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Effectiveness Psychoeducational Female
Background of Study
Based on the view of Johnson and Johnson (2000, as cited in Glading, 2003), a group is form by two or more individuals, who meet in face-to-face interaction, interdependently, with the consciousness that each belongs to the group and for the reason to achieve mutually agreed-on goals.
Wilson, Rapin and Haley-Banez (2000), the members of The Association for Specialist in Group Work (ASGW), which is a national division of the American Counselling Association, defines group work as “a broad professional practice involving the application of knowledge and skill in group facilitation to assist an interdependent collection of people to reach their mutual goals which may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or work-related. The goals of the group may include the accomplishment of tasks related to work, education, personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving, or remediation of mental and emotional disorders.”
Jacobs, Masson and Harvill (2005) had created seven categories of groups which based upon their different goal: educational group, discussion group, task group, growth group, counselling group, support group and self help group. However, ASGW only focus on four types of group work, which are psychoeducational group, counselling group, psychotherapy group, and task and work group (Wilson, Rapin and Haley-Banez, 2000).
This chapter comprises the background of the study and the research problem that arises in investigates the effectiveness of psychoeducational group on improving female adolescents’ emotional intelligence (EI). The research problem enhanced the objective to study on psychoeducational group and EI. Prediction of outcome was stated as hypotheses. Finally, definition of variables, significance and limitation of the study were discussed.
Group work is identified as an important modality because it is not only enable the clients to develop feelings of belonging and awareness of others, but also to increase their socialization skills and self-confidence. Besides, work group provide the opportunities for clients to exchange their idea and feedback (Nelson, Mackenthum, Bloesch, Milan, Unrein & Hill, 1956; as cited in Posthuma, 2002). Compare with individual counselling, group work is more efficiency because it consists of several clients who meet for common purpose and able to save considerable time and effort. When the group made in a group setting, the commitment to work on specific concerns often has become strength (Jacobs, Masson & Harvill, 2005).
According to Posthuma (2002), groups have been effective in various helping professions such as short-term psychiatric setting (Bradlee, 1984; McLees, Margo, Waterman, & Beeber, 1992; Prazoff, Joyce, & Azim, 1986), long-term psychiatric setting (Waldinger, 1990), counselling for special populations (Akos, 2000; Firth, 2000) and with the chronically physically ill (Gonen & Soroker, 2000; Levine, 1979).
Variety kinds of group work are believed to be helpful to adolescent in making a successful development and growth which related with psychological and social issues (Glading, 2003). During this transition period from childhood to adulthood, adolescent grow up psychically and mature mentally. They struggle with various psychological and social issues such as cope with crisis in identity, extraordinary peer pressures, dramatic physical changes, impending career decision, the desire for independence and self doubt (Wasielewski, Scruggs & Scott, 1997; as cited in Glading, 2003).
From a group, adolescents have the opportunity to identify their conflicting feeling, realize that they are not unique in their struggles, honestly question those value they decided to adjust, learn to communicate with peers and adults, learn from the modelling provided by the leader, and learn how to accept what others recommend and to give of themselves in return (Corey & Corey, 2002).
In this study, the psychoeducational group is used by the researcher to promote female adolescents’ emotional intelligence (EI). The term “Emotional Intelligence” was first introduced by Mayer and Salovey at arose in 1990 (Ciarrochi, Forgas & Mayer, 2001). The initial ability definition of EI as “A type of emotional information processing that includes accurate appraisal of emotion in oneself and others, appropriate expression of emotion, and adaptive regulation of emotion in such a way as to enhance living.” (Mayer, DiPaolo & Salovey, 1990; as cited in Ciarrochi, Forgas & Mayer, 2001).
Daniel Goleman, a science journalist, published the best-selling book, Emotional Intelligence at 1995. His popular book lead to an unusual turn of event as the field of EI become popularized and broadened. Theoretical and research modification in the area were taken place roughly since 1998 until present. At the same time, some new measures of EI have been developed.
Based on the information from American Psychological Association (APA) (2002), emotional development during adolescence involves establishing a realistic and coherent sense of identity in the context of relating to others and at the same time learning to cope with stress and manage emotion. Adolescents’ Self-concept and self-esteem are the two major concepts that involve in the developing a sense of identity. In the EI perspective, they need to be self-awareness and possess effective relationship skills.
Emotional skills are necessary for the adolescents to master in for their stress management and be sensitive and effective in relating to others. The four important skills that identified as part for adolescents’ emotional development are: recognizing and managing emotions, developing empathy, learning to resolve conflict constructively and developing a cooperative spirit.
Recently, there are some studies provided some indication of the predictive nature of EI in adolescents. The studies found that the adolescents with high EI score were inversely related to aggression (Rubin, 1999; as cited in Woitaszewski, Scott, Mattew & Roeper, 2004) and related to lower admission of smoking and alcohol use (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002; as cited in Woitaszewski et al, 2004). Mayer (2001; as cited in Woitaszewski et al, 2004) suggested that emotional intelligence was apparently related to the capacity to organize emotions that can occur in peer relationships. These evidences show that emotional intelligence is related to positive behavioural and social outcomes.
Psychoeducational group is a type of group that originally developed for use in educational settings. Recently, young people who join in developmental psychoeducational group out of sense the needs and desire to gain experience and knowledge that will help them better handle their concern such as identity, sexuality, parents, peer relationship, career goals and educational problems (Carty, 1983; as cited in Glading, 2003).
There are some examples showed the positive outcome for the adolescent who received in developmental psychoeducational group. Baker, Thomas & Munson (1983, as cited in Glading, 2003) showed that cognitive restructuring group enabled the students learn skills related to resolving problematic situation. Besides, the study of Hudson, Doyle & Venezia (1991, as cited in Glading, 2003) showed the effectiveness of communication skills group to improve their interpersonal relationship. The study of Jenau Anak Pawan (2007) and Siti Hawa Mohd Yusof (2007) showed that strcutured group enable improved the self-concept of orphans, who age of range from 12 to 17. Thus, in this study, the researcher would like to investigate whether psychoeducational group enable in improving the EI among female adolescents, who ages from 16 to 17 and have low or moderate level of EI score.
