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Terrorism is a "premeditated and unlawful act in which groups or agents of some principal engage in a threatened or actual use of force or violence against human or property targets. These groups or agents engage in this behavior intending the purposeful intimidation of governments or people to affect policy or behavior with an underlying political objective" (CITE). This is the operational definition that will serve as the foundation for this case analysis of the 1984 Rajneeshee Bioterror Attack.
The Rajneesh religious movement was founded by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh in the 1960s (Urban, 2005). During that period of time Rajneesh taught his ideas of free love and meditation. He later moved to Bombay in 1969 and Poona in 1974 as he continued to attract more and more followers. The Rajneesh religious movement incorporated fundamentals from diverse aspects of western philosophy, Hinduism and Zen (Clarke, 2006). Rajneesh's religious movement proved, however, to be very controversial in India, the United States and Europe (Clark, 2006). The followers of Rajneesh were sometimes referred to as called neo-sannyasins (Idinopulos and Yonan, 1996). At times they were also referred to as orange people because of there attire which was usually orange (Chryssides, 1999). One of the odd things about Rajneesh's religion was that the women were discouraged from marrying or having children (Pike, 2007). Rajneesh had instructed them not to reproduce because families were seen as inherently dysfunctional and destructive. He also asked the followers to practice forms of contraception, sterilization and abortion (Pike, 2007). When Rajneesh moved to Oregon some of the women actually justified leaving their children reasoning that spiritual development was more important (Pike, 2007). Along these same lines, no children were born at the commune in Oregon or the commune in England (Pike, 2007).
In 1981, Rajneesh transitioned his movement into the United States. He and his followers bought the Big Muddy Ranch which consisted of about 64,000+ acres near the little town of Antelope, Oregon. Rajneesh would soon rename the Big Muddy Ranch to Rajneeshpuram. Initially, about two thousand followers joined him at Rajneeshpuram (Goldman, 1997). This move to Oregon was unexpected by Rajneesh's followers as it was never discussed before it happened.
It was during this time that Rajneesh and his religious movement …

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Religious movement had taken political control of the small nearby town of Antelope, Oregon …
They had taken political control of the small nearby town of /index.php …

… Antelope, Oregon. Antelope had a total population of about 75 people. Once they had taken political control of Antelope they changed the name to Rajneesh (Thompson, 2006). The group was initially viewed in a positive light with the local population, but that …

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… but that soon turned negative due to the public's unenthusiastic response to the commune's ongoing expansion (Thompson, 2006 …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … but had soon turned negative due to the public's unenthusiastic response to the commune's ongoing expansion.
/index.php …

… (Thompson, 2006). …

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… Thompson, 2006). After being denied building permits for Rajneeshpuram, the Rajneesh leadership …

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After being denied building permits for Rajneeshpuram, the commune leadership …

… Rajneesh …

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… the Rajneesh leadership sought to gain political control over the rest of the county by influencing the November 1984 county election (FitzGerald, 1987 …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … the commune leadership sought to gain political control over the rest of the county by influencing the November 1984 county election.
/index.php …

… (FitzGerald, 1987). …

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… FitzGerald, 1987). Their aim was to win two of three seats on the Wasco County Circuit Court along with …

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Their aim was to win two of three seats on the Wasco County Circuit Court, and the …

… along with the sheriff's office. The Rajneesh's attempted to also influence the election by bringing in thousands of homeless people that …

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… people that were transported to Rajneeshpuram in an attempt to inflate the constituency of voters for the group's candidates (Carus, 2002 …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … homeless people were transported to Rajneeshpuram in an attempt to inflate the constituency of voters for the group's candidates.
/index.php …

… (Carus, 2002). …

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… Carus, 2002). The Wasco County Clerk countered this attempt by enforcing a regulation that required all new voters to submit their qualifications when registering to vote (Entis, 2007 …

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The Wasco County Clerk countered this attempt by enforcing a regulation that required all new voters to submit their qualifications when registering to vote.
/index.php …

… (Entis, 2007).
When their initial plan failed, the Rajneesh leadership made a new plan to sicken and incapacitate voters …

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… incapacitate voters in The Dalles, where most of the voting public of the county resided. Their plan …

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The Dalles
, where most of the voting public of the county resided, in continuation of …

… . Their plan was to incapacitate the voting population of The Dalles …

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… The Dalles so that their own candidates would win the 1984 Wasco County …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … the city so that their own candidates would win the 1984
/index.php …

… Wasco County elections (Flaccus, 2001). They decided to do this by contaminating food ingested by the voting public so as to defer them from coming to the voting polls on the Election Day. First, however, the group wanted to try this method out in a trial run. …

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… trial run. Salmonella bacteria was purchased from a medical supply company in Seattle and …

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Salmonella bacteria were purchased from a medical supply company in
/index.php …

… Seattle and cultured in labs located inside of Rajneesh. They then deliberately contaminated salad bars at ten local restaurants with salmonella. The primary delivery tactic for …

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… tactic for the salmonella bacteria involved one member concealing a plastic bag containing a light brown liquid with the bacteria, and either spreading it over the food at a salad bar, or pouring its contents into salad dressing. On September …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … delivery tactic involved one member concealing a plastic bag containing a light brown liquid with the salmonella bacteria, and either spreading it over the food at a salad bar, or pouring its contents into salad dressing.
/index.php …

… . On September 24, 1984, more than one hundred and fiftyÿpeople were already violently ill. And by the end of September, over seven hundred and fifty-one cases of acute …

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… of acute gastroenteritis were documented. The lab results showed that all of the victims were infected with salmonella enterica typhimurium. The symptoms included …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … Itemid=170
gastroenteritis
were documented; lab results showed that all of the victims were infected with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium.
/index.php …

… …

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… typhimurium. The symptoms included diarrhea, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, headaches and severe …

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Symptoms included diarrhea, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, headaches, abdominal pain …

… and severe abdominal pain (Urbano, 2006).
Also during this incident, …

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… this incident, two Wasco County commissioners were poisoned with glasses of water containing salmonella bacteria during a visit to Rajneeshpuram on August 29, 1984. As a …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … Taco Time.

