimal fill time and ingate velocity ideal for the chosen part material and product cavity design, Simulation 6 respectively for ingate velocity and fill time. As per figure 14, the molten metal flow in an into all regions of the brake calliper mould in a uniform and steady flow before solidifying. Unlike the slow fill time, which significantly displays defects on the outer layer of the mould which were caused by the metal solidifying at different parts before mould fully filled, in reference to figure 15, there is no formation of cold shuts within the mould and at the surface of the casting. Furthermore, figure 16 has no mould erosion comparing to figure 9. Other than that, figure 16 showcases there is no build-up of oxides within the mould.

Uniform Flow of metal

Zero formation of Cold Shuts

Figure 16

Figure 14

Figure 15

Zero build-up of oxides

  1. Conclusion

In this study, I have examined issues relating to energy efficiency on factors enhancing and constraining efficiency in foundries. Based on my literature review research and experiments conducted, this study has proven to be vital and essential in fulfilling my objective which were mentioned in the beginning of the report;

  1. Procedure and operation of foundries that can enhance and constraint energy efficiency

Upon reviewing the literature of the study, I have identified that access to technology and capability to upgrade and apply technology are one of the most important factors in improving energy efficiency in foundries. Nonetheless, management or administration do also play a crucial role in foundries to enhance energy efficiency. I have concluded that in order to apply or even embrace new technologies, the administration of a foundry should be able to withstand the transition and also able to cultivate the employees mind sets for the transition. In regard to that, I have identified that even employees influences efficiency constraining factors caused by the workers’ reluctance in embracing or to adapt to new technology procedures and equipment which they are not accustomed too. Apart from technological and managerial aspect, governing bodies and related authorities plays an important role as well in constraining and enhancing energy efficiency by reinforcing policies and regulation on energy consumption in foundries.

With reference to my research objective and experiments I have conducted, I have concluded that process parameters do influence in energy efficiency in sand casting process of foundries. As mentioned in section 5.1, it was proved that fill times contributes to the efficiency process in foundries, therefore, it was proven that inaccurate fill time for each type casting process and part material varies respectively.

Apart from that, Click2Cast was proven to be invaluable in determining factors related to energy efficiency constraints and improvement. Click2Cast, casting simulation software enables me to identify and determine the process defects of inefficient procedures, thus, provide a visual aid to further improve my understanding regarding casting efficiency processes.

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