1.3.1 General Objective
The general objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of psychoeducational group in improving EI among female adolescent.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
To identify the different score of EI between pre-test and post-test for experimental group and control group after psychoeducational group take place.
To identify the different score of four elements of EI (perception emotion, managing emotion own emotion, managing others emotion and utilization of emotion) for Schutte-Self Report Inventory (SSRI) between pre-test and post test for experimental group and control group.
To assess the validity and reliability of module for treatment for psychoeducational group.
(Module for Psychoeducational Group)
Figure 1.0: Conceptual Framework
This study consists of two sample group, which are control group and treatment group. The sample of both group are identified to have low or moderate level of SSRI score. Each group will be given SSRI during post-test, to identify their EI level. For control group, no any intervention is given. For instance, the treatment group will form a psychoeducational group with the used of module which will develop their EI level. After 10 sessions of treatment, both groups will be given SSRI again as post-test. The score between for pre-test and post-test for both groups will be compared.
Hо1a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for emotional intelligence.
Hо1b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for emotional intelligence.
Hо2a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for perception of emotion variable.
Hо2b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for perception of emotion variable.
Hо3a : There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for managing own emotion variable.
Hо3b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for managing own emotion variable.
Hо4a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for managing others emotion variable.
Hо4b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for managing others emotion variable.
Hо5a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for utilizing emotion variable.
Hо5b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for utilizing emotion variable.
Significance of Study
The study provides the contribution from the view of theoretical aspect and practical aspect. From the theoretical aspect, this study is view as an academic research that study with group work. Besides, the study showed the potential of psychoeducational group as an appropriate group work approach to promote clients’ socioemotional development.
This study is an experiment that assesses the effectiveness of psychoeducational group. Thus, the outcomes of the study are able to serve as an evidence of the ability of group work to promote EI. This is the chance to promote the group work approach for the community of Malaysian to gain their trust on the group work’s effectiveness.
Besides, this study provides the opportunity for researcher to assess the validity and reliability of the module that had been developed. This is significance and necessary for this study since the validity and reliability of the module able to guarantee its quality and effectiveness.
From practical aspect, the study provides the module that had been developed to promote the development of EI for adolescent through group work. The modules are flexible and able to modify according to the needs of the group. For those helping professions who interest to implement the group for developing emotional intelligence, the modules can be the references.
The effectiveness of module enables to generate the adolescent who possess with good emotional intelligence. It believed will be leaded them to gain self-awareness, not only able to make perception of their own emotion and managing their own emotion, but also able to guide them have a better interpersonal relationship.
A collection of two or more individuals who meet in face-to-face interaction, interdependently, with the awareness that each belongs to the group and for the purpose of achieving mutually agree-on goals. (Johnson and Johnson, 2000; as cited in Glading, 2003)
A team that form by seven members who meet in face-to-face interaction, which lead by the researcher, with the purpose of improving their emotional intelligence.
A specialist group work with members who are relatively well-functioning individual but who may have lack of information in a certain area, with the specialization deals with importing, discussion and integrating factual information. New information is integrated through the use of planned skill-building exercises (Galding, 2003).
A structured group with focus on EI theme and work with female adolescent who are low or moderate levels of EI, with the aim of providing members with increased awareness of their emotional problems in daily life and the tools or skills to better cope with it.
An outcome which has production of intended result (Hornby, 1997).
Creation of positive effect for the group members to help them improves their EI development through psychoeducational group approach.
The ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. (Salovey, Peter & David Sluyter, 1997; as cited in Wikipedia, 2007)
The ability of an individual to percept emotion accurately, master the skill in managing own and others’ emotion, and utilize his emotion for creative thinking, flexible planning, mood redirected attention and motivation.
Perception of Emotion
The ability to recognize one’s own and others’ emotion base on “situational and expressive cues that have some degree of cultural consensus as to the emotional meaning” (Saarni, 1999; as cited in Ciarrochi, Chan & Bajgar, 2000).
The ability aware of own and others’ emotion and perceive such verbal and nonverbal emotion accurately.
Managing Own Emotion
The capacity for adaptively coping with aversive or distressing emotions by using self-regulatory strategies that rearrange the passion or duration of such emotional starts (Saarni, 1999; as cited in Ciarrochi, Chan & Bajgar, 2000).
The ability to manage and coping with own strong positive or negative emotion and restructure such emotion with stability.
Managing Others’ Emotion
The ability to arrange events others take pleasure in, cover negative emotions in order to avoid hurting others’ feelings and make others feel better when they are down (Saarni, 1999; as cited in Ciarrochi, Chan & Bajgar, 2000).
The ability manipulates and controls others’ emotion for creation of a harmony and joyful atmosphere.
Utilization of Emotion
The ability to used own emotion in the search of life goals and make decision based on feelings over logic (flexible planning), using emotion to facilitate different thinking (creative thinking), Interpreting strong negative emotion in a positive way (mood redirected attention) and pursuing one’s goal with drive, persistence and optimism (Motivating emotion) (Sample, 2007).
The ability to use emotion to solve the daily life emotion related problems.
Individual who ages from range of 11 to 21 and do involved into a transition period from childhood to young adulthood. It is generally a time of self-discovery in which young people aim to define their place in the world (Ariganjoye & Daigneault, 2007).
Members who ages from range of 16 or 17 and identified have a low or moderate level of EI. They participate in the study as a member for control group or treatment group.
Limitation of Study
Below are some of the limitations of study that identified by the researcher:
The samples of the study are the female adolescent who ages from 16 to 17. The module that developed may not suit with the other population.
The researcher unable to control the confidentiality among the sample from treatment group because they stay with the same place with the sample from control group. Perhaps if they break the confidential, some input from the psychoeducational group may receive by the sample from control group indirectly.