Two visiting Wasco County commissioners were poisoned with glasses of water containing salmonella bacteria during a visit to Rajneeshpuram on August 29, 1984.
/index.php …

… . As a result both commissioners got sick and one was hospitalized. The victims of this bioterrorism attack ranged from infants to the elderly (Snow, 2003). These events resulted in what is now called the 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack, as this group ended up poisoning the food of more than 750ÿindividuals in The Dalles, Oregon.
This incident marked the first …

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… the first bioterrorism attack in the United States, and the single largest bioterrorist attack in United States history (Lewis, 2001 …

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bioterrorism
attack in the United States, and the single largest bioterrorist attack in United States history.
/index.php …

… (Lewis, 2001). It is also noted that …

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… noted that the attack is one of only two confirmed terrorist uses of biological weapons …

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The attack is one of only two confirmed terrorist uses of
/index.php …

… biological weapons to harm humans (Wheelis, 2006). In addition, …

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… In addition, the group also attempted to introduce pathogens into The Dalles water system (Carus, 2002 …

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The group also attempted to introduce pathogens into The Dalles' water system.
/index.php …

… (Carus, 2002). If that trial run proved to be successful, then …

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… successful, then the same technique was to be used closer to Election Day …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … If successful, the same techniques were to be used closer to
/index.php …

… Election Day. …

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… Election Day. The second part of the plan was never implemented due to …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 12]
This second part of the plan was never implemented
/index.php …

… …

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… never implemented due to the commune deciding to boycott the election when it became clear that those brought in through the share-a-home program would not be allowed to vote (Carter, 1990 …

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due to the commune deciding to boycott the election when it became clear that those brought in through the "Share-a-Home" program would not be allowed to vote.
/index.php …

… (Carter, 1990).

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… Carter, 1990).
The main planners of the attack included Rajneesh's chief lieutenant Sheela Silverman …

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The main planners of the attack included Rajneesh's chief lieutenant
/index.php …

… Sheela Silverman (Ma An and Sheela), a trained nurse practitioner, and Diane Ivonne Onang (Ma An and Puja), secretary-treasurer of the Rajneesh Medical Corporation (Carus, 2002). Roughly twelve people were involved in the plots to use biological agents and at least eleven people were involved in the planning process. It was reported that …

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… reported that no more than four appeared to have been involved in development at the Rajneeshpuram medical laboratory, although not all of them were necessarily aware of the objectives their work served. At least eight …

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No more than four appear to have been involved in development at the Rajneeshpuram medical laboratory, although not all of them were necessarily aware of the objectives their work served.
/index.php …

… …

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… work served. At least eight individuals were involved with the actual distribution of the bacteria (Carus, 2002 …

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At least eight individuals were involved with the actual distribution of the bacteria.
/index.php …

… (Carus, 2002).
It didn't take long for the local residents to …

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… residents to suspect that Rajneesh's followers were behind the poisonings. As a …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … Local residents suspected that Rajneesh's followers were behind the poisonings, and turned …

… . As a result the local residents of The Dalles …

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… The Dalles turned out in droves on Election Day to prevent the organization from winning any county positions, thus rendering Rajneesh's terrorist …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … poisonings, and turned out in droves on election day to prevent the organization from winning any county positions, thus rendering the terrorist plot …

… Rajneesh's terrorist plot unsuccessful. With these events taking place …

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… taking place the Rajneeshees eventually withdrew their candidate from the ballot. Only …

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The Rajneeshees eventually withdrew their candidate from the November 1984 …

… ballot. …

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… the ballot. Only 239 of the commune's 7,000ÿresidents voted that election …

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Only 239 of the commune's 7,000ÿresidents voted.
/index.php …

… that election.
In the aftermath of the attack, local restaurants spent thousands of dollars as health officials had to …

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… had to shut down the salad bars of the affected restaurants. Also …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … health officials shut down the salad bars of the affected eateries.
/index …

… restaurants. Also, after the attack most of The Dalles residents were scared to go out for fear of further attacks. …

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… further attacks. Officials and investigators from a number of different agencies were also dispatched …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 8]
Investigation

Officials and investigators from a number of different agencies were dispatched to …

… also …

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… were also dispatched to The Dalles to investigate the cause of the outbreak. The investigation identified …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … agencies were dispatched to The Dalles to investigate the cause of the outbreak.
/index.php …

… investigation identified that the bacteria used in the bioterrorism attack was salmonella enterica typhimurium, and the investigation …

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… the investigation concluded that the outbreak had been due to food handlers' poor personal hygiene, as workers preparing food at the affected restaurants had fallen ill before most patrons had.
Despite the …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … Typhimurium and concluded that the outbreak had been due to food handlers' poor personal hygiene, as workers preparing food at the affected restaurants had fallen ill before most patrons had.
/index.php …