The sample may answer SSRI without honestly and bias, this will lead to the inconsistency of the validity and reliability of the outcome.
Perhaps some of the samples are not ready mentally to participate in the study or be involuntary. They may act with resistance, reluctant or absence for the group meeting, which will influence their improvement of EI development.
Since the researcher is a counsellor trainer who still in supervision, perhaps the competency of researcher is limited to handle more crisis issue.
Overall this chapter is used to provide a general introduction for the study. The background and the problem statement of the study had been discussed. Besides, this chapter state with the objectives and hypotheses of the study. Besides, the important terms for this study had been defined. Finally, this significance and limitation of the study had been discussed.
This chapter explore the entire concept for this study in details. The key concepts for this study include psychoeducational group, module, emotional intelligence and adolescent. Besides, literature review of previous research that related with these concepts was organized to support the relationship of variable for this study.
2.1 Pscyhoeducational Group
Psychoeducational group, sometimes are simply referred to as “educational group” or “guidance groups”, is originally developed fro the use in educational setting, specifically public schools (Galdding, 2003). The premised of psychoeducational groups is on the idea that education is treatment not only because of the knowledge acquired in the process but also because of the perception that may be changed as result (Young, 1998; as cited in Gladding).
Corey & Corey (2002) cited that “Structured groups focus on a particular theme and are often psychoeducational in nature.” Commonly in a structured group, the members are asked to complete a questionnaire at the beginning group to assess how well they are coping with the part of concern. When the groups terminates, another questionnaire is completed to assess their progress.
According to Conyne (1996; as cited in Gladding, 2003), the major goal of pscyhoeducational group work is “to prevent future development of debilitating dysfunctions while strengthening coping skills and self-esteem.” Thus, it is suited to use in various setting such as schools, hospitals, mental health agencies, social service agencies and universities (Jones & Robinson; as cited in Gladding, 2003). In general, it stresses growth through knowledge (ASGW, 2000; as cited in Gladding). Besides, it increases members’ awareness of some life problem and the tools or skills to better cope with it (Corey & Corey, 2002). Carrell (2000, as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006) points out that psychoeducational groups emphasize on support, learning of new skills, and how to help and be helped.
The general contents or themes for psychoeducational group includes, but is not limited to, personal, social, vocational and education information (Bates, Johnson & Blaker, 1982; as cited in Gladding, 2003). Some current topics for psychoeducational groups for adolescents include: loneliness, self-esteem social skills, career development, career exploration, children of divorce, grief, conflict resolution, bullying prevention, anger management, aggression, relationship skills, communication skills, prevention of depression, family relationship, cognitive coping skills and antisocial behaviour (Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006 ) .
These groups usually process in 50 minutes to 2 hours period and work best when they have a regular meeting such as once a week. The appropriate number for sessions is 8 to 10 (Gladding, 2003). To Corey and Corey (2002), the general sessions for psychoeducation group are about 2 hours for 4 to 15 weeks. However, if the group is for children or clients with a short attention span, 30 to 45 minutes session should be appropriated.
Furr (2000, as cited in Gladding, 2003) introduced six-step process that essential for designing a psychoeducational group:
Stating the purpose
Designing experiential activities
The activities or curriculum in these groups usually take in nonthreatening exercises or group discussion forms but it may present in variety forms actually (Bates, Johnson & Blaker, 1982; as cited in Gladding, 2003). Certain technological application such as computer-assisted programs, video or audio transmission and computerized simulations take a role in the group to develop the members’ growth through knowledge in indirect way (Bowman & Bowman, 1998; as cited in Gladding).
According to Shechtman, Bar-EI and Hadar (1997; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006), adolescents able to take many advantages through group because they have a chance to relate to each other learn the life skills. Besides, they may practice the behaviours that generalized from the group into real-life situations. From the group, multiple feedbacks are received and through helping each others, their self-esteem may be increased.
Psychoeducational groups are commonly utilized in school setting, for prevention purposes for students at risk (Vera & Reese, 2000; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006). Psychoeducational group approach assist group members in sharing and developing coping skills and behaviours and apply such skills in dealing with new or difficult situation (Dagley, Gazda, Eppiger & Stewart, 1994; Hoag & Burlingame, 1998; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006).
Through psychoeducational intervention, adolescents learn the improved way of functioning. They will expose with new cognitive concepts, ideas and exploration of their issues. The adaptive behaviours will be explored, discussed and practices for transfer to school and home. From the healing interaction of the group experience, their self-esteem, efficacy, and emotional satisfaction will be improved (Smead, 2002; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006 ).
Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad (2005) defined module as a unit of teaching and learning that discuss with certain topic, in a systematic and subsequent way. It helps the student able to learn alone and master the learning unit in an easy and accurate way.
Module can be used in the non-academic setting such as the activities that related with self-growth, adventure and interaction. Thus, module suits to apply for individual or group in academic or non-academic form with the purpose to lead them for change in a positive direction (Rusell, 1974; as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005).
According to Sulaiman Yasin, Saidin The & Asma Ahmad (1986, as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005), the role of module is to assist someone to gain knowledge, awareness and adeptness which will lead to the improvement of management ability to achieve the objective that fixed by an organization. Thus, in this study, the module had been developed and be used in the psychoeducation group to assist the group members to gain knowledge, awareness and practice the skills that related with EI, with the goal of increase their EI level.
The modules are important in this study because each module has the specific objective. When the members aware of the objective during the beginning of the session, such situation able to drive them to participate in the activity actively to achieve the goal. Besides, the modules that developed consists with assessment elements which will enable the member to receive and provide feedback that related with their achievement and understanding of the activities that they participated (Shaharom Noordin & Yap Kueh Chin, 1991; as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005).
Jamalidin Ahmad (2002, as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005) categorize module into four types with according to their purpose. They are teaching module, motivation module, training module and academic module. Teaching module is used in school setting, with the purpose to provide guidance for students to study alone. To develop the student motivation, motivation module is used by teacher, facilitator or moderator in variety form such as acitivities, trainings and games. Academic module is prepared by universities or colleges lecturers that complete with lecture notes and is provide to their students. Training module is a module in training form with strive for improve the worker performance in certain organization.
The chart below illustrates the process to create a module.
Set the objective
Needs of research
Identify theory, rational, philosophy, concepts, target and time period.
Choose the contents
Combine draft of module
Assess validity and reliability
Combine draft of module
Combine draft of module
Complete module and able to be used
Phase I, Draft Module Preparation
Pahse II, Test and Evaluate Module
Figure 2: Model Module Creation Sidek
Source: Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaludin Ahmad (2006). Pembinaan Modul: Bagaimana membina Modul Latihan dan Modul Akademik. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Sidek Mohd Noah introduced a module that is more comprehensive for module creation at 2001 (Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaluding Ahmad, 2005). This model has two phases. Phases one involves the steps to create draft for module, whereas phase two is a level to test and evaluate the module. The validity and reliability of the modules are assessed in this phase. Only the module with appropriate value of validity and reliability will be used. For in stance, of the value is inappropriate, the module need to modify and rebuilt until the appropriate value of validity and reliability been achieved.
2.3 Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Mayer (2001) in his article A Field Guide to Emotional Intelligence proposed a fivefold division of years to explain the overview of the emergence of EI concepts. From 1990 to 1969, the psychological study of intelligence and emotion were separate. During the period of 1970 to 1989, psychologists focus on the study of how emotions and thought influenced each other. At 1990, the term of ‘emotional intelligence’ first introduces by Mayer and Salovey and leads to emerge the EI as a topic to study.
When come to 1994 to 1997, the concept of EI was popularized by Goleman and his book Emotional Intelligence become a worldwide best-seller and was widely copied. From 1998 until present, a numbers of refinements of the concept of EI take place and a new measure of the concept of EI had been introduced as well. Now, EI become a popular topic for the scientific research.
There are variety definitions for EI. According Mayer (2001), recently two lines of definition had emerged. First line consists of the original approach that defined EI as an intelligence involving emotion. For the second lines, the definition is mixed approaches that blended with other skills and characteristic such as well-being, motivation, and capacities to engage in relationship.
Mayer, Caruso and Mayer (1999; as cited in Mayer, 2001) proposed the ability theory and divides EI into four brunches: ability at emotional perception, the ability to use emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions and managing emotion. For mixed definition, Bar-on (1997; as cited in Mayer, 2001) view EI as noncognitive competencies and categorized as intreapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management and general mood. Goleman (1998; as cited in Mayer, 2001) used the mixed definition as well. He proposed five-part elaboration of EI: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills.
The most common mental illness that relate with EI is Alexithymia. For people who suffer with Alexithymia, they suffer with the difficulty identifying feelings and distinguishing between feeling and the bodily sensations of emotional arousal. Besides, it is hard for them to describe feeling to others and have a poor fantasy life. They also have a cognitive style that is literal and focuses on the minute details of external events. High alexithymia individuals are identify to have a low EI because they unable to use emotions as information about their internal or external worlds and do not feel good about themselves (Taylor, 2001).
Bar-on (2001) proposed four themes to define self-actualization: the ability and drive to set and achieve goals, being committed to and involved with our interests, actualizing our potential and enriching our life. His findings strongly suggest that the EI factors and facilitators such as happiness, optimism, self-regard, independence, problem-solving, social responsibility, assertiveness and emotional self-awareness are best predictors of self-actualization. He mentioned that the person who has high IQ does not guarantee that they will actualize their potential because his study showed that even EI individuals with average or even below-average cognitive capacity are able to actualize their potential in life.
Empathy is one of the five domains of EI that proposed by Goleman (1995), which defined as ability recognizing emotions in others and the ability that built on emotional self-awareness and it serve as the fundamental “people skills”. Empathic accuracy is a measure of the ability to accurately infer the specific content of “reading” people’s thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1997; as cited in Flury & Ickes, 2001). These aspects are closely related with friendship and dating relationship (Flury & Ickes, 2001).
Icker and Simpson (1997, as cited in Flury & Ickes, 2001) proposed some factors that can impair empathic accuracy in close relationship. These factors include the target person is unable to express what he or she is thinking and feeling to perceiver or the perceiver unable to correctly interpret the target’s behavioural cues and the perceiver’s current level of stress.
To Mayer and Salovey (1997, as cited in Elias, Hunter & Kress, 2001), EI is built up of a set of skills and most skills can be improved through education. Thus, schools should be the prime location for promoting of EI. Social and emotional learning (SEL) is an essential part of education from preschool through high school, which aim to foster the development and application of emotional skills among students (Elias, Hunter & Kress, 2001). The Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) was founded in 1994 by Daniel Goleman dan Eileen Rockefeller, with focuses on gathering scientific evidence to demonstrate the contributions of social and emotional learning to students' school success, health, well-being, peer and family relationships, and citizenship.
Besides, it proved SEL practitioners and school administrators with the guidelines, tools, informational resources, policies, training, and supports they need to improve and expand their SEL programming. Their mission is to establish social and emotional learning (SEL) as an essential part of education (CASEL, 2007). EI and social-emotional skills are essential for our children since they will grow up into adults, such skills will bring them to be effective in their families, workplaces and communities while experience positive physical and mental health (Elias, Hunter & Kress, 2001).
Kravitz and Schubert (2000) stated that EI is importance at workplace because it enables the workers to interact with people in new and different way. It is because the workers deal with variety people everyday and they need to be flexible and adaptive in their communication. If they are low in EI, they need to face with constant pressure that makes them tired and irritable. They need to control their work and their lives, and express optimism about their future. Indirectly, these factors will influence their work performance. Kravitz and Schubert (2000) proposed five essential EI skills that a worker should possess: self-awareness skills, social skills, optimism, emotional control and flexible skills.