… .
Despite the investigators' diagnosis of the situation, Oregon Congressman James Weaver continued to investigate the bioterrorism attack …

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… bioterrorism attack because he felt the officials' conclusion did not explain the …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … to investigate because he felt the officials' conclusion did not adequately explain …

… explain the facts. Congressman Weaver then contacted physicians at the Centers for Disease Control …

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… Disease Control and other agencies and urged them to investigate Rajneeshpuram. On February …

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CDC
and other agencies and urged them to investigate Rajneeshpuram.
/index.php …

… . On February 28, 1985, Congressman …

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… 1985, Congressman Weaver gave a speech on the floor of the United States …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 28, 1985, Weaver gave a speech on the floor of the
/index.php …

… …

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… the floor of the United States House of Representatives in which he accused the Rajneeshees of sprinkling salmonella culture on salad bar ingredients in eight restaurants. Weaver's well …

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United States House of Representatives
in which he "accused the Rajneeshees of sprinkling salmonella culture on salad bar ingredients in eight restaurants".
/index.php …

… . Weaver's well-reasoned case was confirmed several months later as investigators gained access to the Rajneeshpuram and observed the evidence (Carter, 1990).
On September 16, 1985, Rajneesh …

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… 1985, Rajneesh emerged from a four-year period of public silence and held press …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … had recently emerged from a four-year period of public silence and self-imposed …

… held …

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… and held press conferences where he stated that Sheela and 19 other commune leaders, including Puja, had left Rajneeshpuram over the weekend and gone to Europe. Following their …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 26]
convened press conferences where he stated that Sheela and 19 other commune leaders, including Puja, had left Rajneeshpuram over the weekend and gone to Europe.
/index.php …

… . Following their departure, Rajneesh …

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… departure, Rajneesh said that he had received information from residents that Sheela and her team had committed a number of serious crimes. Rajneesh then …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … their departure, he said, he had received information from residents that Sheela and her team had committed a number of serious crimes.
/index.php …

… . Rajneesh then referred …

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… then referred to them as a "gang of fascists", he said they had attempted to poison his doctor and his female companion, as well as the Jefferson County …

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Calling them a "gang of fascists", he said they had attempted to poison his doctor and his female companion, as well as the
/index.php …

… …

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… well as the Jefferson County district attorney and the water system in The Dalles. Rajneesh added …

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Jefferson County
district attorney and the water system in The Dalles.
/index.php …

… . Rajneesh …

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… Dalles. Rajneesh added that he believed they had poisoned a county commissioner and Judge William Hulse. He further stated …

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He added that he believed they had poisoned a county commissioner and Judge William Hulse, that they may have …

… further stated …

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… further stated that they may have been responsible for the salmonella outbreak in The Dalles, and invited …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … William Hulse, that they may have been responsible for the salmonella outbreak in The Dalles,
/index.php …

… , …

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… The Dalles, and invited state and federal law enforcement officials to come to the Ranch and investigate. His allegations …

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and invited state and federal law enforcement officials to come to the Ranch and investigate.
/index.php …

… . His allegations were initially viewed with skepticism by outside observers (FitzGerald, 1987).
Soon thereafter, Oregon Attorney General …

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… Attorney General Dave Frohnmayer established a task force among local and Oregon State …

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Dave Frohnmayer
established a task force among local and
/index.php …

… Oregon State Police, …

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… State Police, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Sheriff's office, and the …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … Itemid=170
Federal Bureau of Investigation
, the Sheriff's office, the
/index.php …

… , and the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the National Guard. This group established …

Students Paper:

… group established headquarters on the Ranch to investigate the allegations. They felt …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … set up headquarters on the Ranch to investigate the allegations.
/index.php …

… . …

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… the allegations. They felt they would need greater authority to perform an effective search, and feared that evidence might be destroyed; therefore, they …

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Feeling they would need greater authority to perform an effective search, and fearing that evidence might be destroyed, they obtained
/index …

… ; therefore, they obtained search warrants and subpoenas. On October 2, 1985, 50 investigators entered Rajneesh where Dr. Skeels found glass vials that contained salmonella bacterial …

Students Paper:

… salmonella bacterial disks in the laboratory of a Rajneeshpuram medical clinic. An analysis …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … salmonella "bactrol disks" in the laboratory of a Rajneeshpuram medical clinic.
/index.php …

… . An analysis by the Centers for Disease Control …

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… Disease Control lab in Atlanta confirmed that the bacterium at the Rajneesh laboratory was an exact match to those that became ill …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … the CDC lab in Atlanta confirmed that the bacteria at the Rajneesh laboratory were an exact match to those that sickened individuals …

… became ill from eating at the local restaurants. The investigation also revealed prior experiments at Rajneeshpuram that dealt …

Students Paper:

… that dealt with poisons, chemicals and bacteria, in 1984 and 1985. Investigators also …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … at Rajneeshpuram with poisons, chemicals and bacteria, in 1984 and 1985.
/index.php …

… . Investigators also found a copy …

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… a copy of The Anarchist Cookbook, and literature on the manufacture and usage of explosives and military biowarfare. Also, the …

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The Anarchist Cookbook
, and literature on the manufacture and usage of explosives and military biowarfare.
/index.php …