Salovey (2001) explained that high EI may help a person become healthy and wealthy. If we have an appropriate level of emotional expression, it may help us to avoid negative consequences such as anger expression and negative expression. Besides, we also need to learn how to manage regret and anxiety because they serve as the key to avoiding pathologies and loss aversion. Thus, it can be conclude that EI is our central to maintaining good health and wealthy.
According to Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory, adolescents are experiencing identity vs identity confusion stage. This is the time for them so searching out who they are, what they are all about and where they are going in life. Many new roles and adult statuses such as vocational and romantic are confronted by adolescents and they need time to explore about these roles. If they able explore such roles in a healthy manner, their positive identity will be reached. However, if they do not adequately explore many roles and their future path is not defined, then they are experiencing identity confusion (Santrock, 2006).
Marcia (1980, 1994; as cited in Santrok, 2006) proposed four statuses of identity for adolescents. In his view, distinguish between crisis and commitment in identity development play an important role for identity development. Adolescents assume to be in a crisis period when they are choosing among meaning alternative during period of identity development. Whereas, when they show a personal investment in what they are going to do on that period, they are having commitment. Only when they undergone a crisis and have made a commitment, they are identify to achieve their identity. Figure below illustrate the general view of Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity.
Figure 3: Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity
Source: Santrock, J. W. (2006). Life-Span Development (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Most adolescents experiencing strive for autonomy from their parents. They dislike isolated from their parents because such situation unable give them the chance move into a word that without attachment from their parents. However, appropriate level of attachment to parents increases the probability that an adolescent will be socially competent.
During this period, parent-adolescent conflict increase (Santrock, 2006). Such conflict at home may develop because of over “control” from the parents (Gumaer, 1984; as cited in Gladding, 2003). The moderate conflicts usually may serve the positive development function of promoting autonomy and identity among adolescent (Santrock, 2006).
During adolescents, the pressure to match to peers becomes strong. Cliques and crowds become more important than during childhood (Santrock, 2006). Since the need for approval exaggerated during this period, the need for acceptance by their peer group is often stronger and more important than the need for self-respect (Corey & Corey, 2002). Further more, the status among peers is predominates their behaviour (Gumaer, 1984; as cited in Gladding, 2003).
One of the needs of adolescents is get the chance to explore and aware wide range of their feeling and to learn how to have effective communication with others. They gain the self-confidence and self-respect if they experiencing success and achieve the sense of individuality and connectedness (Corey & Corey, 2002). Besides, their membership and independent are associated with increase self-esteem (Santrock, 2006).
2.5 Previous Studies on Psychoeducational Group
The application of principle of normal human development and functioning through group based educational and developmental strategies is the root for pscyhoeducational group approach. This group applied in the context of here-and-now interaction. The objective of psychoeducational group is to promote personal and interpersonal growth and development and the prevention of future difficulties.
Such group is especially provided for people who may be at risk for the development of personal or interpersonal problems or who seek improvement of personal qualities and abilities (Wilson, Rapin & Haley-Banez, 2000). Previous study showed the effectiveness of psycheducational groups for various setting, people and issues.
The study of Lubin, Loris, Burt and Johnson (1998) examined the effectiveness of a 16-week trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioural group therapy, named Interactive Psychoeducational Group Therapy (IPGT), in reducing primary symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in five groups (n=29) of multiply traumatized women diagnosed with chronic PTSD. During each session, a brief psychoeducational lecture will be given and followed by an interactive discussion that directed by the therapist then a wrap-up with an educational emphasis.
Subjects were given booklets and given homework at the end of each session. Besides, the therapists used a blackboard to jot down important points in the lectures. The assessments were made at 1-month intervals during treatment, at termination and at 6-month follow-up by using self-report and structured interview measured of PTSD and psychiatric symptoms. The result showed those depressive symptoms and all three clusters of PTSD symptoms such as reexperiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal are significance reduced. Meanwhile, the general psychiatric and dissociative symptoms showed near-significant reduced at termination.
The similar IPGT approach was applied in the study of Lubin & Johnson (2000) in the treatment of authority problems of Vietnam veterans with PTSD. The intervention linking psychological trauma with distortions in authority relations, followed by the format, procedures and case examples of this form of group therapy. In long-term follow-up, due to the effect of the treatment, the results show the improvement in their relationships with others, as well as decrease in legal problems.
The effectiveness of psychoeducational groups is not limited to patients with PTSD, they study of Wolchik, Weiss and Katzman (1986) also showed the effectiveness of psychoeducational treatment groups for women who suffer with bulimia. The aim of the seven-week programs is to decreasing depression, enhancing self-esteem and increasing assertion and improving body image. The treatment is a short-term approach, with focused on personality, behavioural deficits and maladaptive eating patter. The resulted show that women who received treatment (N=11) showed significant improvement in their number of binges per month, self-esteem and depression.
A quasi-experimental research study by Pomeray, Kiam and Grenn (2000) found that psychoeducational group approach was effective in increasing knowledge of AIDS and decreasing depression, anxiety and trauma symptoms among male inmates in a large south-eastern jail facility. The 10 sessions of psychoeducational group approach include education of AIDS topic and psychological support. Besides, there is a pilot project designed by Bacha, Pomeroy and Gilbert (1999) to test a developmentally specific, 6-week of psychoeducational group intervention for children (N=14) with HIV or AIDS.
In this intervention, information about HIV or AIDS was combined with play therapy techniques with the hope that the children would benefit cognitively and emotionally from the treatment. The children able to increase their self-esteem, at the same time decrease their sense of hopelessness and depression through the group. Besides, they gain a greater understanding of their illness to relieve some of the fears associated with HIV or AIDS.
The study of Manne, Babb, Pinover, Horwitz and Ebbert (2004) assessed the effect of a 6-week psychoeducational group intervention on the distress, coping, personal growth and marital communication of wives of men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The session topics related with health-related and psychological information. The study found that not differences regard to wives’ psychological distress, but it showed the improvement in adaptive coping and indicators of psychological growth were found.