… . Also, the investigators alleged that there may have been similar bioterrorism attacks carried out in Portland, Salem and possibly other cities in Oregon. According to the testimony, the terrorists …

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… the terrorists boasted that they had attacked a nursing home and a salad bar at the Mid-Columbia …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … the plotters boasted that they had attacked a nursing home and a salad bar at the
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… …

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… at the Mid-Columbia Medical Center, but no such attempts were ever proven in court (Miller, Broad …

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Mid-Columbia Medical Center
, but no such attempts were ever proven in court.
/index.php …

… (Miller, Broad and Engelberg, 2002). As a result of the investigation, law enforcement officials also discovered that there was an aborted plot to murder Charles Turner, a former United States Attorney for Oregon.
The mayor of Rajneeshpuram, David Berry Knapp, turned the state's evidence over …

Students Paper:

… evidence over and gave an account of his knowledge of the salmonella attack to the FBI. Mayor …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … state's evidence
and gave an account of his knowledge of the salmonella attack to the
/index.php …

… FBI. Mayor Knapp …

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… Mayor Knapp claimed that Sheela said "she had talked with Rajneesh about the plot to decrease voter turnout in The Dalles by making people sick. Mayor Knapp …

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He claimed that Sheela said "she had talked with [Rajneesh] about the plot to decrease voter turnout in The Dalles by making people sick. Sheela said that [Rajneesh] commented that …

… . Mayor Knapp also claimed that Rajneesh told Sheela …

Students Paper:

… told Sheela that it was best not to hurt people, but if a few died not to worry." According to …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … Rajneesh] commented that it was best not to hurt people, but if a few died not to worry."
/index.php …

… ." According to Mayor Knapp's testimony, Sheela …

Students Paper:

… testimony, Sheela played a muffled tape of Rajneesh's voice saying that "if it was necessary to do things to preserve his vision, then do it" and interpreted this to mean that killing people in his name was fine, telling doubters "not to worry" if a few people had to die. On September …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … testimony, she played doubters a muffled tape of Rajneesh's voice saying that "if it was necessary to do things to preserve [his] vision, then do it" and interpreted this to mean that killing people in his name was fine, telling doubters "not to worry" if a few people had to die.
/index.php …

… . On September 25, 2984, investigators did find …

Students Paper:

… did find an invoice from American Type Culture Collection, showing that an …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 25, 1984 invoice from American Type Culture Collection, showing an order received …

… that an order was …

Students Paper:

… order was received by the Rajneeshpuram laboratory for salmonella typhi, the bacterium that causes the life-threatening illness typhoid fever …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … an order received by the Rajneeshpuram laboratory for Salmonella Typhi, the bacterium that causes the life-threatening illness
/index.php …

… typhoid fever.
Rajneesh ended up leaving Oregon on October 27, 1985 and was arrested when he landed in Charlotte, North Carolina. Rajneesh was charged with 35 counts of deliberate violations of immigration laws. As part of his plea bargain agreement, he pled guilty to two counts of making false statements to immigration officials. Rajneesh ended up …

Students Paper:

… ended up receiving a 10 year suspended sentence and a fine of $400,000. Along …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 32]
He received a 10-year suspended sentence and a fine of
/index.php …

… $400,000. Along with the suspended sentence and fine, Rajneesh was also deported and banned from reentering the United States for five years. It ended up that Rajneesh …

Students Paper:

… that Rajneesh was never prosecuted for crimes related to the salmonella bioterrorism attack …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 34]
He was never prosecuted for crimes related to the salmonella poisoning.
/index …

… bioterrorism attack. Both Sheela and Puja were detained on October 28, 1985, while in Germany. After long-drawn-out negotiations, they were both …

Students Paper:

… were both extradited to the United States and arrived in Portland on February 6, 1986. They were charged with …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … protracted negotiations, they were extradited to the United States and arrived in Portland on February 6, 1986.
/index.php …

… charged with attempted murder of …

Students Paper:

… murder of Rajneesh's personal physician, first-degree assault for poisoning Judge William Hulse, second-degree assault for poisoning The Dalles Commissioner Raymond Matthews and product tampering for the poisonings in The Dalles. The U.S. Attorney's …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … to murder Rajneesh's personal physician, first-degree assault for poisoning Judge William Hulse, second-degree assault for poisoning The Dalles Commissioner Raymond Matthews, and product tampering for the poisonings in The Dalles, as well …

… U.S. Attorney's office handled the prosecution for the cases that dealt with the poisoning at …

Students Paper:

… poisoning at the 10 restaurants. And the Oregon Attorney General's office handled the …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … related to the 10 restaurants, and the Oregon Attorney General's office prosecuted the …

… handled the prosecution for the cases that dealt with the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews and Judge Hulse (Carter, 1990).
On July 22, 1986, both Sheela and Puja entered no-contest …

Students Paper:

… no-contest pleas for the salmonella poisoning and the other charges. They ended …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 170
Alford
") pleas for the salmonella poisoning and the other charges, and received sentences …

… . They ended up …

Students Paper:

… ended up receiving sentences ranging from three to 20 years. Sheela end …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … charges, and received sentences ranging from three to 20 years, to be served …

… . Sheela end up …

Students Paper:

… end up receiving 20 years for the attempted murder of Rajneesh's physician, 20 years for first-degree assault in the poisoning of Judge Hulse, 10 years for second-degree assault in the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews, four and a half years for her role in the salmonella poisoning, four and a half years for the wiretapping conspiracy, and five years' probation for immigration fraud. Puja end up …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … concurrently. Sheela received 20 years for the attempted murder of Rajneesh's physician, 20 years for first-degree assault in the poisoning of Judge Hulse, 10 years for second-degree assault in the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews, four and a half years for her role in the salmonella poisoning, four and a half years for the wiretapping conspiracy, and five years' probation for immigration fraud; Puja received 15, 15 …

… end up receiving 15 …

Students Paper:

… receiving 15 years for the attempted murder of Rajneesh's physician, 15 years …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … received 20 years for the attempted murder of Rajneesh's physician, 20 years …

… , 15 …

Students Paper:

… physician, 15 years for first-degree assault in the poisoning of Judge Hulse, seven and …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … physician, 20 years for first-degree assault in the poisoning of Judge Hulse, 10 years …

… , seven …

Students Paper:

… Hulse, seven and a half years for second-degree assault in the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews, and four and a half years for her role in the salmonella poisoning. Puja also …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … Hulse, 10 years for second-degree assault in the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews, four and a half years for her role in the salmonella poisoning, four and a half years for the wiretapping conspiracy …

… . Puja also received three years probation for the wiretapping. After only serving 29 months of their sentences both Sheela and Puja were released early because of good behavior. After being released Sheela was deported, and went on to operate two nursing homes in Switzerland (Carter, 1990).
In June of 1985, The Oregonian ran a series on Rajneesh's movement which included an investigation into the salmonella bioterrorism attack. …

Students Paper:

… bioterrorism attack. As a result of the follow-up investigation, The Oregonian learned that Leslie Zaitz, one …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 13
[14]
As a result of a follow-up investigation, The Oregonian learned that Leslie L. Zaitz …

… Zaitz, one of their investigative journalists, had been placed on Sheela's group top ten hit list. Oregon Attorney General Dave Frohnmayer later commented on the bioterrorism attack …

Students Paper:

… bioterrorism attack and other acts perpetrated by the group, stating: "The Rajneeshees committed the most significant crimes of their kind in the history of the United States ... The largest single incident of falsified marriages …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … the poisoning incident and other acts perpetrated by the group, stating: "The Rajneeshees committed the most significant crimes of their kind in the history of the United States ... The largest single incident of fraudulent marriages …

… falsified …

Students Paper:

… of falsified marriages, the most massive scheme of wiretapping and bugging, and the largest mass poisoning" (Grossman, 2001 …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … of fraudulent marriages, the most massive scheme of wiretapping and bugging, and the largest mass poisoning."
/index.php …

… " (Grossman, 2001). In looking back at the attack Dr. Skeels made the statement that, "We lost our virtue …

Students Paper:

… our virtue over this ... We really learned to be more apprehensive ... The …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … our innocence over this ... We really learned to be more suspicious ... The …

… apprehensive ... The first major …

Students Paper:

… first major biological attack on a U.S. community was not carried out by foreign terrorists smuggled into New York, but by legal residents of a U.S. community. The next time it happens it could be with more deadly agents …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … first significant biological attack on a U.S. community was not carried out by foreign terrorists smuggled into New York, but by legal residents of a U.S. community. The next time it happens it could be with more lethal agents …

… deadly …

Students Paper:

… more deadly agents ... We in public health are really not ready to deal with that" (Garrett, 2000 …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … more lethal agents ... We in public health are really not ready to deal with that."
/index.php …

… " (Garrett, 2000).
In conclusion, …

Students Paper:

… In conclusion, the Rajneesh group is the only known organization to have cultured there own …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 19
[20]
The Rajneesh group is the only known organization to have cultured its own …

… there own pathogen for bioterrorism purposes. Also, because of the nature of the bioterrorism attack …

Students Paper:

… bioterrorism attack federal and state investigators requested that details of the incident not be published in the Journal of …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … 38
[39]
Federal and state investigators requested that details of the incident not be published in the
/index.php …

… Journal of the American Medical Association for a period of 12 years. Investigators made the request for …

Students Paper:

… request for fear a description of the events could spark a copycat (Garrett …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … for they feared a description of the events could spark
/index.php …

… copycat (Garrett, 2000). As a result no repeat attacks or copycats consequently occurred. In 1997 the Journal of the American Medical Association published a detailed account of the incident. Also, in 1999 …

Students Paper:

… in 1999 the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases published by the Centers for …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … analysis in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases published by the
/index.php …

… Centers for Disease Control described six motivational factors associated with bioterrorism. These motivational factors included the following: …

Students Paper:

… the following: charismatic leadership, no outside constituency, apocalyptic ideology, loner or splinter group, sense of paranoia and grandiosity, and defensive aggression (Bromley, 2002 …

http://sthweb.bu.edu/index.php?option=com_awiki&view=mediawiki&article=1984_Rajneeshee_bioterror_attack&Itemid=170 … bioterrorism, including: charismatic leadership, no outside constituency, apocalyptic ideology, loner or splinter group, sense of paranoia and grandiosity, and defensive aggression.
/index.php …

… (Bromley, 2002).

Students Paper:

… Peter B. (2006). New religions in global perspective: a study of religious change in
the modern world. Florence, KY …

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osho_movement … Peter Bernard (2006), New religions in global perspective: a study of religious change in the modern world, Routledge,
/wiki …

… . Florence, KY: Routledge.
Goldman, Marion S. (1997). …

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… S. (1997). Religion, society, and psychoanalysis: readings in contemporary
Theory. New York …

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osho_movement … Donald Capps, Religion, society, and psychoanalysis: readings in contemporary theory, Westview Press …

… . New York: Westview …

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… York: Westview Press.
Gordon, James S. (1987). The Golden Guru. Lexington, MA: The Stephen Greene Press.
Hunt, Stephen …

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Gordon, James S. (1987), The Golden Guru, Lexington, MA: The Stephen Greene Press,
/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number …

… .
Hunt, Stephen (2003). Alternative religions: a sociological introduction. United Kingdom:
Ashgate Publishing.

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… Ashgate Publishing.
Idinopulos, Thomas A., & Yonan, Edward A. (1996). The sacred and its scholars: comparative
methodologies for the study of primary religious data. Brill Academic Publishers …

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osho_movement … 0
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Idinopulos, Thomas A.; Yonan, Edward A. (1996), The sacred and its scholars: comparative methodologies for the study of primary religious data, BRILL,
/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number …

… Academic Publishers.
Pike, Sarah M. (2007). Teaching new religious movements. New York: Oxford University
Press.

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… University
Press.
Reader, Ian (1996). A Poisonous Cocktail? Aum Shinrikyo's Path to Violence. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.
Urban, Hugh …

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Reader, Ian (1996), A Poisonous Cocktail? Aum Shinrikyo's Path to Violence, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies,
/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number …

… .

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… Asian Studies.
Urban, Hugh B. (2005). Osho, From Sex Guru to Guru of the Rich: The Spiritual Logic of Late
Capitalism. New York …

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Urban, Hugh B. (2005), "Osho, From Sex Guru to Guru of the Rich: The Spiritual Logic of Late Capitalism", in Forsthoefel …