The study the impact of psychoeducational group intervention had been examined by Downing and Walker (1987) as well. The study is to assess the impact of psychoeducational groups for adult children of alcoholics. The secondary prevention intervention had been applied. The group provided a safe place for students to discuss their experience. Besides, the group focuses on confronting denial and educational. Films, discussion and handouts are used. The students reported that since they have a greater understanding of themselves and the disease of alcoholism, they become feel less responsible for others and more in control of their own life.
In another study by Dore, Nelson-Zlupko and Kaudmann (1999), the effect of psychoeducational groups for school children from drug-involved families had been investigated. They found that the treated children exhibited a greater sense of internal locus control and have greater levels of social acceptance and enhanced feelings of self-worth. The observed teacher explained that the treated children showed positive change in some dimensions of class room behaviour including general restlessness, clowning, relations with peers and completion of assignments.
Berry and Cash (1998) write about the formal psychoeducational support groups and describe how it create supportive network for families seeking to remain safe and remain together. In small groups, the parents learn about the need of children at different developmental stages. Besides, they have the chance to share strategies for effective parenting while develop skills in navigating the social service system and support each other in new behaviours.
2.5 Previous Studies on Emotional Intelligence
The study of Fariselli, Ghini and Freedman (n.d.) with using the Six Seconds’ Emotional Intelligence Assessment (SEI) for 405 American people showed that EI increases slightly with age. The components of EI in SEI are self-awareness, self-management and self-direction. The study suggest that EI is developing ability and able to develop through life experience. With using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT V2.0), the study of Palmer, Gignac, Manocha and Stough (2005) with 431 samples from general population found a small negative correlation between ages and scored on the Faces subscale. However, the result showed small positive relationships between age and scored on the Facilitation subscale and the Management Subscale. In others words, there is very little increase in EI associated with age in the present adult population sample.
Lyusin (2006) explained the perceived stereotypes of expectation in gender different and its relation with EI. Common idea of scientific psychology state that, women are more competent than men in the emotional sphere. Women are believed to have better “sensing” emotion of other people ability and they have a greater tendency toward psychological analysis of their own and others’ behaviour. In addition, they are quite skilful at manipulating others’ emotion. However, they do not always have their own under control.
The study of Petrides and Furnham (2000) showed that females scored higher than males on the “social skills” factor. 260 samples with mean age of 23.4 years were take part in this study. The Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI) was used in this study to get the score of EI. Four components of EI in SSRI were labelled as optimism or mood regulation, appraisal of emotion, social skills and utilization of emotion. The study of Sjöberg (2001) about EI and life adjustment found that Women had a higher score than men in EI.
The similar result also found on several studies (Kemp, Cooper, Hermens, Gardon, Bryant & Williams, 2005; Palmer et al., 2005). In the study of Kemp et al. (2005), a psychometric properties of a brief, self-report measure of EI was used, which is named by Brain Resource Inventory for Emotional Intelligence Factors (BRIEF). BRIEF comprise internal emotional capacity (IEC), external emotional capacity (EEC) and self concept (SELF). The study found that women score higher than men on total BRIEF scores, IEC factor and EEC factor. However, men are score higher than females on the SELF factor.
In Goleman’s view (1998; as cited in Mandell & Pherwani, 2003), a leader should not only possess effective managerial skills, but also need to highly develop social and emotional skills. The best-trained manager would not be a great leader if he or she just have IQ and technical skills and without any competent in EI. The study of Palmer, Walls, Burgess and Stough (2000) about relation of EI and effective leadership found that EI correlated with several components of transformational leadership, which is identify as effective leadership style. The materials used for this study is Modified Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ).
The charisma sub-scales was significantly correlated with score on the emotional monitoring scale. Meanwhile, inspiration motivation was moderately correlated with both the emotional monitoring and emotional management scales. Individualized consideration also found that correlated with emotional monitoring and management scales. A significant correlation found between the contingent reward sub-scales of transactional monitoring scale. Similarly, the study of Mandell and Pherwani (2003) also found that there was a significant predictive relationship between transformational leadership style and EI.
107 samples who participated in the study of Palmer, Donaldson & Stough (2001) using a modified version of TMMS, Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to investigated the relationship of EI and life satisfaction. The result showed that only Clarity sub-scale of the TMMS and the Difficulty Identity Feelings sub-scale of the TAS-20 found to significantly correlate with life satisfaction.
Sjöberg (2001) collected a sample of 153 respondents for his study on relationship of EI and life adjustment. EI, life or work balance and other indices of adjustment and social or psychological skills and salary had been measured. It was found that life or work balance was clearly related to EI. Besides, work motivation, job satisfaction and salary also related to EI. The study found that women, highly educated people and young people tend to have high EI. High EI was found to be associated with better handling of failure and frustration, more creativity, less psycho phobia, higher self-esteem, a better balance of life and work and a higher salary.
2.6 Previous Study of Emotional Intelligence and Adolescent
Harrod and Scheer (2005) study the relationship of adolescents’ EI score and their demographic characteristic (age, sex, household income, parents’ level of education and location of residence). 200 youth ages 16 to 19 from Midwestern high schools participated in this study. In this study, adolescent EI was measure with Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Short Version (Bar-On EQ-i: YV (S)).The study found that EI levels were positively related to females, parents’ education and household income. However, they study did not show significant relationship between their EI and location of residence or age.
250 high-school students with ages from 14 to 19 participated in the study of Fernandez-Berrocal, Extremera and Pizarro (2006) to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence, anxiety and depression among adolescents. TMMS was used in this study to measure sample’s EI score. The study found that EI was negatively related with levels of depression and anxiety. Emotional Repair sub-scales were positively related to self-esteem. The study concluded that emotional abilities are an important and unique contributor to psychological adjustment.