… . New York: SUNY Press.
1984 Rajneeshee Bioterror Attack 1

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Master document text

1984 RAJNEESHEE BIOTERROR ATTACK
1984 Rajneeshee Bioterror Attack
Shaun M. O'Leary
Florida State University
1984 Rajneeshee Bioterror Attack
Terrorism is a "premeditated and unlawful act in which groups or agents of some principal engage in a threatened or actual use of force or violence against human or property targets. These groups or agents engage in this behavior intending the purposeful intimidation of governments or people to affect policy or behavior with an underlying political objective" (CITE). This is the operational definition that will serve as the foundation for this case analysis of the 1984 Rajneeshee Bioterror Attack.
The Rajneesh religious movement was founded by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh in the 1960s (Urban, 2005). During that period of time Rajneesh taught his ideas of free love and meditation. He later moved to Bombay in 1969 and Poona in 1974 as he continued to attract more and more followers. The Rajneesh religious movement incorporated fundamentals from diverse aspects of western philosophy, Hinduism and Zen (Clarke, 2006). Rajneesh's religious movement proved, however, to be very controversial in India, the United States and Europe (Clark, 2006). The followers of Rajneesh were sometimes referred to as called neo-sannyasins (Idinopulos and Yonan, 1996). At times they were also referred to as orange people because of there attire which was usually orange (Chryssides, 1999). One of the odd things about Rajneesh's religion was that the women were discouraged from marrying or having children (Pike, 2007). Rajneesh had instructed them not to reproduce because families were seen as inherently dysfunctional and destructive. He also asked the followers to practice forms of contraception, sterilization and abortion (Pike, 2007). When Rajneesh moved to Oregon some of the women actually justified leaving their children reasoning that spiritual development was more important (Pike, 2007). Along these same lines, no children were born at the commune in Oregon or the commune in England (Pike, 2007).
In 1981, Rajneesh transitioned his movement into the United States. He and his followers bought the Big Muddy Ranch which consisted of about 64,000+ acres near the little town of Antelope, Oregon. Rajneesh would soon rename the Big Muddy Ranch to Rajneeshpuram. Initially, about two thousand followers joined him at Rajneeshpuram (Goldman, 1997). This move to Oregon was unexpected by Rajneesh's followers as it was never discussed before it happened.
It was during this time that Rajneesh and his religious movement had taken political control of the small nearby town of Antelope, Oregon. Antelope had a total population of about 75 people. Once they had taken political control of Antelope they changed the name to Rajneesh (Thompson, 2006). The group was initially viewed in a positive light with the local population, but that soon turned negative due to the public's unenthusiastic response to the commune's ongoing expansion (Thompson, 2006). After being denied building permits for Rajneeshpuram, the Rajneesh leadership sought to gain political control over the rest of the county by influencing the November 1984 county election (FitzGerald, 1987). Their aim was to win two of three seats on the Wasco County Circuit Court along with the sheriff's office. The Rajneesh's attempted to also influence the election by bringing in thousands of homeless people that were transported to Rajneeshpuram in an attempt to inflate the constituency of voters for the group's candidates (Carus, 2002). The Wasco County Clerk countered this attempt by enforcing a regulation that required all new voters to submit their qualifications when registering to vote (Entis, 2007).
When their initial plan failed, the Rajneesh leadership made a new plan to sicken and incapacitate voters in The Dalles, where most of the voting public of the county resided. Their plan was to incapacitate the voting population of The Dalles so that their own candidates would win the 1984 Wasco County elections (Flaccus, 2001). They decided to do this by contaminating food ingested by the voting public so as to defer them from coming to the voting polls on the Election Day. First, however, the group wanted to try this method out in a trial run. Salmonella bacteria was purchased from a medical supply company in Seattle and cultured in labs located inside of Rajneesh. They then deliberately contaminated salad bars at ten local restaurants with salmonella. The primary delivery tactic for the salmonella bacteria involved one member concealing a plastic bag containing a light brown liquid with the bacteria, and either spreading it over the food at a salad bar, or pouring its contents into salad dressing. On September 24, 1984, more than one hundred and fiftyÿpeople were already violently ill. And by the end of September, over seven hundred and fifty-one cases of acute gastroenteritis were documented. The lab results showed that all of the victims were infected with salmonella enterica typhimurium. The symptoms included diarrhea, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, headaches and severe abdominal pain (Urbano, 2006).
Also during this incident, two Wasco County commissioners were poisoned with glasses of water containing salmonella bacteria during a visit to Rajneeshpuram on August 29, 1984. As a result both commissioners got sick and one was hospitalized. The victims of this bioterrorism attack ranged from infants to the elderly (Snow, 2003). These events resulted in what is now called the 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack, as this group ended up poisoning the food of more than 750ÿindividuals in The Dalles, Oregon.
This incident marked the first bioterrorism attack in the United States, and the single largest bioterrorist attack in United States history (Lewis, 2001). It is also noted that the attack is one of only two confirmed terrorist uses of biological weapons to harm humans (Wheelis, 2006). In addition, the group also attempted to introduce pathogens into The Dalles water system (Carus, 2002). If that trial run proved to be successful, then the same technique was to be used closer to Election Day. The second part of the plan was never implemented due to the commune deciding to boycott the election when it became clear that those brought in through the share-a-home program would not be allowed to vote (Carter, 1990).
The main planners of the attack included Rajneesh's chief lieutenant Sheela Silverman (Ma An and Sheela), a trained nurse practitioner, and Diane Ivonne Onang (Ma An and Puja), secretary-treasurer of the Rajneesh Medical Corporation (Carus, 2002). Roughly twelve people were involved in the plots to use biological agents and at least eleven people were involved in the planning process. It was reported that no more than four appeared to have been involved in development at the Rajneeshpuram medical laboratory, although not all of them were necessarily aware of the objectives their work served. At least eight individuals were involved with the actual distribution of the bacteria (Carus, 2002).
It didn't take long for the local residents to suspect that Rajneesh's followers were behind the poisonings. As a result the local residents of The Dalles turned out in droves on Election Day to prevent the organization from winning any county positions, thus rendering Rajneesh's terrorist plot unsuccessful. With these events taking place the Rajneeshees eventually withdrew their candidate from the ballot. Only 239 of the commune's 7,000ÿresidents voted that election.
In the aftermath of the attack, local restaurants spent thousands of dollars as health officials had to shut down the salad bars of the affected restaurants. Also, after the attack most of The Dalles residents were scared to go out for fear of further attacks. Officials and investigators from a number of different agencies were also dispatched to The Dalles to investigate the cause of the outbreak. The investigation identified that the bacteria used in the bioterrorism attack was salmonella enterica typhimurium, and the investigation concluded that the outbreak had been due to food handlers' poor personal hygiene, as workers preparing food at the affected restaurants had fallen ill before most patrons had.
Despite the investigators' diagnosis of the situation, Oregon Congressman James Weaver continued to investigate the bioterrorism attack because he felt the officials' conclusion did not explain the facts. Congressman Weaver then contacted physicians at the Centers for Disease Control and other agencies and urged them to investigate Rajneeshpuram. On February 28, 1985, Congressman Weaver gave a speech on the floor of the United States House of Representatives in which he accused the Rajneeshees of sprinkling salmonella culture on salad bar ingredients in eight restaurants. Weaver's well-reasoned case was confirmed several months later as investigators gained access to the Rajneeshpuram and observed the evidence (Carter, 1990).