Chan (2003) study the relationship of EI and social coping skills among gifted adolescents in Hong Kong. 259 students with ages of 12 to 16 years from Chinese University of Hong Kong participated voluntarily in this study. SSRI and Social Coping Questionnaire were used to measure the sample’s EI level and their social coping skills. The study labels 6 coping strategies, which were Valuing Peer Acceptance, Involvement in Activities, Attempting Avoidance, Denying Giftedness, Prizing Conformity, and Discounting Popularity. The result shows that social skills as the most important component of EI predicting the use of strategies of Valuing Peer Acceptance and Involvement in Activities.
156 first year students with average age of 18.61 years participated in the study of Austin, Evans, Goldwater and Potter (2005) to examine the relationship of EI and exam performance. The finding supports the hypothesis that exam performance was positively and significantly related to EI score. Similar study was investigated by Parker, Creque, Harris, Majeski, Wood and Hogan (n.d.) for high school students from Canada. 667 students who ranged from 14 to 18 years old be the sample for this study. The result support that EI is a significant predictor of academic success. Academic success was found to be strongly associated with overall EI level and several EI dimensions such as interpersonal, adaptability and stress management abilities.
Ciarrochi, Chan and Bajhar (2000) investigate a study about the use of the SSRI in adolescents. 131 students with the age ranges from 13 to 15 participated in this study. The study reported that female had a higher score of EI than males. They were identified being better at managing others’ emotion and perceiving emotion but did not report being better at managing their own emotions. Besides, there are numbers of study show that EI scores among adolescents were significantly different between females and males, with females reporting higher EI levels (Brackett, Mayer & Warner, 2003; Katyal & Awasthi, 2005; Austin et al., 2005; Harrod et al., 2005).
The study of Brackett investigated the relation of EI to adolescents’ everyday behavior. 330 college students with ages range from 17 to 20 complete the MSCEIT to assess their level for EI. As mention earlier, the females score higher than males. The males who had lower EI reported their inability to perceive emotions and use emotion to facilitate thought, which associated with negative outcome such as illegal drugs and alcohol use, deviant behavior and poor relations with friends. The study concluded that EI was significantly related with maladjustment and negative behaviors for college-aged males, but not for females.
In Malaysia, there is a study of the influence of EI on problem behaviors in Malaysia secondary school students. In this study, Liau, Liau, Teoh and Liau (2003) found that EI of the 203 samples with mean age of 15.9 was significantly correlated negatively with stress, depression, somatic complaints, aggression and delinquency and positively correlated with parental monitoring. However, EI and academic anxiety was not significant.
This chapter represents a clear and concrete explanation for the core concept of this study such as psychoeducational group, EI and adolescent socioemotional development. The previous studies that related with the field of this study enable to support and provide a guideline for researcher to carry out the study.
Chapter 3 Methodology
This chapter explains about the research design for this study with the aim to examine the effectiveness of psychoeducational group on improving female adolescents’ EI. This chapter also discusses about the population and size sample for this study. The instruments used for determine samples’ EI level and the treatment instrument will be presented in this chapter as well.
3.1 Research Design
The researcher used the experimental approach to investigate the effectiveness of psychoeducational group intervention on improving EI among adolescents. According to Sabitha Marica (2005), the objective of experiment is to study the effect of certain stimulation. 4 core characteristics of experimental research are stated below (Sabitha Marica, 2005):
The used of control group and treatment group;
Variable able been manipulated;
The changes of situation able been observed; and
Small number of respondents.
In this study, quasi-experimental design is used. Quasi-experimental design is used when certain research does not meet all requirements to investigate pure experimental research (Sabitha Maricam, 2005).
One of the common classic quasi-experimental designs is the Non-Equivalent Group Design (NEGD). It is represented like a pretes-posttest randomized experiment but it lacks the key feature of the randomized designs. In NEGD, the researcher tries to select the sample for control and treatment as similar as possible so that researcher can fairly compare the result after treatment. This designed was named the non-equivalent group because the sample for both group unable be as similar as they would because they researcher assigned them through a random lottery. In addition, researcher did not control the assignment to groups through the mechanism of random assignment. In others word, the extraneous variables incapable been controlled. NEGD is especially at risk to the internal validity threat of selection because any prior differences between the groups may affect the outcome of the study (Willian, 2006).
T1 X T2
Rajah 3.0: Non-Equivalent Group Design
X:Psyhcoeducational Group Approach (Intervention)
To ensure both sample of control group and treatment group participate in the beginning of the study with similar level of EI, pre-test is essential. During the pre-test, the target population measure their level of EI through SSRI and the person who identified had low or moderate level of EI are selected randomly to be the sample of the study. During the treatment period, only treatment group receive the intervention of psyhcoeducational groups. Only after terminate the intervention of psychoeducational group, both sample of control group and treatment group require to redo SSRI to measure any improvement on their EI.
Population and Sample
The population for this study is the adolescents who have low or moderate level of EI. The population are identified at the pre-test of the study through the used of SSRI. For screening, only females adolescents with ages 16 or 17 and had been identified possess low or moderate level of EI will be selected as the sample for this study.
The number of sample for this study is 14, which 7 of them serve as the members for control group and will not received any intervention. For the rest, they participate in treatment group and receive the treatment of psychoeducational group approach from researcher.
The appropriate size for a group is important because each member need the chance to participate in the group. Besides, it will ensure the dual-interaction of leader and among the members (Douglas, 1991; as cited in Posthuma, 2002). Others than that, if the leaders is not competency enough, they may feel uncomfortable if they force themselves to handle a big group (Posthuma, 2002).
3.3 Treatment Group and Control Group
Both treatment group and control group consists of seven samples who identified to possess low or moderate level of EI through the assessment of SSRI. Both groups are taking assessment of SSRI at pre-test and pos-test for the study. Only the treatment group participate in a 10-sessions psychoeducational group. For control group, the samples do not receive any intervention for the whole period for the study.
The population of female adolescents who identified have low or moderate level of EI are been choose randomly by research to be the samples for treatment group and control group. Each person in population is presented with a number. The numbers are filled in a box and the researcher will draw a number one by one for 7 times, to form and control group and repeat these again to form treatment group
3.4 Number of session
Corey (1990; as cited in Posthuma, 2002) suggest that the size and the number session for a groups depends on the age of the member, leader’s experience, type of group and type of issues for the group.
For this study, the numbers of session depend on the 4 components of EI from SSRI, which are perception emotion, managing own emotion, managing others’ emotion and utilization of emotion. The treatment group participate in a 10-sessions psychoeducational group, which 8 of them used to discuss the components of EI and 2 sessions serve as beginning and termination session.
The psychoeducational group in this study proceed for 6 weeks. The first week and the sixth week are for ice-breaker and termination session. The second week until fifth week is for 8 sessions which discuss about the components of EI. The table below exhibit the number of sessions and the theme for each session in this study.
Table 3.0: Psychoeducational Group Session Planning.
3.5 Research Location
A Secondary School named Kota Samarahan from Sarawak, Malaysia.
3.6 Research Instrument
3.6.1 Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI)
Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI) was built by Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden and Dornheim, which based on Salovey and Mayer’s original model of EI (Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden and Dornheim, 1998), with the attempt to assess characteristic or trait of EI (N. S. Schutte, J. M. Malauff & N.Bhullar, personal communication, August 9, 2007).
33 items from an initial pool of 62 items were selected and be finalise items for SSRI. (Schutte et al., 1998). Five-point scale was used in SSRI, which a “1” indicated “strongly disagree” and a “5” indicated “strongly agree” (Schutte et al, 1998). Item 5, 28 and 33 are negative time and the rest are positive item (N. S. Schutte et al., personal communication, August 9, 2007).
Ciarrochi, Chan and Bajgar (2001; as cited in N. S. Schutte et al, personal communication, August 9, 2007) suggested a four-factor solution for the 33 items of SSRI as below:
Perception of Emotion (Item 5, 9, 15, 18, 19, 22, 25, 29, 32, 33)
Managing Own Emotion (Item 2, 3, 10, 12, 14, 21, 23, 28, 31)
Managing Others’ Emotion (Item 1, 4, 11, 13, 16, 24, 26, 30)
Utilization of Emotion (Item 6, 7, 8, 17, 20, 27)
Schutte et al. (1998) suggest that SSRI is suited to be used for research purpose and to guide individuals who are interest to self-reflect on aspect of their emotional functioning in the context of issues such as experience of problems that related to emotional functioning.
3.6.2 Administration of SSRI
Schutte et al. (personal communication, August 9, 2007) suggested the requirement for respondent to complete the scale in average 5 minutes. However, in this study we give 15 minutes for the respondent to complete the scale.
3.6.3 Psychometric of SSRI.
With the used of sample of 346 participants, Schutte et al. (1998) found the internal consistency of SSRI, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha, to be .90. Besides, with the used of two-week test-retest method, reliability of .78 for total scale scores had been report (Schutte et al., 1998).
SSRI had been found to have good psychometric properties for adolescents. Ciarochi et al. (2000) used the scale with Australian adolescents, Charbonneau and Nicol (2002, as cited in N. S. Schutte et al, personal communication, August 9, 2007) used the scale with Canadian. At Malaysia, Liau et al. (2003) used the scale for 203 secondary school student, with the value of scale alpha as .76.
3.6.4 SSRI Measurement
Scutte et al. (personal communication, August 9, 2007) explained that “the total scale score are calculated by reverse coding items 5, 28 and 33, and then summing all item”. The range for the total score is from 33 to 165, with higher score indicating more characteristic EI. To identify the level of EI, researcher makes the assumption for total score as below:
Table 3.1: Total Score and Level of EI
3.7 Treatment Instrument
3.7.1 Module Developing Emotional Intelligence
Type of module that used in this study is motivation module. According to Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaludin Ahmad (2005), such kind of module is use by teacher, facilitators or moderator to demonstrate internal motivation development.
The modules that develop in this study are applied as the intervention for treatment groups, with the objective to develop emotional intelligence for samples. Eight modules that related with four component of EI in SSRI are developed by researcher and colleges who investigate the similar study. The module that we used for the study are developed and modified from the module that used for previous related field of studies. The general concept of the module in this study is to improve the ability of samples on perception of emotion, managing own emotion, managing others emotion and utilization of emotion.
3.8 Data Analysis
3.8.1 Manual Analysis
The min score for pre-test and post-test calculate manually before researcher makes the analysis of outcome by using the computer statistics program, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
3.8.2 Computer Statistics Program, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
The computer statistic program, SPSS is use by researcher to analysis the outcome of the study. t-test, paired-sample t-test and min are calculated. The researcher makes description analysis based on the statistic outcome.
3.9 Module Validity and Reliability Inventory
Module Validity and Reliability Inventory is used to find out the validity and reliability value for the modules that researcher used in this study. The creation of inventory is based on the objective and procedure for each module. The inventory consist of positive and negative items and using five-point scale, which “1” point represent “strongly disagree” and “5” point represent “strongly agree”. Only the samples who participate in treatment group are taking this inventory.
Answer sheet consists of three sessions. Section A is used by respondents to rate on the item. All item in Section A are represent in scattered way so that the respondents unaware of which items indicate for which categorise of the inventory. Section B represents the number of items which list down according with the categories of the inventory. The purpose of Section C is to assist the researcher rearrange the value of items to key in into computer statistic program.
3.10 Validity Analysis
The value of validity for the module is found by using internal consistency method. Russel (1974, as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005) states the characteristics of module which have high validity as below:
Exactly on the target population;
Satisfied situation for carry out the module;
The appropriate time used for carry out the module;
Positive effect after used of module; and
Positive change after used of module.
3.11 Reliability Analysis
Alpha Cronbach formula is used by researcher to gain the value of reliability for the module. Only the value range of .6 to .85 is accepted (Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005).
With the aim to achieve the objective of the study, the appropriate choice for research design is essential. Generally, this chapter illustrate an overview of the method that researcher used to investigate the study and the analysis method that used for present the outcome of the study.