On September 16, 1985, Rajneesh emerged from a four-year period of public silence and held press conferences where he stated that Sheela and 19 other commune leaders, including Puja, had left Rajneeshpuram over the weekend and gone to Europe. Following their departure, Rajneesh said that he had received information from residents that Sheela and her team had committed a number of serious crimes. Rajneesh then referred to them as a "gang of fascists", he said they had attempted to poison his doctor and his female companion, as well as the Jefferson County district attorney and the water system in The Dalles. Rajneesh added that he believed they had poisoned a county commissioner and Judge William Hulse. He further stated that they may have been responsible for the salmonella outbreak in The Dalles, and invited state and federal law enforcement officials to come to the Ranch and investigate. His allegations were initially viewed with skepticism by outside observers (FitzGerald, 1987).
Soon thereafter, Oregon Attorney General Dave Frohnmayer established a task force among local and Oregon State Police, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Sheriff's office, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the National Guard. This group established headquarters on the Ranch to investigate the allegations. They felt they would need greater authority to perform an effective search, and feared that evidence might be destroyed; therefore, they obtained search warrants and subpoenas. On October 2, 1985, 50 investigators entered Rajneesh where Dr. Skeels found glass vials that contained salmonella bacterial disks in the laboratory of a Rajneeshpuram medical clinic. An analysis by the Centers for Disease Control lab in Atlanta confirmed that the bacterium at the Rajneesh laboratory was an exact match to those that became ill from eating at the local restaurants. The investigation also revealed prior experiments at Rajneeshpuram that dealt with poisons, chemicals and bacteria, in 1984 and 1985. Investigators also found a copy of The Anarchist Cookbook, and literature on the manufacture and usage of explosives and military biowarfare. Also, the investigators alleged that there may have been similar bioterrorism attacks carried out in Portland, Salem and possibly other cities in Oregon. According to the testimony, the terrorists boasted that they had attacked a nursing home and a salad bar at the Mid-Columbia Medical Center, but no such attempts were ever proven in court (Miller, Broad and Engelberg, 2002). As a result of the investigation, law enforcement officials also discovered that there was an aborted plot to murder Charles Turner, a former United States Attorney for Oregon.
The mayor of Rajneeshpuram, David Berry Knapp, turned the state's evidence over and gave an account of his knowledge of the salmonella attack to the FBI. Mayor Knapp claimed that Sheela said "she had talked with Rajneesh about the plot to decrease voter turnout in The Dalles by making people sick. Mayor Knapp also claimed that Rajneesh told Sheela that it was best not to hurt people, but if a few died not to worry." According to Mayor Knapp's testimony, Sheela played a muffled tape of Rajneesh's voice saying that "if it was necessary to do things to preserve his vision, then do it" and interpreted this to mean that killing people in his name was fine, telling doubters "not to worry" if a few people had to die. On September 25, 2984, investigators did find an invoice from American Type Culture Collection, showing that an order was received by the Rajneeshpuram laboratory for salmonella typhi, the bacterium that causes the life-threatening illness typhoid fever.
Rajneesh ended up leaving Oregon on October 27, 1985 and was arrested when he landed in Charlotte, North Carolina. Rajneesh was charged with 35 counts of deliberate violations of immigration laws. As part of his plea bargain agreement, he pled guilty to two counts of making false statements to immigration officials. Rajneesh ended up receiving a 10 year suspended sentence and a fine of $400,000. Along with the suspended sentence and fine, Rajneesh was also deported and banned from reentering the United States for five years. It ended up that Rajneesh was never prosecuted for crimes related to the salmonella bioterrorism attack. Both Sheela and Puja were detained on October 28, 1985, while in Germany. After long-drawn-out negotiations, they were both extradited to the United States and arrived in Portland on February 6, 1986. They were charged with attempted murder of Rajneesh's personal physician, first-degree assault for poisoning Judge William Hulse, second-degree assault for poisoning The Dalles Commissioner Raymond Matthews and product tampering for the poisonings in The Dalles. The U.S. Attorney's office handled the prosecution for the cases that dealt with the poisoning at the 10 restaurants. And the Oregon Attorney General's office handled the prosecution for the cases that dealt with the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews and Judge Hulse (Carter, 1990).
On July 22, 1986, both Sheela and Puja entered no-contest pleas for the salmonella poisoning and the other charges. They ended up receiving sentences ranging from three to 20 years. Sheela end up receiving 20 years for the attempted murder of Rajneesh's physician, 20 years for first-degree assault in the poisoning of Judge Hulse, 10 years for second-degree assault in the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews, four and a half years for her role in the salmonella poisoning, four and a half years for the wiretapping conspiracy, and five years' probation for immigration fraud. Puja end up receiving 15 years for the attempted murder of Rajneesh's physician, 15 years for first-degree assault in the poisoning of Judge Hulse, seven and a half years for second-degree assault in the poisoning of Commissioner Matthews, and four and a half years for her role in the salmonella poisoning. Puja also received three years probation for the wiretapping. After only serving 29 months of their sentences both Sheela and Puja were released early because of good behavior. After being released Sheela was deported, and went on to operate two nursing homes in Switzerland (Carter, 1990).
In June of 1985, The Oregonian ran a series on Rajneesh's movement which included an investigation into the salmonella bioterrorism attack. As a result of the follow-up investigation, The Oregonian learned that Leslie Zaitz, one of their investigative journalists, had been placed on Sheela's group top ten hit list. Oregon Attorney General Dave Frohnmayer later commented on the bioterrorism attack and other acts perpetrated by the group, stating: "The Rajneeshees committed the most significant crimes of their kind in the history of the United States ... The largest single incident of falsified marriages, the most massive scheme of wiretapping and bugging, and the largest mass poisoning" (Grossman, 2001). In looking back at the attack Dr. Skeels made the statement that, "We lost our virtue over this ... We really learned to be more apprehensive ... The first major biological attack on a U.S. community was not carried out by foreign terrorists smuggled into New York, but by legal residents of a U.S. community. The next time it happens it could be with more deadly agents ... We in public health are really not ready to deal with that" (Garrett, 2000).
In conclusion, the Rajneesh group is the only known organization to have cultured there own pathogen for bioterrorism purposes. Also, because of the nature of the bioterrorism attack federal and state investigators requested that details of the incident not be published in the Journal of the American Medical Association for a period of 12 years. Investigators made the request for fear a description of the events could spark a copycat (Garrett, 2000). As a result no repeat attacks or copycats consequently occurred. In 1997 the Journal of the American Medical Association published a detailed account of the incident. Also, in 1999 the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases published by the Centers for Disease Control described six motivational factors associated with bioterrorism. These motivational factors included the following: charismatic leadership, no outside constituency, apocalyptic ideology, loner or splinter group, sense of paranoia and grandiosity, and defensive aggression (Bromley, 2002).

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